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2001, W. E.

Haisler

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Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

Plane Couette Flow between two large parallel plates (one


stationary and one moving)
uo (wall velocity)
d
flow

x
z
L

Couette flow is the case with two parallel plates separated


by a distance d. The bottom plate is stationary and the top
plate move horizontally at a velocity u o. There is no
pressure differential along the length of the plate. The

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

46

driving force is the movement of the top plate. Assume the


flow is steady and incompressible.
a) Assume the following boundary conditions:
steady state t 0
incompressible constant
no flow in x or y direction vx v y 0
flow in x direction is prevented by plates
if no pressure gradient in y direction and plates are long
in y direction, then flow in middle (y direction) can be
considered to have only a y component, i.e., ignore
edge effects of plates in y direction).
body force (gravity) is zero g x g y g z 0
b) Conservation of mass is given by

2001, W. E. Haisler

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Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

v
y

x
z

t
x
y
z

and reduces to
(vz) 0
vz 0
vz f (x, y) C
or

1
z
z
for plane motion, i.e., we consider only a slice
of the fluid in the middle of the plate (ignore
vz vz ( y)
edge effects), then
Thus vz vz (x) only!
c) Conservation of linear momentum equations are:

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

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Sxx S yx S zx P
vx
vx
vx
vx
(
vx
vy
vz
) gx

x
y
z x
t
x
y
z
Sxy S yy Szy
vy
vy
vy
vy
(
vx
vy
vz
) gy

P
x
y
z y
t
x
y
z
S xz S yz Szz P

vz

vz

vz

vz
(
vx
vy
vz
) gz

x
y
z z
t
x
y
z

Noting that vx v y 0 , vz vz (x) , ignoring gravity effects so


that g x g y g z 0 , and noting that no pressure gradients
exist ( P / x 0 , etc.), then the COLM equations reduce to:

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

Sxx S yx Szx

0
x
y
z
Sxy S yy Szy

0
x
y
z
Sxz S yz Szz

0
x
y
z

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x component of linear momentum


y component of momentum
z component of momentum

d) Assume the flow produces no normal stresses. Since


flow is in x-z plane, there is no shear in the x-y or y-z plane
(only shear in x-z plane)
Sxx S yy Szz Sxy S yx S yz Szy 0

vz
Sxz Szx
(fluid property assumption)
x

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Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

The last assumption is observed from experiment. The


traction (shear stress) on the wall is proportional to velocity
vz
gradient normal to wall:
x
S xz

uo
slope viscosity
coefficient
vz
x

S xz
S zx

flow

For a 3-D viscous flow field, we can show that the complete
set of constitutive equations relating stresses and velocity
gradients will be given by:

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

vx
S xx 2
x

vx v y
S xy S yx

y x

v y

v y vz
S yz S zy

y
z
v v
S zx S xz z x
x z

S yy 2
S zz 2

y
vz
z

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From the above, it is clear that if vx v y 0 and vz vz ( x) ,


then S xx S yy S zz 0 (all normal deviatoric stresses are
zero) and S xy S yx S yz S zy 0 (only non-zero shear
stresses are in the x-z plane).

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

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e) The 3 linear momentum equations reduce to


00
00
2v z

0 (assuming is a constant)
x2

Note that since vz vz (x) , the third momentum equation is


actually an ordinary differential equation:
d 2v z

0
2
dx

We assume a no slip Boundary Condition for the fluid at


each wall. Since the lower wall is stationary, then vz ( x 0) 0
. The upper wall moves at a velocity uo so that vz ( x d ) uo .

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

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Integrating the third momentum equation and assuming is


a constant, we obtain vz C1x C2 .
Substituting boundary conditions for velocity yields
at x=0:
at x=d:
or

vz ( x 0) 0 C (0) C
C 0
1
2
2
vz ( x d ) uo C (d ) C uo / d
1
1
vz ( x) uo x
d

Thus, the velocity profile is a straight line for the plane


Couette flow problem.
The shear stress is obtained by substituting the velocity into
the constitutive equation:

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

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u
vz
Sxz
o
d
x

which is constant from bottom to top. Thus, as u o increases,


the shear stress increases. As d increases, the shear stress
decreases. At the wall, the shear stress acting on the wall
must be equal and opposite to the shear stress acting on the
fluid!
BE CAREFUL! THE RESULTS ABOVE APPLY ONLY
FOR COUETTE FLOW!

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

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Some real world examples of Couette flow:


a) Wing moving through calm air at speed uo. At some
distance far away from the wing (normal to direction
wing is moving), the air is motionless think of this
point as a fixed boundary where the fluid velocity is
zero. At the surface of the wing, the fluid velocity is u o
if we assume a no-slip condition think of this as the
moving boundary. So, looks just like Couette flow.
b) Piston moving up and down in the cylinder of an engine.
Between the piston and cylinder wall is lubrication oil
with a thickness of d. The cylinder wall is the fixed
boundary and the piston wall is the moving boundary.

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Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

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Some viscosity coefficient values:


Air at standard sea level conditions: =1.79 x 10-5 kg/(m s)
Water: = 1.005 x 10-3 kg/(m s) at 20C
Motor oil: = 1.07 kg/(m s)
at 20C
Note: 1 centipoise = 10-3 kg/(m s) = 6.72 x 10-4 lbm/(ft s)
See: http://www.lmnoeng.com/fluids.htm
Some exercises
1. A flat-bottomed boat with a wetted surface area of 25 sq.ft.
moves through the water. Assume the boat does not push
any water in front of it. How much force in lbs. is required to
propel the boat at 15 mph in water that is 3 ft. deep?
2. A piston with a diameter of 3 in. moves in a cylinder of
diameter 3.01 in. Oil with viscosity of 1,000 centipoise fills
the gap. How much force is required to move the cylinder if
its velocity is 4 ft/sec?

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Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

Poiseulle Flow between two parallel plates (both stationary)

P =higher
L
pressure

flow

z
L

d P =lower
R
pressure

P PR PL

dz
L

Poiseulle flow is the case of fluid flow between two fixed


parallel plates separated by a distance d and a pressure
gradient in the z direction. The driving force is the pressure
P
differential from left to right ( ). Assume the flow is
z
steady and incompressible.

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

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a) Assume the following boundary conditions:


steady state t 0

incompressible t 0
no flow in x or y direction vx v y 0
flow in x direction is prevented by plates
if no pressure gradient in y direction and plates are long
in y direction, then flow in middle (y direction) can be
considered to have only a y component, i.e., ignore
edge effects of plates in y direction).
body force (gravity) is zero in y and z directions so
that g y g z 0
b) Conservation of mass is given by

2001, W. E. Haisler

59

Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

v
y

x
z

t
x
y
z

and reduces to

(vz) 0
vz 0
vz f (x, y) C
or

1
z
z
for plane motion, i.e., we consider only a slice
of the fluid in the middle of the plate (ignore
vz vz ( y)
edge effects), then
Thus vz vz (x) only!
c) Conservation of linear momentum equations are:

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

60

Sxx S yx S zx P
vx
vx
vx
vx
(
vx
vy
vz
) gx

x
y
z x
t
x
y
z
Sxy S yy Szy
vy
vy
vy
vy
(
vx
vy
vz
) gy

P
x
y
z y
t
x
y
z
S xz S yz Szz P

vz

vz

vz

vz
(
vx
vy
vz
) gz

x
y
z z
t
x
y
z

Noting that vx v y 0 , vz vz (x) , and considering gravity


effects only in the x direction so that g y g z 0, the COLM
equations reduce to:

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2001, W. E. Haisler

S yx S

S
P g xx
zx

x x
x
y
z
Sxy S yy Szy
P

y x
y
z
S yz S

S
P xz
zz
z x
y
z

x component of linear momentum

y component of momentum
z component of momentum

d) Assume the flow produces no normal stresses. Since


flow is in y-z plane, their is no shear in the x-y or y-z plane
(only shear in x-z plane)
Sxx S yy Szz Sxy S yx S yz Szy 0

vz
Sxz Szx
x

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2001, W. E. Haisler

The last assumption is observed from a Couette-type


experiment. The traction (shear stress) on the wall is
vz
proportional to the velocity gradient normal to wall,
x
(see Couette flow problem)
S xz

uo
slope viscosity
coefficient
vz
x

S xz
S zx

flow

For a 3-D viscous flow field, we can show that the complete
set of constitutive equations relating stresses and velocity
gradients will be given by:

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2001, W. E. Haisler

vx
S xx 2
x

vx v y
S xy S yx

y x

v y

v y vz
S yz S zy

y
z
v v
S zx S xz z x
x z

S yy 2
S zz 2

y
vz
z

From the above, it is clear that if vx v y 0 and vz vz ( x) ,


then S xx S yy S zz 0 (all normal deviatoric stresses are
zero) and S xy S yx S yz S zy 0 (only non-zero shear
stresses are in the x-z plane).

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2001, W. E. Haisler

e) With all the assumptions and the constitutive equation,


the 3 linear momentum equations reduce to
P
gx
x
P
0
y

Integrate P( x) g x x f ( y, z ) gh
Integrate P f ( x, z )

2v z
P

z
x2

We assume a no slip Boundary Condition for the fluid at


each wall. Since both walls are stationary, then
vz ( x 0) 0 and vz ( x d ) 0 .
We further take the pressure gradient dP
dz to be a given value
(Boundary Condition). Integrating the third (z) momentum
equation and assuming is a constant, we obtain

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2001, W. E. Haisler

2
v z ( 1 dP ) x C1x C2 . Substituting boundary
2 dz

conditions for velocity yields:


vz ( x 0) 0 ( 1 dP )(0) 2 C1(0) C2 C2 0
2 dz
d dP
2
dP
1
vz ( x d ) 0 (
)( d ) C1(d ) C2 C1
2 dz
2 dz

Substituting C1 and C2 into the vz equation above gives the


following result:
2
dP
1
vz ( x)
vz ( x)
( x dx )
2 dz
d
x
z

Thus, the velocity profile is a quadratic in x for Poiseulle


Flow between two stationary parallel plates.

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2001, W. E. Haisler

The shear stress is given by substituting the velocity into the


constitutive equation to obtain:
dvz dP
S xz ( x)

( x d / 2)
dx dz

The shear stress is a maximum at either wall, and zero at the


center. Interestingly, the shear stress does NOT depend on
the viscosity coefficient, .
A photograph of velocity profiles of fluid starting from
rest and flowing from left to right is shown below.

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