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# Differential Relays

## 2.1 Differential Relay Settings Calculations MiCOM P63X

Relay Type: MICOM P63X
Required Data
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers
MVA
Voltage Ratio
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side)
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side)
Vector Group
CT Ratio (HV Side)
CT HV Side Vector Group
CT Ratio (LV Side)
CT LV Side Vector Group
Minimum Tap = - %
Maximum Tap = +%
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ Current on CT secondary (HV)
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio

## Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ Current on CT Secondary (LV)

Relay current on LV side I2 = Current on CT secondary LV side / Ratio compensation for LV side
Calculations for OLTC tap setting -% and +%
Full load Current (- % or +% HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
Relay Current for HV side I1= Current on Ct secondary (HV)/ Ratio compensation for HV side
I1 is calculated for extreme transformer taps
The differential current is = I1-I2
Bias current I bias = (I1+I2)/2
Differential current I dif and Ibias is calculated foe extreme Transformer taps
Therefore the operating current of the relay
If Ibias < 2
= Is + m1* I bias
If Ibias > 2
= m2*( Ibias 2)+ m1 * 2
Where m1 and m2 are the slope of relay char
Pick up setting is chosen such that the Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than
90% of operating current for better stability
Substation Name : 220 kV GSS Debari
Relay Type: MICOM P633
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers
Transformer Name: CROMPTON
MVA = 100

## Voltage Ratio = 220/132/11

Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side) = 220
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side) = 132
Vector Group = YNA0d11
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 300/1
CT HV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT Ratio (LV Side) = 500/1
CT LV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
Minimum Tap = -15
Maximum Tap = +10
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*10^3)
=262.4319 A

## Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio

= 262.4319/300
=0.875 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.875
= 1.143 A
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
=437.38 A

## Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio

=437.38 /500
= 0.875 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.875
=1.143 A
Calculations for OLTC tap setting -10%
Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at -15% = MVA / (3*0.9*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*0.85*10^3)
=308.743 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 308.743 /300
=1.029 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.143 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 1.029 * 1.43
=1.176 A
Hence the differential current is = 1.176 1
= 0. 176 A
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2
= (1.176+1)/2
= 1.088 A
[Since the bias current is less than 1.5 A the slope will be within 30%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.3* I bias)

## = 0.2 + (0.3 * 1.088)

= 0.526 A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it s less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.
Calculations for OLTC tap setting +10%
Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at +10% = MVA / (3*1.15*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*1.10*10^3)
=238.54A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 238.54 /300
=0.795 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.143 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.795* 1.143
=0.909A
Hence the differential current is = 1 - 0.909
= 0.091 A
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2
= (0.909 +1)/2
= 0.955 A
[Since the bias current is less than 1.5 A the slope will be within 30%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.3* I bias)
= 0.2 + (0.3 * 0.93)
= 0.48 A

Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it s less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.

## 2.2 Procedure for Relay Setting of Transformer Differential Relay MBCH

Data Required
MVA Rating
Voltage ratio
Vector group
CT ratio on HV Side
Winding connection of CT on HV side
ICT ratio on HV Side
Winding connection of ICT on HV side
CT ratio on LV Side
Winding connection of CT on LV side
Transformer Tap
Min -% OLTC Tap and max % OLTC tap

At Normal tap
Rated current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*Rated voltage (HV side))
Rated current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*Rated voltage (LV side))
If CT is Star/Star
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
If CT is Star/Delta the current shall be multiplied by 3.

Current on the secondary of ICT for Star/Star = Current on CT Secondary (HV Side) / ICT Ratio (HV
Side)
For Star/Delta the current shall be multiplied by 3.
The same procedure is followed for getting the relay current on LV side also.
Idiff = Relay Current = Difference between the HV and LV Current (Current at the secondary of ICTs)
To make sure that the relay does not operate when the Transformer taps are changed the currents are
calculated at extreme taps.
At Tap on -%
Voltage corresponding to the above tap,
Full load current = MVA / 3 * Voltage corresponding to ve tap.

At Tap on +%
Voltage corresponding to the above tap,
Full load current = MVA / 3 * Voltage corresponding to +ve tap.

Currents at the CT Secondary and ICT Secondary are calculated by using the above procedure. For
extreme +ve and extreme ve tap.
Relay current I1= the difference between the HV and LV Currents for extreme +ive tap.
I2= The difference between the HV and LV Currents for extreme +ve tap.
MBCH has an adjustable basic threshold setting of 10% to 50% current I selectable in 10% steps.
Dual Slope 20% Slope upto In.
- 80% Slope for Current > In.
Relay operating current = Pickup setting + Bias Setting * Bias current

## Bias Current = (I1+I2)/2

I Operating 1A = Pickup setting + 0.20 * Bias Current less than 1A +0.8*current above 1A
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2
I Difference = I1- I2
Operating current at extreme taps is calculated with the same procedure.
The pick up setting is acceptable if the I operating is less than the bias current at extreme taps.
Differential Relay Settings Calculations
Substation Name: 220 kV GSS Debari
Relay Type: MBCH
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformer
MVA = 50
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side) = 220
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side) = 132
Vector Group = YNa0d1
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 150
CT HV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT Ratio (LV Side) = 300
CT LV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 150
CT Ratio (LV Side) = 300
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)

=50*10^6/ (3*220*10^3)
= 131.22 A
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=50*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
= 218.6 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 131.22/150
= 0.87 A
Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio
=218.6/300
= 0.73 A
Interposing CT (HV Side) = 0.87/0.58
Vector Group Interposing CT (HV Side) = Star/Delta
Interposing CT (LV Side) = 0.73/0.58
Vector Group Interposing CT (LV Side) = Star/Delta
Current on ICT Secondary (HV) = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (HV)/ Interposing CT
(HV Side))
=3*(0.87/0.58)
=1.01
Current on ICT Secondary (LV) = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (LV)/ Interposing CT
(LV Side))
=3*(0.73/0.58)

=1.00
Difference between HV side and LV side currents = Current on ICT Secondary (HV) Current on ICT Secondary (LV)
= 1.01-1.00
=0.01 A
Calculations for OLTC tap setting -12%
Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at -12% = MVA / (3*0.88*kV)
=50*10^6/ (3*220*0.88*10^3)
= 149.11 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 149.11 /150
=0.99 A
Current on ICT Secondary (HV) = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (HV)/ Interposing CT (HV Side))
=3*(0.99 /(0.87/0.58))
=1.15 A
Difference between HV side and LV side currents = Current on ICT Secondary (HV) - Current on ICT
Secondary (LV)
= 1.15 1.00
= 0.15 A
I bias = (I1+I2)/2
= (1.00 + 1.15)/2
=1.075 A
Consider the setting of Is = 0.1

## The I Operating Current = 0.1 + (0.2 * 1) + (0.8*(1.075-1)

= 0.1 + 0.2 + 0.8*0.075
=0. 36A
At tap of -12% with full load the relay require a current of 0.36 A at Is = 0.1
Since I1-I2 = 0.15 which is less than relay operating value, relay will not operate.
So a setting Is = 0.1 is acceptable.
Calculations for OLTC tap setting +5%
Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at +5% = MVA / (3*1.05*kV)
=50*10^6/ (3*220*1.05*10^3)
=124.97 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 124.97 /150
=0.83 A
Current on ICT Secondary (HV) = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (HV)/ Interposing CT (HV Side))
=3*(0.83 /(0.87/0.58))
=0.96 A
Difference between HV side and LV side currents = Current on ICT Secondary (HV) Current

on ICT Secondary
= 1.00-0.96
= 0.04 A

I bias = (I1+I2)/2
= (0.96+1.00)/2

=0.98 A
Consider the setting of Is = 0.1
The I Operating Current = 0.1 + (0.2 * 0.98)
= 0.1 + 0.196
= 0.296 A

At tap of +5% with full load the relay require a current of 0.29 A at Is = 0.1
Since I1-I2 = 0.04 which is less than relay operating value, relay will not operate.
So a setting Is = 0.1 is acceptable.

## 2.3 Procedure for Relay Setting of Transformer Differential Relay KBCH

Data Required
MVA Rating
Voltage ratio
Vector group
HV voltage
LV voltage
Transformer percentage impedance:
Transformer vector group:
OLTC Tap: +%

OLTC Tap: -%

## CT ratio and winding configuration

HV side
LV side
At Normal tap
HV Side full load current = MVA / 3*kV
Current on CT Secondary Ict (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
N1=Required ratio compensation = 1/ Ict sec
Assuming Relay current = 1A
N1 is set on the relay
Current on HV side = Current on CT secondary (HV)/ N1

## At Normal tap low voltage side

LV Side full load current = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary Ict (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side) / CT Ratio (LV Side)
N2=Required ratio compensation = 1/ Ict sec (LV)
N2 is set on the relay
Current on LV side = Current on CT secondary (LV)/N2
At -% Tap
HV side current = MVA / (3*kV
Where kV is the voltage corresponding to -% tap on HV side
Current on CT Secondary Ict (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
With ratio compensation
Current on CT Secondary =Ict sec /N1
At Tap on +%
HV side current = MVA / (3*kV )
Where kV is the voltage corresponding to +% tap on HV side
Current on CT Secondary Ict (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
With ratio compensation
Current on CT Secondary =Ict sec /N1
Differential current at extreme taps
At -% tap =Idiff1 =IHV-ILV
At +% tap =Idiff2 =IHV-ILV
Ibias = IHV+ILV /2

## Operating current of Relay

I Operating = Pickup setting + 0.20 * Bias Current less than 1A +0.8*current above 1A
Relay Operating current current is calculated using the above equation.
For extreme taps the Idiff and Ibias current are calculated., the pick up setting is chosen such that it will
not operate for extreme taps
Differential Relay Settings Calculations
Substation Name: 220 kV GSS Nagaur
Relay Type: KBCH (Areva)
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers
Transformer Name: Transformer 2
MVA = 100
Voltage Ratio = 220/132 kV
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side) = 220
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side) = 132
Vector Group = YNa0d1
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 400/1
CT HV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT Ratio (LV Side) = 600/1
CT LV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
Minimum Tap = -15
Maximum Tap = +10
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*10^3)

=262.43 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 262.43/400
=0.66 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.66
=1.52
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
=437.39 A
Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio
=437.39/600
= 0.73 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.73
=1.37 A
Calculations for OLTC tap setting -10%
Full load Current for 400 kV %( HV Side) Winding at -15% = MVA / (3*0.85*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*0.85*10^3)
=308.74 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 308.74 /400
= 0.77 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.52 A the current to relay bias terminal

= 0.77 * 1.52
=1.18 A
Hence the differential current is = 1.18 1
= 0.18 A
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2
= (1.18+1)/2
= 1.09 A

[Since the bias current is less than 1.5 A the slope will be within 20%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.2* I bias)
= 0.1 + (0.2 * 1.09)
= 0.37 A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it is less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.
Calculations for OLTC tap setting +10%
Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at +10% = MVA / (3*1.1*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*1.1*10^3)
= 237.26 A

## Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio

= 238.57 /400
= 0.60 A

As the adopted ratio correction is 1.52 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.60 * 1.52
= 0.82 A
Hence the differential current is = 1 0.82
= 0.18 A
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2
= (0.82 +1)/2
= 0.91 A

[Since the bias current is less than 1.5 A the slope will be within 20%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.2* I bias)
= 0.1 + (0.2 * 0.91)
= 0.28 A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it is less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.

2.4 Procedure for Relay Setting of Transformer Differential Relay DTH 31/32
Data Required
MVA Rating
Voltage ratio
Vector group
CT ratio on HV Side
Winding connection of CT on HV side
ICT ratio on HV Side
Winding connection of ICT on HV side
CT ratio on LV Side
Winding connection of CT on LV side
Transformer Tap
Min -% or OLTC Tap max +%
Rated current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*Rated voltage (HV side))
Rated current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*Rated voltage (LV side))
If CT is Star/Star
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
If CT is Star/Delta the current shall be multiplied by 3.
Current on the secondary of ICT for Star/Star = Current on CT Secondary (HV Side) / ICT Ratio (HV
Side)

## For Star/Delta the current shall be multiplied by 3.

The same procedure is followed for getting the relay current on LV side also.
Idiff = Relay Current = Difference between the HV and LV Current (Current at the secondary of ICTs)
To make sure that the relay does not operate when the Transformer taps are changed the currents are
calculated at extreme taps.
At Tap on -%
Voltage corresponding to the above tap,
Full load current = MVA / 3 * Voltage corresponding to ve tap.

At Tap on +%
Voltage corresponding to the above tap,
Full load current = MVA / 3 * Voltage corresponding to +ve tap.

Currents at the CT Secondary and ICT Secondary are calculated by using the above procedure. For
extreme +ive and extreme ive tap.

Relay current I1= The difference between the HV and LV Currents for extreme +ive tap.
I2= The difference between the HV and LV Currents for extreme +ive tap.

DTH 31 relay has a fixed pick up setting and variable single slope bias setting.

## For setting the Bias Setting

The operating current of DTH 31 is given by the equation

## Relay operating current = Pickup setting + Bias Setting * Bias current

The pickup setting in DTH 31 = 0.15 (constant)
Bias Current = (I1+I2)/2
Operating Current at normal tap with Bias setting Is = 0.15(or) 0.3
I Operating 1A = 0.15 + 0.15 * Bias Current
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2
I Difference 1A = I1- I2
Operating current at extreme taps is calculated with the same procedure.
Operating current at extreme taps is calculated with the same procedure.
Operating Current at extreme Minimum tap
I Operating 2A.
I Difference 2A = I1 I2.

## Operating Current at extreme Maximum tap

I Operating 3A.
I difference 3A = I1 I2.
In each of the above cases IOperating current >IDifference + Tolerance
If the above is true a setting of 0.15 for bias is selected. In case the above is not true. Similar calculation is
carried out for the next Bias Setting.
Bhinmal Differential Relay Settings Calculations
Relay Type: DTH31
Station Name : 220 kV GSS Modak
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers

## Transformer Name: NGEF

MVA = 100
Voltage Ratio = 220/132 kV
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side) = 220 kV
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side) = 132 KV
Vector Group = YNyn0d1
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 300/1
CT HV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT Ratio (LV Side) = 600/1
CT LV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
ICT Ratio (HV Side) = 7.3/5
ICT Ratio (LV Side) = 3.6/2.89
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*10^3)
=262.4319 A
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
=437.39 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 262.4319/300
=0.874 A
Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio

=437.39/600
= 0.728 A

## Interposing CT (HV Side) =

= 7.3/5
Vector Group Interposing CT (HV Side) = Star/Delta
Interposing CT (LV Side) = 3.65/2.89
Vector Group Interposing CT (LV Side) = Star/Delta
Current on ICT Secondary (HV) = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (HV)/ Interposing CT
(HV Side))
=3*(0.656/1.128)
=1.03 A

## Current on ICT Secondary (LV) = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (LV)/ Interposing CT

(LV Side))
=3*(0.728/1.261)
= 0.99 A

Difference between HV side and LV side currents = Current on ICT Secondary (HV)
Current on ICT Secondary (LV)
= 1.03 .99
=0.04

## Calculations for OLTC tap setting -15%

Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at -10% = MVA / (3*0.85*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*0.85*10^3)
=308.743 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 308.74 /300
=1.029 A
Current on ICT Secondary (HV) = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (HV)/ Interposing CT (HV
Side))
=3*1.029=1.22 A
Current on ICT Secondary (LV) = 1.00 A
Difference between HV side and LV side currents = Current on ICT Secondary (HV) Current on ICT Secondary (LV)
= 1.22- 1.00
= 0.22 A
Ibias = ( I1 + I2 ) /2
= ( 1.22+ 1 ) /2
= 1.11 A
Operating Current = Bias setting + Slope 1 * I bias
= 0.15 +0.15*1.11
= 0.3165 A
As Id= 0.22, Operating current = 0.31, Hence stable

## Calculations for OLTC tap setting +10%

Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at +15% = MVA / (3*1.10*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*1.10*10^3)
= 238.57A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 228.20 /300
= 0.795 A
Current on ICT Secondary (HV) = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (HV)/ Interposing CT (HV
Side))
=0.9434
Current on ICT Secondary (LV) = 1.00 A
Difference between HV side and LV side currents = Current on ICT Secondary (HV) Current on ICT Secondary (LV)
=1- 0.9434
= 0.056 A
At Tap of -10 % I bias = (I1+I2)/2
= (1+0.9434)/2 A =0 .97 A
Consider a bias setting of Is = 0.30
The I Operating Current = 0.15 + Is * I bias
= 0.15 + 0.15* 0.97
=0.29 A
At tap of -10% with full load the relay require a current 0.47 A at Is = 0.30.

Since I1-I2 = 0.056 which is less than the operating value, relay will not operate.
So a setting Is = 0.30 is acceptable.

## 2.5 Differential Relay Settings Calculations RET 670

Differential Relay Settings Calculation Procedure
Relay Type: RET 670
Required Data
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers
MVA
Voltage Ratio
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side)
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side)
Vector Group
CT Ratio (HV Side)
CT HV Side Vector Group
CT Ratio (LV Side)
CT LV Side Vector Group
CT resistance value (Rct)
Lead resistance value (Rl)
Minimum Tap = - %
Maximum Tap = +%
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio

## Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ Current on CT secondary (HV)

Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ Current on CT Secondary (LV)
Relay current on LV side I2 = Current on CT secondary LV side / Ratio compensation for LV side
Calculations for OLTC tap setting -% and +%
Full load Current (- % or +% HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
Relay Current for HV side I1= Current on Ct secondary (HV)/ Ratio compensation for HV side
I1 is calculated for extreme transformer taps
The differential current is = I1-I2
Bias current I bias = (I1+I2)/2
Differential current I dif and Ibias is calculated foe extreme Transformer taps
Therefore the operating current of the relay
= Is + m1* I bias for current less than (4.Iref) + m2* Ibias for current greater than (4 Iref)
Where m1 and m2 are the slope of relay char
Pick up setting is chosen such that the Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than
90% of operating current for better stability..

## Sample Calculation for ABB RET 670

A) Biased Differential
Substation Name : 220 kV GSS Rajwest
Relay Type: ABB RET 670
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers

## Transformer Name: TELK

MVA = 315
Voltage Ratio = 400/220/33
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side) = 400
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side) = 220
Vector Group = YNA0d11
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 1000/1
CT HV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT Ratio (LV Side) = 1000/1
CT LV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
Minimum Tap = -10
Maximum Tap = +15
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=315*10^6/ (3*400*10^3)
=454.66 A

## Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio

= 454.66/1000
=0.454 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.454
= 2.199 A
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)

=315*10^6/ (3*220*10^3)
=826.66 A
Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio
=826.66/1000
= 0.826 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.826
=1.209 A
Compensated current on LV side=3*0.826/1.209

## Calculations for OLTC tap setting -10%

Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at -15% = MVA / (3*0.85*kV)
=315*10^6/ (3*400*0.85*10^3)
=534.89 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 534.89 /1000
=0.534 A
Inter posing CT (HV) winding = 3*Current on CT sec (HV)/Ratio correction factor
=3*0.534/2.199
=0.421 A
Hence the differential current is = ABS (0.421 1.183)
= 0. 762 A
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2

= (0.421+1.183)/2
= 0.802 A
[Since the bias current is less than 1.5 A the slope will be within 40%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (1.5* M1)+M2*Ibias
= 0.1 + (0.4 * 1.5)*0.8*0.697
= 1.25 A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it s less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.

## Calculations for OLTC tap setting +10%

Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at +10% = MVA / (3*1.1*kV)
=315*10^6/ (3*400*1.1*10^3)
=413.33 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 413.33 /1000
=0.413 A
Interposing HV winding current=3*0.413/2.199
=0.325
I bias = (interposing CT HV current side+ Interposed LV side CT current side)/2
= (0.325+1.183)/2
= 0.754 A
Hence the differential current is = 1.183-0.325
= 0.858 A

[Since the bias current is less than 1.5 A the slope will be within 30%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (m1+m2)* I bias
= 0.1 + (0.4 +0.8) * 0.754
= 1.01 A
The operating value is larger than the differential value hence the system is Stable for the MAX tap
condition.

## B) High Impedance Differential

Substation Name : 220 kV GSS Rajwest
Relay Type: ABB RET 670
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers
Transformer Name: TELK
MVA = 315
Voltage Ratio = 400/220/33
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side) = 400
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side) = 220
Vector Group = YNA0d11
% Impedance of the transformer=0.1198
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 1000/1
CT HV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT Ratio (LV Side) = 1000/1
CT LV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT resistance (Rct) =4
Lead Resistance value=1.5

## Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)

=315*10^6/ (3*400*10^3)
=454.66 A
Maximum fault current contributed =Rated current /Percentage Impedance

=454.66/0.1198
=3795.15 A
Maximum fault current contributed secondary=3795.15/1000
= 3.795 A
Operating Voltage =3.795*(4+2*1.5)
=26.57V

Rstab

= 250

Stabilizing resistance value (Rstab) to be set as per the operating voltage range given in the technical
reference manual table provided by the manufacturer.

2.6 Procedure for Relay setting of Transformer Differential Relay ABB RADSB
Substation

## Tranformer Name : CGL

Relay Type: RADSB [ABB]
Data Required
MVA Rating
Voltage ratio
Vector group
CT ratio on HV Side
Winding connection of CT on HV side
ICT ratio on HV Side
Winding connection of ICT on HV side
CT ratio on LV Side
Winding connection of CT on LV side
Transformer Tap
Min -% OLTC Tap and max % OLTC tap
Calculation
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio

## Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio

Interposing CT (HV Side) = Current on CT Secondary (HV) / ICT ratio on HV side
Interposing CT (LV Side) = Current on CT Secondary (LV) /0.578
Current on ICT Secondary (HV) = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (HV)/ Interposing CT
(HV Side))
Current on ICT Secondary (LV) = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (LV)/ Interposing CT
(LV Side))
Difference between HV side and LV side currents = Current on ICT Secondary (HV)
Current on ICT Secondary (LV)
Calculations for OLTC tap setting -%
Voltage corresponding to the above tap,
Full load current = MVA / 3 * Voltage corresponding to ve tap.
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
Current on ICT Secondary (HV) in A
= 3*(Current on CT Secondary (HV)/ Interposing CT
(HVSide))
Difference between HV side and LV side currents = Current on ICT Secondary (HV) Current on ICT Secondary (LV)

## Calculations for OLTC tap setting +%

Voltage corresponding to the above tap,
Full load current = MVA / 3 * Voltage corresponding to +ve tap.

## Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio

Current on ICT Secondary (HV) in A = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (HV)/ Interposing
CT (HVSide))
Difference between HV side and LV side currents = Current on ICT Secondary (HV) Current on ICT Secondary (LV)
Relay setting range available : Operating value can be Settable 20, 25, 35, or 50% of In
Id = (I1-I2)
Ibias = ( I1+I2)/2

## Operating current = 0.25+ Slope1 setting * I bias

Id should be less than I operating current
The setting shall be selected in such a way that the relay shall not operate for the extreme tap
positions
Differential Relay Settings Calculations
Relay Type: RADSB [ABB]
Substation

## Tranformer Name : CGL

Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers
Transformer Name: CGL
MVA = 100
Voltage Ratio = 220/132kV
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side) = 220
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side) = 132
Vector Group = YnYa0
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 300/5

## CT HV Side Vector Group = Star/Star

CT Ratio (LV Side) = 600/5
CT LV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
ICT Ratio (HV Side) = 4.37/2.88
ICT Ratio (LV Side) = 3.64/2.88
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*10^3)
=262.4319 A
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
= 437.39A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 262.4319/(300/5)
= 4.37 A
Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio
=437.39/(600/5)
= 3.64 A
Interposing CT (HV Side) = 4.37/2.88
= 1.517
Interposing CT (LV Side) = 3.64/2.88
=1.263

## Current on ICT Secondary (HV) = (Current on CT Secondary (HV)*Interposing CT

(HV Side))
=4.37/(4.37 /2.88)
= 2.88 A

## Current on ICT Secondary (LV) = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (LV)/ Interposing CT

(LV Side))
=3.64/(3.64/1.263)
=2.88 A
Difference between HV side and LV side currents = Current on ICT Secondary (HV)
Current on ICT Secondary (LV)
= 4.9891 4.9916
= 0.0019606708 A
Calculations for OLTC tap setting -15%
Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at -15% = MVA / (3*0.85*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*0.85*10^3)
=308.74 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 308.74/(300/5)
=5.15 A
Current on ICT Secondary (HV) = (Current on CT Secondary (HV)/ Interposing CT (HV side )
=5.15/(4.862 /1.517)

=3.39 A
Current on ICT Secondary (LV) =(Current on CT Secondary (HV)/ Interposing CT (HV side)
= 2.88 A

Difference between HV side and LV side currents = Current on ICT Secondary (HV) Current on ICT Secondary (LV)
= 3.39-2.88
= 0.51 A
I bias = ( I1+I2)/2 = (3.39+2.88)/2 = 3.34
Operating current = 0.25+0.2*3.34 = 0.88 A
Id = 0.51 is less than I operating = 0.88, hence stable
Calculations for OLTC tap setting +10%
Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at +10% = MVA / (3*1.1*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*1.1*10^3)
= 238.57 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 238.57 /(300/5)
=3.98 A
Current on ICT Secondary (HV) = 3*(Current on CT Secondary (HV)/ Interposing CT (HV
Side))
=3.98/(3.954 / 1.517)
=2.62 A

## Current on ICT Secondary (LV) = 2.88

Difference between HV side and LV side currents = Current on ICT Secondary (HV) Current on ICT Secondary (LV)
= 2.88-2.62
= 0.26
I bias =( I1+I2) /2
= ( 2.88+2.62) /2 = 2.75 A
I operating = 0.25 + 0.2* 2.75 = 0.8 A
Id= 0.26 is less than I operating = 0.8 A, hence stable

## 2.7 Procedure for Relay Setting of Transformer Differential Relay GE T60

Data Required
MVA Rating
Voltage ratio
Vector group
HV voltage
LV voltage
Transformer percentage impedance:
Transformer vector group:
OLTC Tap: +%

OLTC Tap: -%

## CT ratio and winding configuration

HV side
LV side
At Normal tap
HV Side full load current = MVA / 3*kV
Current on CT Secondary Ict (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
N1=Required ratio compensation = 1/ Ict sec
Assuming Relay current = 1A
N1 is set on the relay
Current on HV side = Current on CT secondary (HV)/ N1

## At Normal tap low voltage side

LV Side full load current = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary Ict (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side) / CT Ratio (LV Side)
N2=Required ratio compensation = 1/ Ict sec (LV)
N2 is set on the relay
Current onLV side = Current on CT secondary (LV)/N2
At -% Tap
HV side current = MVA / (3*kV
Where kV is the voltage corresponding to -% tap on HV side
Current on CT Secondary = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
With ratio compensation
Current on CT Secondary =Ratio of compensation * CT secondary current
At Tap on +%
HV side current = MVA / (3*kV )
Where kV is the voltage corresponding to +% tap on HV side
Current on CT Secondary Ict (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
With ratio compensation
Current on CT Secondary =Ratio of compensation * CT secondary current
Differential current at extreme taps
At -% tap =Idiff1 =IHV-ILV
At +% tap =Idiff2 =IHV-ILV
Ibias = IHV+ILV

## Operating current of Relay

I Operating = Pickup setting + 0.3 * Bias Current for Bias current less than Break Point
I Operating = Pickup setting + 0.3 * Bias Current + 0.8 (Bias current Break point) for Bias current greater
than Break point.

## Relay Operating current current is calculated using the above equation.

For extreme taps the Idiff and Ibias current are calculated., the pick up setting is chosen such that it will
not operate for extreme taps.

## Differential Relay Settings Calculations

Substation Name: 220 kV GSS Kushkhera
Relay Type: GE T60
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers

## Differential Current Setting = 0.25 A

Break Point = 2
Slope1 = 0.3
Slope 2= 0.8
Transformer Name: IMP
MVA = 100
Voltage Ratio = 220/132 kV
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side) = 220
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side) = 132
Vector Group = YNa0d1
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 400/1
CT HV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT Ratio (LV Side) = 500/1
CT LV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
Minimum Tap = -15
Maximum Tap = +10
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*10^3)
=262.43 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 262.43/400
=0.66 A

=1.52

## Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)

=100*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
=437.39 A

## Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio

=437.39/500
= 0.874 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.874
=1.143 A

## Calculations for OLTC at Nominal tap setting

Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding = MVA / (3*0.9*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*10^3)
= 262.43 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 262.43 /400
= 0.656 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.52 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.656 * 1.52

## Compensated current internally = 0.9972 A

Hence the differential current is = 0.9972 1
= 0.0027A
Bias current = Max (I1, I2)
= (0.9972, 1)
=1A

[Since the bias current is less than Break point (2) the slope will be within 30%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.3* I bias)
= 0.25 + (0.3* 0.9972)
= 0.549 A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it is less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.

## Calculations for OLTC tap setting -15%

Full load Current for 400 kV %( HV Side) Winding at -15% = MVA / (3*0.85*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*0.85*10^3)
= 308.74 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 308.74 /400
= 0.772 A
As the adopted compensation is 1.33 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.772 * 1.33

## Compensated current internally =1.029 A

Hence the differential current is = 1.029 0.87
= 0.15 A
Bias current = Maximum of (I1, I2)
= Maximum of (1.029, 0.87)
= 1.029 A

[Since the bias current is less than Break point (2) the slope will be within 25%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.2* I bias)
= 0.25 + (0.3 *1.029)
= 0.558 A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it is less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.
Calculations for OLTC tap setting +10%
Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at +10% = MVA / (3*1.1*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*1.1*10^3)
= 238.57A

## Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio

= 238.57 /400
= 0.5964 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.52 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.596 * 1.52

## Compensated current internally = 0.905 A

Hence the differential current is = 1-0.905
= 0.095 A
Bias current = Maximum of (I1, I2)
= Maximum of (0.905, 1)
=1A

[Since the bias current is less than Break point (2) the slope will be within 30%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.3* I bias)
= 0.25 + (0.3 * 1)
= 0.55 A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it is less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.

## 2.8 Procedure for Relay Setting of Transformer Differential Relay CSC326

Data Required
MVA Rating
Voltage ratio
Vector group
HV voltage
LV voltage
Transformer percentage impedance:
Transformer vector group:
OLTC Tap: +%

OLTC Tap: -%

## CT ratio and winding configuration

HV side
LV side
At Normal tap
HV Side full load current = MVA / 3*kV
Current on CT Secondary Ict (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
N1=Required ratio compensation = 1/ Ict sec
Assuming Relay current = 1A
N1 is set on the relay
Current on HV side = Current on CT secondary (HV)/ N1

## At Normal tap low voltage side

LV Side full load current = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary Ict (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side) / CT Ratio (LV Side)
N2=Required ratio compensation = 1/ Ict sec (LV)
N2 is set on the relay
Current onLV side = Current on CT secondary (LV)/N2
At -% Tap
HV side current = MVA / (3*kV
Where kV is the voltage corresponding to -% tap on HV side
Current on CT Secondary = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
With ratio compensation
Current on CT Secondary =Ratio of compensation * CT secondary current
At Tap on +%
HV side current = MVA / (3*kV )
Where kV is the voltage corresponding to +% tap on HV side
Current on CT Secondary Ict (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
With ratio compensation
Current on CT Secondary =Ratio of compensation * CT secondary current
Differential current at extreme taps
At -% tap =Idiff1 =IHV-ILV
At +% tap =Idiff2 =IHV-ILV
Ibias = IHV+ILV

## Operating current of Relay

I Operating = Pickup setting + 0 * Bias Current if less than 0.656
I Operating = Pickup setting + (0.3 * Bias Current -0.656) if greater than 0.656
I Operating = Pickup setting + 0.7 * (Bias Current-4) + 0.3*4

## Relay Operating current current is calculated using the above equation.

For extreme taps the Idiff and Ibias current are calculated., the pick up setting is chosen such that it will
not operate for extreme taps.

## Differential Relay Settings Calculations

Substation Name: 220 kV GSS Bharathpur
Relay Type: CSC326
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers
Differential Current Setting = 0.2 A
Transformer Name: CGL

MVA = 100
Voltage Ratio = 220/132 kV
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side) = 220
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side) = 132
Vector Group = YNa0d1
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 400/1
CT HV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT Ratio (LV Side) = 500/1
CT LV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
Minimum Tap = -15
Maximum Tap = +10
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*10^3)
=262.43 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 262.43/400
=0.66 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.66
=1.52
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
=437.39 A

## Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio

=437.39/500
= 0.8747 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/0.8747
= 1.143 A
Calculations for OLTC Nominal tap setting:
Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at

= MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*10^3*)
= 262.43 A

## Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio

= 262.43 /400
= 0.656 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.52 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.656 * 1.52
= 0.997 A
Compensated current internally on HV =0.997 A
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
=437.39 A

## Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio

=437.39/500
= 0.8747 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/0.8747
= 1.143 A

## Compensated current on LV = 0.8747 * 1.143

= 0.9993
Hence the differential current is = (0.9973 0.9993 )
= 0.002 A
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2
= (0.656+0.8747)/2
= 0.765 A

[Since the bias current is less than 4 A and greater than 0.656 the slope will be within 30%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.3* ( I bias-0.656)
= 0.2 + (0.3 *0.109)
= 0.232 A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it is less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.

## Calculations for OLTC tap setting -15%

Full load Current for 400 kV %( HV Side) Winding at -15% = MVA / (3*0.85*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*0.85*10^3)
= 308.74 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 308.74 /400
= 0.772 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.52 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.772 * 1.52
= 1.18 A
Compensated current internally on HV =1.18 A
Hence the differential current is = (1.18 1.0 )
= 0.18 A
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2
= (1.18+1)/2
= 1.09 A

[Since the bias current is less than 4 A and greater than 0.656 the slope will be within 30%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.3* ( I bias-0.656)
= 0.2 + (0.3 *0.434)
= 0.33 A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it is less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.

## Calculations for OLTC tap setting +10%

Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at +10% = MVA / (3*1.1*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*1.1*10^3)
= 238.5 A

= 238.574 /400
= 0.596 A

## As the adopted ratio correction is 1 A the current to relay bias terminal

= 0.596 * 1.52
Compensated current internally = 0.905 A
Differential current = I1- I2 = 1-0.905 = 0.095 A
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2
= (0.905 +1)/2
= 0.952 A
[Since the bias current is less than 4 A and greater than 0.656 the slope will be within 30%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.3* ( I bias-0.656)
= 0.2 + (0.3*(0.952- 0.656))
= 0.288 A

Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it is less than 90% so the setting is acceptable

## 2.9 Procedure for Relay Setting of Transformer Differential Relay DUOBIAS

Data Required
MVA Rating
Voltage ratio
Vector group
HV voltage
LV voltage
Transformer percentage impedance:
Transformer vector group:
OLTC Tap: +%

OLTC Tap: -%

## CT ratio and winding configuration

HV side
LV side
At Normal tap
HV Side full load current = MVA / 3*kV
Current on CT Secondary Ict (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
N1=Required ratio compensation = 1/ Ict sec
Assuming Relay current = 1A
N1 is set on the relay
Current on HV side = Current on CT secondary (HV)/ N1

## At Normal tap low voltage side

LV Side full load current = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary Ict (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side) / CT Ratio (LV Side)
N2=Required ratio compensation = 1/ Ict sec (LV)
N2 is set on the relay
Current onLV side = Current on CT secondary (LV)/N2
At -% Tap
HV side current = MVA / (3*kV
Where kV is the voltage corresponding to -% tap on HV side
Current on CT Secondary = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
With ratio compensation
Current on CT Secondary =Ratio of compensation * CT secondary current
At Tap on +%
HV side current = MVA / (3*kV )
Where kV is the voltage corresponding to +% tap on HV side
Current on CT Secondary Ict (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
With ratio compensation
Current on CT Secondary =Ratio of compensation * CT secondary current
Differential current at extreme taps
At -% tap =Idiff1 =IHV-ILV
At +% tap =Idiff2 =IHV-ILV
Ibias = IHV+ILV

## Operating current of Relay

I Operating = Pickup setting + 0 * Bias Current if less than 0.656
I Operating = Pickup setting + (0.3 * Bias Current -0.656) if greater than 0.656
I Operating = Pickup setting + 0.7 * (Bias Current-4) + 0.3*4

## Relay Operating current current is calculated using the above equation.

For extreme taps the Idiff and Ibias current are calculated., the pick up setting is chosen such that it will
not operate for extreme taps.

## Differential Relay Settings Calculations

Substation Name: 220 kV GSS Neemrana
Relay Type: DUOBIAS
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers
Differential Current Setting = 0.25 A
Transformer Name: CGL
MVA = 100
Voltage Ratio = 220/132 kV
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side) = 220
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side) = 132
Vector Group = YNa0d1
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 400/1
CT HV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT Ratio (LV Side) = 500/1
CT LV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
Minimum Tap = -15
Maximum Tap = +10
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*10^3)
=262.43 A

## Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio

= 262.43/400
=0.66 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.66
=1.52
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
=437.39 A
Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio
=437.39/500
= 0.8747 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/0.8747
= 1.143 A
Calculations for OLTC Nominal tap setting:
Full load Current for 220 kV ( HV Side) Winding

= MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*10^3*)
= 262.43 A

## Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio

= 262.43 /400
= 0.656 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.52 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.656 * 1.52* 3

= 1.727 A
Compensated current internally on HV = 1.727 A
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
=437.39 A

## Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio

=437.39/500
= 0.8747 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/0.8747
= 1.143 A
Compensated current on LV = 0.8747 * 1.143
=1
Hence the differential current is = (1 1 )
=0A
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2
= (1+1)/2
=1A
[Since the bias current is less than 4 A and greater than 0.656 the slope will be within 30%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.3* ( I bias)
= 0.2 + (0.3*1)
= 0.5A

## Calculations for OLTC tap setting -15%

Full load Current for 400 kV %( HV Side) Winding at -15% = MVA / (3*0.85*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*0.85*10^3)
= 308.743 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 308.743 /400
= 0.771 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.52 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.771 * 1.52
= 0.888 A
Compensated current internally on HV =0.888 A
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
=437.39 A
Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio
=437.39/500
= 0.8747 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/0.8747
= 1.143 A
Compensated current on LV = 0.874* 1.143

= 0.998 A
Hence the differential current is = (1.0-0.888)
= 0.12 A
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2
= (0.888+1)/2
= 0.944 A
[Since the bias current is less than 4 A and greater than 0.656 the slope will be within 30%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.3* ( I bias-0.656)
= 0.2 + (0.3 *0.28)
= 0.284 A
Id= 0.12 is less than I operating current = 0.284 A, hence Stable
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it is less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.
Calculations for OLTC tap setting +10%
Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at +10% = MVA / (3*1.1*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*1.1*10^3)
= 238.5 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 238.5 /400
= 0.56 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.56 * 1.52
Compensated current internally = 0.8512 A

## Compensated current internally on LV = 0.851*1.143

=1A
Hence the differential current is = 1-0.8512
= 0.1488 A
Bias current = (I1+I2)/2
= (1 +0.1488)/2
= 0.574 A
[Since the bias current is less than 0.656 the slope will be zero.
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.3* ( I bias-0.656)
= 0.2 + (0.3*(0.574))
= 0.2A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it is less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.

## 2.10 Procedure for Relay Setting of Transformer Differential Relay

7UT61X/7UT51X
Data Required
MVA Rating
Voltage ratio
Vector group
HV voltage
LV voltage
Transformer percentage impedance:
Transformer vector group:
OLTC Tap: +%

OLTC Tap: -%

## CT ratio and winding configuration

HV side
LV side
At Normal tap
HV Side full load current = MVA / 3*kV
Current on CT Secondary Ict (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
N1=Required ratio compensation = 1/ Ict sec
Assuming Relay current = 1A
N1 is set on the relay

## At Normal tap low voltage side

LV Side full load current = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary Ict (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side) / CT Ratio (LV Side)
N2=Required ratio compensation = 1/ Ict sec (LV)
N2 is set on the relay
Current onLV side = Current on CT secondary (LV)/N2
At -% Tap
HV side current = MVA / (3*kV
Where kV is the voltage corresponding to -% tap on HV side
Current on CT Secondary = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
With ratio compensation
Current on CT Secondary =Ratio of compensation * CT secondary current
At Tap on +%
HV side current = MVA / (3*kV )
Where kV is the voltage corresponding to +% tap on HV side
Current on CT Secondary Ict (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side) / CT Ratio (HV Side)
With ratio compensation
Current on CT Secondary =Ratio of compensation * CT secondary current
Differential current at extreme taps
At -% tap =Idiff1 =IHV-ILV

## At +% tap =Idiff2 =IHV-ILV

Ibias = IHV+ILV
Operating current of Relay
I Operating = Pickup setting + 0.25 * Bias Current if less than 2.5A
I Operating = Pickup setting + 0.25 * Bias Current + 0.5 ( Bias current above 2.5 A )

## Relay Operating current is calculated using the above equation.

For extreme taps the Idiff and Ibias current are calculated., the pick up setting is chosen such that it will
not operate for extreme taps
Differential Relay Settings Calculations
Substation Name: 220 kV GSS Nagaur
Relay Type: SIPROTECH 7UT61X
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers
Differential Current Setting = 0.2 A
Transformer Name: BHEL -II
MVA = 100
Voltage Ratio = 220/132 kV
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side) = 220
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side) = 132
Vector Group = YNa0d1
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 400/1
CT HV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT Ratio (LV Side) = 500/1

## CT LV Side Vector Group = Star/Star

Minimum Tap = -15
Maximum Tap = +10
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*10^3)
=262.43 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 262.43/400
=0.66 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.66
=1.52

## Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)

=100*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
=437.39 A

## Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio

=437.39/500
= 0.73 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.73
=1.14 A
Calculations for OLTC tap setting -10%

Full load Current for 400 kV %( HV Side) Winding at -15% = MVA / (3*0.9*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*0.85*10^3)
= 308.74 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 308.74 /400
= 0.77 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.52 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.77 * 1.52
Compensated current internally =1.18 A
Hence the differential current is = 1.18 1
= 0.18 A
Bias current = (I1+I2)
= (1.18 +1)
= 2.18 A
[Since the bias current is less than 2.5 A the slope will be within 25%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.5* I bias)
= 0.2 + (0.25 *2.18)
= 0.74 A
Differential current at w tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it is less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.
Calculations for OLTC tap setting +10%
Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at +10% = MVA / (3*1.1*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*1.1*10^3)

= 238.5 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 238.5 /400
= 0.60 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.52 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.60 * 1.14
Compensated current internally = 0.68 A
Hence the differential current is = 1 0.68
= 0.32 A
Bias current = (I1+I2)
= (0.68 +1)
= 1.68 A

[Since the bias current is less than 2.5 A the slope will be within 25%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.25* I bias)
= 0.2 + (0.25 * 1.68)
= 0.62 A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it is less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.

## 2.11 Differential Relay Settings Calculations GE SR745

Relay Type: GE SR745
Required Data
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers
MVA
Voltage Ratio
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side)
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side)
Vector Group
CT Ratio (HV Side)
CT HV Side Vector Group
CT Ratio (LV Side)
CT LV Side Vector Group
Minimum Tap = - %
Maximum Tap = +%
Break point
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ Current on CT secondary (HV)
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)

## Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio

Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ Current on CT Secondary (LV)
Relay current on LV side I2 = Current on CT secondary LV side * Ratio compensation for LV side
Calculations for OLTC tap setting -% and +%
Full load Current (- % or +% HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
Relay Current for HV side I1= Current on Ct secondary (HV)* Ratio compensation for HV side
I1 is calculated for extreme transformer taps
The differential current is = I1-I2
Bias current I bias = Maximum of(I1,I2)
Differential current I dif andIbias is calculated foe extreme Transformer taps
Therefore the operating current of the relay
= Is + Slope1* I bias for I bias current less than Break point And Is + Slope1*Break point + Slope2* (IbiasBreak point) for I biascurrent greater than Break point.

Pick up setting is chosen such that the Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than
90% of operating current for better stability.

## Sample Calculation of GE SR 745

Substation Name : 220 kV GSS Khinwasar
Relay Type: GE SR745
Ratings of the Power and Current Transformers
Transformer Name: EMCO
MVA = 100
Voltage Ratio = 220/132
Rated Voltage in kV (HV Side) = 220
Rated Voltage in kV (LV Side) = 132
Vector Group = YNA0d1
CT Ratio (HV Side) = 400/1
CT HV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
CT Ratio (LV Side) = 500/1
CT LV Side Vector Group = Star/Star
Minimum Tap = -15
Maximum Tap = +10
Break point=2
Is=0.2, m1=25%, m2=80%
Rated Current (HV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*10^3)

=262.4319 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 262.4319/400
=0.65607 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.65607
= 1.5242 A
Rated Current (LV Side) = MVA / (3*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*132*10^3)
=437.38 A
Current on CT Secondary (LV) = Rated Current (LV Side)/CT Ratio
=437.38 /500
= 0.875 A
Required Ratio Compensation = 1/ 0.875
=1.143 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.143 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.875 * 1.143
I1=1 A
Calculations for OLTC tap setting -15%
Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at -15% = MVA / (3*0.85*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*0.85*10^3)
=308.743 A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio

= 308.743 /400
=0.7719 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.5242 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.7719 * 1.5242
I2=1.176 A
Hence the differential current is = (I1-I2) =1.176 1
= 0. 176 A
Bias currentIbias = Max(I1,I2)
= (1.176,1)
= 1.176 A
[Since the bias current is less than Break point the slope will be within 25%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.25* I bias)
= 0.2 + (0.25 * 1.176)
= 0.494 A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it s less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.

## Calculations for OLTC tap setting +10%

Full load Current for 220 kV %( HV Side) Winding at +10% = MVA / (3*1.15*kV)
=100*10^6/ (3*220*1.1*10^3)
=238.574A
Current on CT Secondary (HV) = Rated Current (HV Side)/CT Ratio
= 238.574 /400

=0.5964 A
As the adopted ratio correction is 1.5242 A the current to relay bias terminal
= 0.5964* 1.5242
I2=0.909 A
Hence the differential current is= (I1-I2) = 1 - 0.909
= 0.091 A
Bias current Ibias = Max(I1,I2)
= (1, 0.909)
=1A
[Since the bias current is less than Break point the slope will be within 25%]
Therefore the operating current of the relay will be = Is + (0.25* I bias)
= 0.2 + (0.25 * 1)
= 0.45 A
Differential current at worst tap condition should not be more than 90% of operating current for better
stability. Here it s less than 90% so the setting is acceptable.