You are on page 1of 11

E4-E5 Technical Architecture

date: 15-08-2012

Chapter-6

INTELLIGENT
BUILDING
CONCEPTS

Sangeeta Gangwar, Dy. Dir. (BS-Arch.), 9412739231 (m)


E-mail ID: gangwar.sangeeta@gmail.com

BSNL, India

For Internal Circulation Only

Page: 1

E4-E5 Technical Architecture

date: 15-08-2012

INTELLIGENT BUILDING
 An intelligent building is one equipped with the telecommunications
infrastructure that enables it to continuously respond and adapt to changing
condition, allowing for a more efficient use of resources
 Increasing the comfort and security of its occupants
 An intelligent building provides these benefits through automated control systems
such as:
INTELLIGENT BUILDING
 Heating
 Ventilation
 Air conditioning fire safety security
 Energy /lighting
 management
 The intelligent building concept takes into consideration the fact that the true cost
of a building is not only the cost of construction, but also the costs of operating,
maintenance and repairs that come later
 An intelligent building can help reduce the operating and maintenance costs to a
great extent by controlling and regulating the systems within the building
Intelligent Building Systems
(Intelligent Buildings Simply Explained)
 Intelligent building systems are explained in simple layman terms that allow
novices and experts alike to see through the industry and media hype that
camouflage what an intelligent building really is.
 It is also possible to convert an existing building into an intelligent building by
installing integrated systems.
Intelligent Building Systems
(Intelligent Buildings Simply Explained)
 Intelligent building systems are explained in simple layman terms that allow
novices and experts alike to see through the industry and media hype that
camouflage what an intelligent building really is.

BSNL, India

For Internal Circulation Only

Page: 2

E4-E5 Technical Architecture


Intelligent Building Systems







date: 15-08-2012

High Technology
Energy Efficiency
Life safety Systems
Telecommunications Systems
Workplace Automation
Typical Services

High Technology
 The high technology concept of intelligent building systems was introduced in the
United States in the early 1980s.
 Although no formal definition exists, intelligent buildings use electronics
extensively and are high-technology related.
 In recognition of the electronic aspects of intelligent building systems, we can
divide the operation into four categories:
 energy efficiency
 Life safety systems
 telecommunications systems
 workplace automation
 Operating areas into one single computerized system. All the hardware and
software would be furnished by a single supplier who would use compatible
equipment and common CPUs and trunk wiring. Such integration is far from
being realized; however, several manufacturers are presently capable of supplying
all four categories mentioned, all as part of a single contract.
 The concept of intelligent building systems is well advanced in the United States
compared to the rest of the world for the following reasons:
 In the US, the law has permitted a third party to resell telephone services.
 The main supplier/promoters of the concept of the intelligent building are almost
totally in the US.
 The level of construction of new buildings is sufficiently high to permit
experimentation on a large scale.
 A building described as intelligent is easier to rent.
Energy Efficiency
 Intelligence with respect to energy in intelligent building systems consists of the
reduction of energy use to the bare minimum.
 Computerized systems are used extensively. Such systems go by many names:
 Building Automation System (BAS),
 Energy Management System (EMS),

BSNL, India

For Internal Circulation Only

Page: 3

E4-E5 Technical Architecture


date: 15-08-2012
 Energy Management and Control System (EMCS), Central Control and
Monitoring System (CCMS) and Facilities Management System (FMS).
 Some strategies used to reduce energy consumption in intelligent buildings
are:
 Programmed start/stop
 Optimal start/stop
 Duty cycling
 Set point reset
 Electric demand limiting
 Adaptive control
 Chiller optimization
 Boiler optimization
 Optimal energy sourcing
LIFESAFETY SYSTEMS
 Intelligence with respect to life safety in intelligent building systems consists of
the use of high technology to maximize the performance of fire alarm and security
systems while at the same time minimizing costs. Life safety factors involved in
intelligent buildings are:
 Reduced manpower dependence
 Closed-circuit television
 Card access control
 Smoke detection
 Intrusion alarms
 Emergency control of elevators, HVAC systems, doors
 UPS
Telecommunication Systems
 Intelligence with respect to telecommunications in intelligent building systems
consists of the offering to tenants of many sophisticated telecom features at a
considerably reduced cost due to the fact that the equipment is shared by many
users.
 Some of the telecom features involved in intelligent buildings are:
 PBX telephone system
 Cablevision
 Videotext
 Electronic mail

BSNL, India

For Internal Circulation Only

Page: 4

E4-E5 Technical Architecture


Workplace Automation

date: 15-08-2012

 Intelligence with respect to workplace automation in intelligent building systems


consists of the use of high-tech office automation systems to render the operation
of a company more efficient.
 This can be done at a reduced cost to tenants by virtue of the equipment being
shared. Some of the factors involved in workplace automation in intelligent
buildings are:
 Centralized Data Processing
 Word Processing
 Computer Aided Design
 Information Services
Typical Services: Typical intelligent building systems services that can be offered are:
 Message Center: The message center is a back-up telephone switchboard for
tenants. It answers all tenants' telephones and is connected to printers
conveniently located in or near the offices of tenants for immediate delivery of
messages.
 When a telephone line is busy or doesn't answer after four rings, the message
center answers the call automatically.
 The terminal and the center display the name of the person whose phone is
ringing so that the operator can answer the call courteously and accurately.
 The caller's company, telephone number, brief message, time of call, and the
operator's name are then recorded and immediately printed in the recipient's
office.
Word Processing:
 Word processing includes the electronic creation,
 Revision
 Storage
 Retrieval, and transmission of correspondence documents. With pick-up and
delivery service, 24-hour document turn around during business hours and
premium one-hour turn around
 A word processing service offers convenience and economy.
Computer-Assisted Design:
 With computer-assisted design, the owner has accurate and easy-to-read drawings
that can be used to reduce the cost of carrying out any sort of modification
whether it be, Architectural
 Structural
 Mechanical, or
 Electrical.

BSNL, India

For Internal Circulation Only

Page: 5

E4-E5 Technical Architecture

date: 15-08-2012

Teleconferencing:
 Teleconferencing is an alternative to expensive travel budgets and can be made
available to the owner's tenants.
 Electronic Mail: Through electronic mail, instantaneous communications can be
established worldwide on a system designed to reduce cycle time and produce
savings to the tenants.
Computer Services:
 Computer Services: The owner can provide computer services offering hardware
and software to its tenants at a discount.
 The intelligent building is clearly the building of the future. With proper
marketing, such buildings will lease up more easily, and at higher rates too, by
virtue of the services offered. Intelligent building owners will gain, often at the
expense of other building owners.
Intelligent buildings - control theory
 The essence of Building Management Systems and Intelligent Buildings is in the
control technologies, which allow
 Integration
 Automation,
 And optimization of all the services and equipment that provide services and
manages the environment of the building concerned.
 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC's) formed the original basis of the control
technologies.
 The use of these technologies allows the optimization of various site and building
services, often yielding significant cost reductions and large energy savings.
 There are numerous methods by which building services within buildings can be
controlled, falling broadly into two method types:
 Time based - providing heating or lighting services, etc., only when required.
 Optimizer Parameter based - often utilizing a representative aspect of the
service, such as temperature for space heating or luminance for lighting.
Heating - time-based control
 Time-based controls can be used to turn on and off the heating system (and/or
water heating) at pre-selected periods (of the day, of the week, etc).
 Optimizer Parameters: whatever the conditions, the controls make sure the
building reaches the desired temperature when occupancy starts.
Lighting control methods
 Different control systems exist, again time-based control and optimizer
parameter-based where a level of luminance or particular use of lighting is
required.

BSNL, India

For Internal Circulation Only

Page: 6

E4-E5 Technical Architecture


date: 15-08-2012
 Zones: lights are switched on corresponding to the use and layout of the lit areas,
in order to avoid lighting a large area if only a small part of it needs light.
 Time control: to switch on and off automatically in each zone to a preset schedule
for light use.
 Passive Infra-Red (PIR) Occupancy sensing: In areas which are occupied
intermittently, occupancy sensors can be used to indicate whether or not anybody
is present and switch the light on or off accordingly.
 Light level monitoring: this consists of switching or dimming artificial lighting to
maintain a light level measured by a photocell.
Building Management Systems and Intelligent Buildings
Energy Savings:
 Until recent years, energy efficiency has been a relatively low priority and low
perceived opportunity to building owners and investors. However, with the
dramatic increase and awareness of energy use concerns, and the advances in
cost-effective technologies, energy efficiency is fast becoming part of real estate
management, facilities management and operations strategy.
 The concepts are also now making significant inroads into the domestic
residential house building sectors.
Practical Benefits
 Energy-effective systems balance a building's electric light, daylight and
mechanical systems for maximum benefit.
 Enhanced lighting design is more than an electrical layout. It must consider the
needs and schedules of occupants, seasonal and climatic daylight changes, and its
impact on the building's mechanical systems.
Lighting systems
 Adding daylight to a building is one way to achieve an energy-effective design.
 Natural daylight 'harvesting' can make people happier, healthier, and more
productive.
 And with the reduced need for electric light, a great deal of money can be saved
on energy.
 Nearly every commercial building is a potential energy saving project, where the
electric lighting systems can be designed to be dimmed with the availability of
daylight.
Lighting systems
Adding daylight to a building is
 Up to 75% of lighting energy consumption can be saved.
 In addition, by reducing:
 electric lighting and minimizing

BSNL, India

For Internal Circulation Only

Page: 7

E4-E5 Technical Architecture


date: 15-08-2012
 solar heat gain, controlled lighting can also reduce a building's air conditioning
load.
 Adding daylight to a building is one way to achieve an energy-effective design.
 Natural daylight 'harvesting' can make people happier, healthier, and more
productive. with
 The reduced need for electric light, a great deal of money can be saved on energy.
 Nearly every commercial building is a potential energy saving project, where the
electric lighting systems can be designed to be dimmed with the availability of
daylight.

Mechanical systems
 In order to provide a comfortable and healthy indoor environment the building
mechanical system must:
 Provide an acceptable level of temperature and humidity and safe guard against
outdoor and indoor air pollutants.
 Create a sense of habitability through air movement, ventilation and slight
temperature variation.
 Allow the occupant to control and modify conditions to suit individual
preferences
Smart Homes
 'Smart home' is an alternative term for an intelligent residential building, or an
intelligent home.
 A few years ago these concepts were considered futuristic and fanciful. Now they
are reality.
 These terms are now commonly used to define a residence that uses a control
system to integrate the residence's various automation systems.

BSNL, India

For Internal Circulation Only

Page: 8

E4-E5 Technical Architecture


date: 15-08-2012
Smart home example scenario
 A scenario such as 'I'm Home' could be triggered by pressing one button on a keyring remote-control from your vehicle as you approach the driveway.
 The control system receives the key-ring remote-control's command. This will
then trigger a pre-programmed sequence of functions
 For example starting by turning on the lighting in the driveway
 garage
 hallway
 kitchen.
 It then disarms the security system, opens the garage door, unlocks the interior
garage entry door, adjusts the heating to a preset temperature, and turns on the
whole-house audio system playing your favorite cd, whilst drawing you a bath.
Smart home example 2
 At 7:30am and you awake to the sound of your favorite cd playing in the
background; the lights in your bedroom switch on; 'fading up' to allow you to
wake up in your own time.
 The downstairs intruder alarm system is de-activated.
 In the kitchen the coffee machine turns on to make a drink.
 The ground floor curtains and blinds open
 The towel heater in the bathroom warms the towels.
 And you haven't even got up yet.

BSNL, India

For Internal Circulation Only

Page: 9

E4-E5 Technical Architecture

date: 15-08-2012

CONCLUSION
 The goal of having an intelligent building only starts with early planning in the
design stage
 In many ways, this mirrors the design and fulfillment of many green or LEED
projects today, but it uses technology to provide for a superior space.
 There are enormous benefits to be gained by creating intelligent buildings.
 We need to continue to work as an industry to quantify these benefits, educate
owners and consultants, and to deliver a superior product to the market.
FEATURE BENEFIT
 Dimmable fluorescent lighting integrated with sun blind control Optimal lighting
level and quality can be determined by the occupants.
 Lighting control with motion sensors integrated with security Only provide
lighting as needed.
 Reduces energy use and increases security. Natural and displacement ventilation.
More efficient and effective distribution of ventilation.
 Use of economizers for free cooling. Energy efficiency.
 Individual temperature and lighting control. Improved comfort is shown to
improve productivity.
 Addresses the number one concern of tenants as found in BOMA surveys.
Radiant heating and cooling.
 Improved comfort, reduced energy use. Optimized control algorithms
 Reduce energy use with little or no impact on comfort. Combined heat and power
plants. Improved energy efficiency and sustainability.
After hours control of lights and HVAC integrated with security. Improved security
while reducing energy use.
 Monitoring of IAQ and contaminants. Improved comfort, safety, and productivity.

BSNL, India

For Internal Circulation Only

Page: 10

E4-E5 Technical Architecture

date: 15-08-2012

-E N D-

BSNL, India

For Internal Circulation Only

Page: 11