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# 2001, W. E.

Haisler

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## Plane Couette Flow between two large parallel plates (one

stationary and one moving)
uo (wall velocity)
d
flow

x
z
L

## Couette flow is the case with two parallel plates separated

by a distance d. The bottom plate is stationary and the top
plate move horizontally at a velocity u o. There is no
pressure differential along the length of the plate. The

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## driving force is the movement of the top plate. Assume the

flow is steady and incompressible.
a) Assume the following boundary conditions:
steady state t 0
incompressible constant
no flow in x or y direction vx v y 0
flow in x direction is prevented by plates
if no pressure gradient in y direction and plates are long
in y direction, then flow in middle (y direction) can be
considered to have only a y component, i.e., ignore
edge effects of plates in y direction).
body force (gravity) is zero g x g y g z 0
b) Conservation of mass is given by

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## Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

v
y

x
z

t
x
y
z

and reduces to
(vz) 0
vz 0
vz f (x, y) C
or

1
z
z
for plane motion, i.e., we consider only a slice
of the fluid in the middle of the plate (ignore
vz vz ( y)
edge effects), then
Thus vz vz (x) only!
c) Conservation of linear momentum equations are:

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Sxx S yx S zx P
vx
vx
vx
vx
(
vx
vy
vz
) gx

x
y
z x
t
x
y
z
Sxy S yy Szy
vy
vy
vy
vy
(
vx
vy
vz
) gy

P
x
y
z y
t
x
y
z
S xz S yz Szz P

vz

vz

vz

vz
(
vx
vy
vz
) gz

x
y
z z
t
x
y
z

## Noting that vx v y 0 , vz vz (x) , ignoring gravity effects so

that g x g y g z 0 , and noting that no pressure gradients
exist ( P / x 0 , etc.), then the COLM equations reduce to:

2001, W. E. Haisler

Sxx S yx Szx

0
x
y
z
Sxy S yy Szy

0
x
y
z
Sxz S yz Szz

0
x
y
z

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## x component of linear momentum

y component of momentum
z component of momentum

## d) Assume the flow produces no normal stresses. Since

flow is in x-z plane, there is no shear in the x-y or y-z plane
(only shear in x-z plane)
Sxx S yy Szz Sxy S yx S yz Szy 0

vz
Sxz Szx
(fluid property assumption)
x

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## The last assumption is observed from experiment. The

traction (shear stress) on the wall is proportional to velocity
vz
gradient normal to wall:
x
S xz

uo
slope viscosity
coefficient
vz
x

S xz
S zx

flow

For a 3-D viscous flow field, we can show that the complete
set of constitutive equations relating stresses and velocity
gradients will be given by:

2001, W. E. Haisler

vx
S xx 2
x

vx v y
S xy S yx

y x

v y

v y vz
S yz S zy

y
z
v v
S zx S xz z x
x z

S yy 2
S zz 2

y
vz
z

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## From the above, it is clear that if vx v y 0 and vz vz ( x) ,

then S xx S yy S zz 0 (all normal deviatoric stresses are
zero) and S xy S yx S yz S zy 0 (only non-zero shear
stresses are in the x-z plane).

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## e) The 3 linear momentum equations reduce to

00
00
2v z

0 (assuming is a constant)
x2

## Note that since vz vz (x) , the third momentum equation is

actually an ordinary differential equation:
d 2v z

0
2
dx

## We assume a no slip Boundary Condition for the fluid at

each wall. Since the lower wall is stationary, then vz ( x 0) 0
. The upper wall moves at a velocity uo so that vz ( x d ) uo .

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## Integrating the third momentum equation and assuming is

a constant, we obtain vz C1x C2 .
Substituting boundary conditions for velocity yields
at x=0:
at x=d:
or

vz ( x 0) 0 C (0) C
C 0
1
2
2
vz ( x d ) uo C (d ) C uo / d
1
1
vz ( x) uo x
d

## Thus, the velocity profile is a straight line for the plane

Couette flow problem.
The shear stress is obtained by substituting the velocity into
the constitutive equation:

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u
vz
Sxz
o
d
x

## which is constant from bottom to top. Thus, as u o increases,

the shear stress increases. As d increases, the shear stress
decreases. At the wall, the shear stress acting on the wall
must be equal and opposite to the shear stress acting on the
fluid!
BE CAREFUL! THE RESULTS ABOVE APPLY ONLY
FOR COUETTE FLOW!

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## Some real world examples of Couette flow:

a) Wing moving through calm air at speed uo. At some
distance far away from the wing (normal to direction
wing is moving), the air is motionless think of this
point as a fixed boundary where the fluid velocity is
zero. At the surface of the wing, the fluid velocity is u o
if we assume a no-slip condition think of this as the
moving boundary. So, looks just like Couette flow.
b) Piston moving up and down in the cylinder of an engine.
Between the piston and cylinder wall is lubrication oil
with a thickness of d. The cylinder wall is the fixed
boundary and the piston wall is the moving boundary.

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## Some viscosity coefficient values:

Air at standard sea level conditions: =1.79 x 10-5 kg/(m s)
Water: = 1.005 x 10-3 kg/(m s) at 20C
Motor oil: = 1.07 kg/(m s)
at 20C
Note: 1 centipoise = 10-3 kg/(m s) = 6.72 x 10-4 lbm/(ft s)
See: http://www.lmnoeng.com/fluids.htm
Some exercises
1. A flat-bottomed boat with a wetted surface area of 25 sq.ft.
moves through the water. Assume the boat does not push
any water in front of it. How much force in lbs. is required to
propel the boat at 15 mph in water that is 3 ft. deep?
2. A piston with a diameter of 3 in. moves in a cylinder of
diameter 3.01 in. Oil with viscosity of 1,000 centipoise fills
the gap. How much force is required to move the cylinder if
its velocity is 4 ft/sec?

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P =higher
L
pressure

flow

z
L

d P =lower
R
pressure

P PR PL

dz
L

## Poiseulle flow is the case of fluid flow between two fixed

parallel plates separated by a distance d and a pressure
gradient in the z direction. The driving force is the pressure
P
differential from left to right ( ). Assume the flow is
z
steady and incompressible.

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## a) Assume the following boundary conditions:

steady state t 0

incompressible t 0
no flow in x or y direction vx v y 0
flow in x direction is prevented by plates
if no pressure gradient in y direction and plates are long
in y direction, then flow in middle (y direction) can be
considered to have only a y component, i.e., ignore
edge effects of plates in y direction).
body force (gravity) is zero in y and z directions so
that g y g z 0
b) Conservation of mass is given by

2001, W. E. Haisler

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## Chapter 3: Conservation of Linear Momentum

v
y

x
z

t
x
y
z

and reduces to

(vz) 0
vz 0
vz f (x, y) C
or

1
z
z
for plane motion, i.e., we consider only a slice
of the fluid in the middle of the plate (ignore
vz vz ( y)
edge effects), then
Thus vz vz (x) only!
c) Conservation of linear momentum equations are:

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Sxx S yx S zx P
vx
vx
vx
vx
(
vx
vy
vz
) gx

x
y
z x
t
x
y
z
Sxy S yy Szy
vy
vy
vy
vy
(
vx
vy
vz
) gy

P
x
y
z y
t
x
y
z
S xz S yz Szz P

vz

vz

vz

vz
(
vx
vy
vz
) gz

x
y
z z
t
x
y
z

## Noting that vx v y 0 , vz vz (x) , and considering gravity

effects only in the x direction so that g y g z 0, the COLM
equations reduce to:

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2001, W. E. Haisler

S yx S

S
P g xx
zx

x x
x
y
z
Sxy S yy Szy
P

y x
y
z
S yz S

S
P xz
zz
z x
y
z

## x component of linear momentum

y component of momentum
z component of momentum

## d) Assume the flow produces no normal stresses. Since

flow is in y-z plane, their is no shear in the x-y or y-z plane
(only shear in x-z plane)
Sxx S yy Szz Sxy S yx S yz Szy 0

vz
Sxz Szx
x

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2001, W. E. Haisler

## The last assumption is observed from a Couette-type

experiment. The traction (shear stress) on the wall is
vz
proportional to the velocity gradient normal to wall,
x
(see Couette flow problem)
S xz

uo
slope viscosity
coefficient
vz
x

S xz
S zx

flow

For a 3-D viscous flow field, we can show that the complete
set of constitutive equations relating stresses and velocity
gradients will be given by:

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2001, W. E. Haisler

vx
S xx 2
x

vx v y
S xy S yx

y x

v y

v y vz
S yz S zy

y
z
v v
S zx S xz z x
x z

S yy 2
S zz 2

y
vz
z

## From the above, it is clear that if vx v y 0 and vz vz ( x) ,

then S xx S yy S zz 0 (all normal deviatoric stresses are
zero) and S xy S yx S yz S zy 0 (only non-zero shear
stresses are in the x-z plane).

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2001, W. E. Haisler

## e) With all the assumptions and the constitutive equation,

the 3 linear momentum equations reduce to
P
gx
x
P
0
y

Integrate P( x) g x x f ( y, z ) gh
Integrate P f ( x, z )

2v z
P

z
x2

## We assume a no slip Boundary Condition for the fluid at

each wall. Since both walls are stationary, then
vz ( x 0) 0 and vz ( x d ) 0 .
We further take the pressure gradient dP
dz to be a given value
(Boundary Condition). Integrating the third (z) momentum
equation and assuming is a constant, we obtain

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2001, W. E. Haisler

2
v z ( 1 dP ) x C1x C2 . Substituting boundary
2 dz

## conditions for velocity yields:

vz ( x 0) 0 ( 1 dP )(0) 2 C1(0) C2 C2 0
2 dz
d dP
2
dP
1
vz ( x d ) 0 (
)( d ) C1(d ) C2 C1
2 dz
2 dz

## Substituting C1 and C2 into the vz equation above gives the

following result:
2
dP
1
vz ( x)
vz ( x)
( x dx )
2 dz
d
x
z

## Thus, the velocity profile is a quadratic in x for Poiseulle

Flow between two stationary parallel plates.

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2001, W. E. Haisler

## The shear stress is given by substituting the velocity into the

constitutive equation to obtain:
dvz dP
S xz ( x)

( x d / 2)
dx dz

## The shear stress is a maximum at either wall, and zero at the

center. Interestingly, the shear stress does NOT depend on
the viscosity coefficient, .
A photograph of velocity profiles of fluid starting from
rest and flowing from left to right is shown below.

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