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desired output.

OR

operational process; that is, something is operated on

in some way to produce something. That which is

operated upon is usually called input; that which is

produced is called output, and the Operating entity is

called the system.

Feedback Control:- Feedback control refers to an

operation that, in the presence of disturbances, tends

to reduce the difference between the output of a

system and some reference input and that does so on

the basis of this difference.

Feedback Control Systems. A system that

maintains a prescribed relationship between the

output and some reference input by comparing them

and using the difference as a means of control is

called a feedback control system.

Example:1.Room temperature control system. By

measuring the actual room temperature and

comparing it with the reference temperature (desired

temperature), the thermostat turns the heating or

cooling equipment on or off in such a way as to

ensure that the room temperature remains at a

comfortable level regardless of outside conditions.

advanced

feedback control system. Both body temperature and

blood pressure are kept constant by means of

physiological feedback.

3. As another example, consider the control of

automobile speed by a human operator. This is a

feedback control system with a human operator.

Closed-loop Control Systems:Feedback control systems are often referred to as

closed loop control systems. In a closed-loop control

system the actuating error signal, is fed to the

controller so as to reduce the error and bring the

output of the system to a desired value. The term,

closed-loop control always implies the use of

feedback control action in order to reduce system

error.

Open-loop Control Systems:- Those systems in

which the output has no effect on the control action

are called open-loop control systems.

In other words, in an open-loop control system the

output is neither measured nor fedback for

comparison with the input.

In any open-loop control system the output is not

compared with the reference input. As a result, Openloop control can be used, in practice, only if the

relationship between the input and output is known

2

disturbances.

Note that any control system that operates on a time

basis is open loop. For example, traffic control by

means of signals operated on a time basis is another

example of open-loop control.

Classification of control systems:Linear versus Nonlinear Control systems. Most

physical systems are nonlinear to various extents. For

linear systems, the principle of superposition applies.

Those systems for which this principle does not apply

are nonlinear systems.

A relaxed system is said to be linear if and only if

H ( a u1 + b u2) = aHu1 + bHu2 for any input u1 and u2

and for any real number a and b and H is some

operator or function that specifies uniquely the output

in terms of input.

OR

It is written as

H(a u1) = aHu1

introduced to the control system to optimize the

3

performance.

For

example,

time-optimal

control

and spacecraft control systems also use on-off

controls.

Time-invariant

versus

Time-varying

Control

Systems.

A time-invariant control system (constant coefficient

control system) is one whose parameters do not vary

with time. The response of such a system is

independent of the time at which an input is applied.

A time-varying control system is a system in which

one or more parameters vary with time. The response

depends on the time at which an input is applied. An

example of time-varying control systems is a spacevehicle control system, where the "mass decreases

with time as the fuel is consumed during flight.

Continuous-time versus Discrete-time Control

Systems.

In a continuous-time control system, all system

variables are-functions of a continuous time t.

variables that are known only at discrete instants of

time.

Single-input, Single-output versus Multiple-input

Multiple-output Control Systems. (SISO, MIMO)

A system may have one input and one output.

An example is a position control system, where there

is one command input (desired position) and one

controlled output (output position).

Some systems may have multiple inputs and multiple

outputs.

Lumped-parameter versus Distributed-parameter

Control Systems.

Control systems that can be described by ordinary

differential equations are lumped-parameter control

systems, whereas distributed-parameter control

systems are those that may be described by partial

differential equations.

Deterministic Versus Stochastic Control System

A control system is deterministic if the response to

input is predictable and repeatable. If not, the

control system is a stochastic control system.

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