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Cisco reviewer

IEEE Standards

IEEE 802.1

Bridging (networking) and Network

IEEE 802.2


IEEE 802.3


IEEE 802.4

Token bus

IEEE 802.5

Defines the MAC layer for a Token Ring

IEEE 802.6


IEEE 802.8

Fiber Optic TAG


IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi

IEEE 802.14 Cable modems disbanded
IEEE 802.15 Wireless PAN
IEEE 802.15.1

Bluetooth certification

IEEE 802.15.2

IEEE 802.15 and IEEE 802.11

IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access (WiMAX


Common Port Numbers

21 FTP
143 IMAP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

DHCP discovery
DHCP offer
DHCP request
DHCP acknowledgement
DHCP information
DHCP releasing

Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical

distributed naming system for computers, services,
or any resource connected to the Internet or a
private network. It associates various information
with domain names assigned to each of the
participating entities

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network

protocol used to transfer files from one host to
another host over a TCP-based network, such as the
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application
protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia
information systems.HTTP is the foundation of data
communication for the World Wide Web.
Internet message access protocol (IMAP) is a
protocol for e-mail retrieval.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a protocol for live
interactive Internet text messaging (chat) or
synchronous conferencing.
Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) defines a
standardized packet format for delivering audio and
video over IP networks
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the
oldest distance-vector routing protocols, which
employs the hop count as a routing metric. RIP
prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on
the number of hops allowed in a path from the
source to a destination. The maximum number of
hops allowed for RIP is 15. This hop limit, however,
also limits the size of networks that RIP can support.

A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance,

in other words the route is considered unreachable.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet
standard for electronic mail (e-mail) transmission
across Internet Protocol (IP) networks.
Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network
protocol for secure data communication, remote
command-line login, remote command execution,
and other secure network services between two
networked computers that connects, via a secure
channel over an insecure network, a server and a
client (running SSH server and SSH client programs,
Telnet is a network protocol used on the Internet or
local area networks to provide a bidirectional
interactive text-oriented communication facility using
a virtual terminal connection. User data is
interspersed in-band with Telnet control information
in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the
core protocols of the Internet protocol suite (IP), and
is so common that the entire suite is often called
TCP/IP. TCP provides reliable, ordered, error-checked
delivery of a stream of octets between programs
running on computers connected to a local area

network, intranet or the public Internet. It resides at

the transport layer.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core
members of the Internet protocol suite (the set of
network protocols used for the Internet). With UDP,
computer applications can send messages, in this
case referred to as datagrams, to other hosts on an
Internet Protocol (IP) network without prior
communications to set up special transmission
channels or data paths.
Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications
protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying
datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing
function enables internetworking, and essentially
establishes the Internet.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of
the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. It is
used by network devices, like routers, to send error
messages indicating, for example, that a requested
service is not available or that a host or router could
not be reached.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a
telecommunications protocol used for resolution of
network layer addresses into link layer addresses, a
critical function in multiple-access networks. ARP was
defined by RFC 826 in 1982.[1] It is Internet Standard

STD 37. It is also the name of the program for

manipulating these address
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link protocol
commonly used in establishing a direct connection
between two networking nodes. It can provide
connection authentication, transmission encryption
(using ECP, RFC 1968), and compression.
Network Address Translation (NAT) is designed for IP
address conservation. It enables private IP nletworks
that use unregistered IP addresses to connect to the
Internet. NAT operates on a router, usually
connecting two networks together, and translates the
private (not globally unique) addresses in the internal
network into legal addresses, before packets are
forwarded to another network.
Protocol data unit (PDU) has the following meanings:
Information that is delivered as a unit among peer
entities of a network and that may contain control
information, such as address information, or user data.
In a layered system, a unit of data which is specified in a
protocol of a given layer and which consists of protocolcontrol information and possibly user data of that layer
Protocol Data Unit (PDU)
The Layer 1 (Physical Layer) PDU is the bit or, more
generally, symbol (can also be seen as "stream")

The Layer 2 (Data Link Layer) PDU is the frame

The Layer 3 (Network Layer) PDU is the packet
The Layer 4 (Transport Layer) PDU is the segment for TCP,
or the datagram for UDP

Characteristics of transport layer protocols

TCP and UDP port numbers are used by application layer
TCP uses windowing and sequencing to provide reliable
transfer of data.
TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. UDP is a
connectionless protocol.

Description of a router memory type and its contents

ROM is nonvolatile and contains basic diagnostic
RAM is volatile and stores the IP routing table.