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System : A system is an assembly of interconnected

but separable and independent parts to produced

desired output.

A System is something which accomplishes an

operational process; that is, something is operated on
in some way to produce something. That which is
operated upon is usually called input; that which is
produced is called output, and the Operating entity is
called the system.
Feedback Control:- Feedback control refers to an
operation that, in the presence of disturbances, tends
to reduce the difference between the output of a
system and some reference input and that does so on
the basis of this difference.
Feedback Control Systems. A system that
maintains a prescribed relationship between the
output and some reference input by comparing them
and using the difference as a means of control is
called a feedback control system.
Example:1.Room temperature control system. By
measuring the actual room temperature and
comparing it with the reference temperature (desired
temperature), the thermostat turns the heating or
cooling equipment on or off in such a way as to
ensure that the room temperature remains at a
comfortable level regardless of outside conditions.

2. The human body is a highly

feedback control system. Both body temperature and
blood pressure are kept constant by means of
physiological feedback.
3. As another example, consider the control of
automobile speed by a human operator. This is a
feedback control system with a human operator.
Closed-loop Control Systems:Feedback control systems are often referred to as
closed loop control systems. In a closed-loop control
system the actuating error signal, is fed to the
controller so as to reduce the error and bring the
output of the system to a desired value. The term,
closed-loop control always implies the use of
feedback control action in order to reduce system
Open-loop Control Systems:- Those systems in
which the output has no effect on the control action
are called open-loop control systems.
In other words, in an open-loop control system the
output is neither measured nor fedback for
comparison with the input.
In any open-loop control system the output is not
compared with the reference input. As a result, Openloop control can be used, in practice, only if the
relationship between the input and output is known

and if there are neither internal nor external

Note that any control system that operates on a time
basis is open loop. For example, traffic control by
means of signals operated on a time basis is another
example of open-loop control.
Classification of control systems:Linear versus Nonlinear Control systems. Most
physical systems are nonlinear to various extents. For
linear systems, the principle of superposition applies.
Those systems for which this principle does not apply
are nonlinear systems.
A relaxed system is said to be linear if and only if
H ( a u1 + b u2) = aHu1 + bHu2 for any input u1 and u2
and for any real number a and b and H is some
operator or function that specifies uniquely the output
in terms of input.
It is written as

H(au1 + bu2) =a Hu1 + bHu2

H(a u1) = aHu1

In some cases, nonlinear elements are intentionally

introduced to the control system to optimize the






systems use on-off types of controls. Many missile

and spacecraft control systems also use on-off




A time-invariant control system (constant coefficient
control system) is one whose parameters do not vary
with time. The response of such a system is
independent of the time at which an input is applied.
A time-varying control system is a system in which
one or more parameters vary with time. The response
depends on the time at which an input is applied. An
example of time-varying control systems is a spacevehicle control system, where the "mass decreases
with time as the fuel is consumed during flight.
Continuous-time versus Discrete-time Control
In a continuous-time control system, all system
variables are-functions of a continuous time t.

A discrete-time, control system involves one or more

variables that are known only at discrete instants of
Single-input, Single-output versus Multiple-input
Multiple-output Control Systems. (SISO, MIMO)
A system may have one input and one output.
An example is a position control system, where there
is one command input (desired position) and one
controlled output (output position).
Some systems may have multiple inputs and multiple
Lumped-parameter versus Distributed-parameter
Control Systems.
Control systems that can be described by ordinary
differential equations are lumped-parameter control
systems, whereas distributed-parameter control
systems are those that may be described by partial
differential equations.
Deterministic Versus Stochastic Control System
A control system is deterministic if the response to
input is predictable and repeatable. If not, the
control system is a stochastic control system.