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Haisler

45

stationary and one moving)

uo (wall velocity)

d

flow

x

z

L

by a distance d. The bottom plate is stationary and the top

plate move horizontally at a velocity u o. There is no

pressure differential along the length of the plate. The

2001, W. E. Haisler

46

flow is steady and incompressible.

a) Assume the following boundary conditions:

steady state t 0

incompressible constant

no flow in x or y direction vx v y 0

flow in x direction is prevented by plates

if no pressure gradient in y direction and plates are long

in y direction, then flow in middle (y direction) can be

considered to have only a y component, i.e., ignore

edge effects of plates in y direction).

body force (gravity) is zero g x g y g z 0

b) Conservation of mass is given by

2001, W. E. Haisler

47

v

y

x

z

t

x

y

z

and reduces to

(vz) 0

vz 0

vz f (x, y) C

or

1

z

z

for plane motion, i.e., we consider only a slice

of the fluid in the middle of the plate (ignore

vz vz ( y)

edge effects), then

Thus vz vz (x) only!

c) Conservation of linear momentum equations are:

2001, W. E. Haisler

48

Sxx S yx S zx P

vx

vx

vx

vx

(

vx

vy

vz

) gx

x

y

z x

t

x

y

z

Sxy S yy Szy

vy

vy

vy

vy

(

vx

vy

vz

) gy

P

x

y

z y

t

x

y

z

S xz S yz Szz P

vz

vz

vz

vz

(

vx

vy

vz

) gz

x

y

z z

t

x

y

z

that g x g y g z 0 , and noting that no pressure gradients

exist ( P / x 0 , etc.), then the COLM equations reduce to:

2001, W. E. Haisler

Sxx S yx Szx

0

x

y

z

Sxy S yy Szy

0

x

y

z

Sxz S yz Szz

0

x

y

z

49

y component of momentum

z component of momentum

flow is in x-z plane, there is no shear in the x-y or y-z plane

(only shear in x-z plane)

Sxx S yy Szz Sxy S yx S yz Szy 0

vz

Sxz Szx

(fluid property assumption)

x

2001, W. E. Haisler

50

traction (shear stress) on the wall is proportional to velocity

vz

gradient normal to wall:

x

S xz

uo

slope viscosity

coefficient

vz

x

S xz

S zx

flow

For a 3-D viscous flow field, we can show that the complete

set of constitutive equations relating stresses and velocity

gradients will be given by:

2001, W. E. Haisler

vx

S xx 2

x

vx v y

S xy S yx

y x

v y

v y vz

S yz S zy

y

z

v v

S zx S xz z x

x z

S yy 2

S zz 2

y

vz

z

51

then S xx S yy S zz 0 (all normal deviatoric stresses are

zero) and S xy S yx S yz S zy 0 (only non-zero shear

stresses are in the x-z plane).

2001, W. E. Haisler

52

00

00

2v z

0 (assuming is a constant)

x2

actually an ordinary differential equation:

d 2v z

0

2

dx

each wall. Since the lower wall is stationary, then vz ( x 0) 0

. The upper wall moves at a velocity uo so that vz ( x d ) uo .

2001, W. E. Haisler

53

a constant, we obtain vz C1x C2 .

Substituting boundary conditions for velocity yields

at x=0:

at x=d:

or

vz ( x 0) 0 C (0) C

C 0

1

2

2

vz ( x d ) uo C (d ) C uo / d

1

1

vz ( x) uo x

d

Couette flow problem.

The shear stress is obtained by substituting the velocity into

the constitutive equation:

2001, W. E. Haisler

54

u

vz

Sxz

o

d

x

the shear stress increases. As d increases, the shear stress

decreases. At the wall, the shear stress acting on the wall

must be equal and opposite to the shear stress acting on the

fluid!

BE CAREFUL! THE RESULTS ABOVE APPLY ONLY

FOR COUETTE FLOW!

2001, W. E. Haisler

55

a) Wing moving through calm air at speed uo. At some

distance far away from the wing (normal to direction

wing is moving), the air is motionless think of this

point as a fixed boundary where the fluid velocity is

zero. At the surface of the wing, the fluid velocity is u o

if we assume a no-slip condition think of this as the

moving boundary. So, looks just like Couette flow.

b) Piston moving up and down in the cylinder of an engine.

Between the piston and cylinder wall is lubrication oil

with a thickness of d. The cylinder wall is the fixed

boundary and the piston wall is the moving boundary.

2001, W. E. Haisler

56

Air at standard sea level conditions: =1.79 x 10-5 kg/(m s)

Water: = 1.005 x 10-3 kg/(m s) at 20C

Motor oil: = 1.07 kg/(m s)

at 20C

Note: 1 centipoise = 10-3 kg/(m s) = 6.72 x 10-4 lbm/(ft s)

See: http://www.lmnoeng.com/fluids.htm

Some exercises

1. A flat-bottomed boat with a wetted surface area of 25 sq.ft.

moves through the water. Assume the boat does not push

any water in front of it. How much force in lbs. is required to

propel the boat at 15 mph in water that is 3 ft. deep?

2. A piston with a diameter of 3 in. moves in a cylinder of

diameter 3.01 in. Oil with viscosity of 1,000 centipoise fills

the gap. How much force is required to move the cylinder if

its velocity is 4 ft/sec?

2001, W. E. Haisler

57

P =higher

L

pressure

flow

z

L

d P =lower

R

pressure

P PR PL

dz

L

parallel plates separated by a distance d and a pressure

gradient in the z direction. The driving force is the pressure

P

differential from left to right ( ). Assume the flow is

z

steady and incompressible.

2001, W. E. Haisler

58

steady state t 0

incompressible t 0

no flow in x or y direction vx v y 0

flow in x direction is prevented by plates

if no pressure gradient in y direction and plates are long

in y direction, then flow in middle (y direction) can be

considered to have only a y component, i.e., ignore

edge effects of plates in y direction).

body force (gravity) is zero in y and z directions so

that g y g z 0

b) Conservation of mass is given by

2001, W. E. Haisler

59

v

y

x

z

t

x

y

z

and reduces to

(vz) 0

vz 0

vz f (x, y) C

or

1

z

z

for plane motion, i.e., we consider only a slice

of the fluid in the middle of the plate (ignore

vz vz ( y)

edge effects), then

Thus vz vz (x) only!

c) Conservation of linear momentum equations are:

2001, W. E. Haisler

60

Sxx S yx S zx P

vx

vx

vx

vx

(

vx

vy

vz

) gx

x

y

z x

t

x

y

z

Sxy S yy Szy

vy

vy

vy

vy

(

vx

vy

vz

) gy

P

x

y

z y

t

x

y

z

S xz S yz Szz P

vz

vz

vz

vz

(

vx

vy

vz

) gz

x

y

z z

t

x

y

z

effects only in the x direction so that g y g z 0, the COLM

equations reduce to:

61

2001, W. E. Haisler

S yx S

S

P g xx

zx

x x

x

y

z

Sxy S yy Szy

P

y x

y

z

S yz S

S

P xz

zz

z x

y

z

y component of momentum

z component of momentum

flow is in y-z plane, their is no shear in the x-y or y-z plane

(only shear in x-z plane)

Sxx S yy Szz Sxy S yx S yz Szy 0

vz

Sxz Szx

x

62

2001, W. E. Haisler

experiment. The traction (shear stress) on the wall is

vz

proportional to the velocity gradient normal to wall,

x

(see Couette flow problem)

S xz

uo

slope viscosity

coefficient

vz

x

S xz

S zx

flow

For a 3-D viscous flow field, we can show that the complete

set of constitutive equations relating stresses and velocity

gradients will be given by:

63

2001, W. E. Haisler

vx

S xx 2

x

vx v y

S xy S yx

y x

v y

v y vz

S yz S zy

y

z

v v

S zx S xz z x

x z

S yy 2

S zz 2

y

vz

z

then S xx S yy S zz 0 (all normal deviatoric stresses are

zero) and S xy S yx S yz S zy 0 (only non-zero shear

stresses are in the x-z plane).

64

2001, W. E. Haisler

the 3 linear momentum equations reduce to

P

gx

x

P

0

y

Integrate P( x) g x x f ( y, z ) gh

Integrate P f ( x, z )

2v z

P

z

x2

each wall. Since both walls are stationary, then

vz ( x 0) 0 and vz ( x d ) 0 .

We further take the pressure gradient dP

dz to be a given value

(Boundary Condition). Integrating the third (z) momentum

equation and assuming is a constant, we obtain

65

2001, W. E. Haisler

2

v z ( 1 dP ) x C1x C2 . Substituting boundary

2 dz

vz ( x 0) 0 ( 1 dP )(0) 2 C1(0) C2 C2 0

2 dz

d dP

2

dP

1

vz ( x d ) 0 (

)( d ) C1(d ) C2 C1

2 dz

2 dz

following result:

2

dP

1

vz ( x)

vz ( x)

( x dx )

2 dz

d

x

z

Flow between two stationary parallel plates.

66

2001, W. E. Haisler

constitutive equation to obtain:

dvz dP

S xz ( x)

( x d / 2)

dx dz

center. Interestingly, the shear stress does NOT depend on

the viscosity coefficient, .

A photograph of velocity profiles of fluid starting from

rest and flowing from left to right is shown below.

2001, W. E. Haisler

67

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