LESSON 5 ACTION RESEARCH & OD ACTION RESEARCH: A PROCESS & AN APPROACH  IF ACTION RESEARCH IS A PROCESS, IT CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES: o STATE

THE DESIRED STATE [GOAL] o STUDY THE EXISTING STATE o DECIDE UPON THE COURSE OF ACTION TO ADDRESS THE GAPS o IMPLEMENT THE ACTION o EVALUATE THE RESULTS  ACTION RESEARCH CAN ALSO BE DESCRIBED AS AN APPROACH TOWARDS PROBLEM –SOLVING, FOR THE SAME PROCESS ACTIVITIES ARE FOLLOWED  IT IS APPLIED EXTENSIVELY IN OD WORK

LESSON 6 AN OVERVIEW OF OD INTERVENTIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TERM OD INTERVENTIONS:  IT IS A SET OF STRUCTURED ACTIVITIES  IMPROVES THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ORGANIZATION & EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT  AN OD PRACTITIONER BRINGS THE FOLLOWING ATTRIBUTES TO THE CLIENT’S ORGANIZATION: o SET OF VALUES o SET OF ASSUMPTIONS OF PEOPLE / ORGANIZATION / INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS o SET OF GOALS FOR PRACTITIONER / ORGANIZATION / EMPLOYEES o SET OF STRUCTURED ACTIVITIES, THAT ARE MEANS OF ACHIEVING THE VALUES / ASSUMPTIONS / GOALS. THESE ACTIVITIES ARE CALLED AS INTERVENTIONS  THE FOLLOWING GUIDELINES HELPS THE PRACTITIONER TO STRUCTURE THE INTERVENTION ACTIVITIES: o INCLUDE RELEVANT PEOPLE. PEOPLE AFFECTED BY THE PROBLEM o STRUCTURE THE ACTIVITY, SO THAT IT IS PROBLEMORIENTED. o STRUCTURE THE ACTIVITY SO THAT THE GOAL IS CLEAR, & THE WAY TO REACH THE GOAL IS CLEAR o STRUCTURE THE ACTIVITY TO ENSURE A HIGH PROBABILITY OF SUCCESS. ENSURE THAT CLIENT’S EXPECTATION IS REALISTIC o STRUCTURE THE ACTIVITY SO THAT IT CONTAINS BOTH EXPERIENCE BASED LEARNING, & CONCEPTUAL

LEARNING. EXPERIENCED LEARNING IS REMEMBERED PERMANENTLY o STRUCTURE THE ACTIVITY SO THAT THE INDIVIDUALS ARE FREED UP RATHER THAN ANXIOUS OR DEFENSIVE o STRUCTURE THE ACTIVITY SO THAT INDIVIDUALS LEARN ABOUT THE TASK & PROCESS [HOW TO WORK IN GROUP] o STRUCTURE THE ACTIVITY SO THAT INDIVIDUALS ARE ENGAGED AS WHOLE PERSONS, NOT SEGMENTED PERSONS OUTCOMES OF INTERVENTIONS  AWARENESS OF ONE’S BEHAVIOUR  INCREASED INTERACTIONS & COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS & GROUPS  CONFRONT OBSTACLES THROUGH EFFECTIVE INTERACTIONS  UPGRADE ONE’S KNOWLEDGE / SKILL  CHANGE IN ATTITUDE  INCREASED ACCOUNTABILITY  INCREASED ENERGY & OPTIMISM

LESSON 7 TEAM INTERVENTIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE TEAM:  CLEAR GOAL  INFORMALITY  PARTICIPATION  LISTENING  CIVILIZED DISAGREEMENT  CONSENSUS DECISION MAKING  OPENNESS  CLEAR ROLES & WORK ASSIGNMENTS  SHARED LEADERSHIP  EXTERNAL RELATIONSHIP  STYLE DIVERSITY  SELF-ASSESSMENT [PERIODIC EXAMINATION OF HOW WELL TEAM IS FUNCTIONING]

TEAM BUILDING INTERVENTIONS  PURPOSE o TO IMPROVE & INCREASE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS TEAMS WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION  FOCUS: o FORMAL GROUPS   COMPOSED OF BOSS & SUBORDINATES ALSO CALLED AS INTACT WORK TEAMS

o SPECIAL GROUPS  EXAMPLES: • START UP TEAMS / SPECIAL PROJECT TEAMS / CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS / PARALLEL LEARNING STRUCTURES  IT IS DIRECTED AT FOLLOWING AREAS: o DIAGNOSIS  COLLECTION OF DATA

o TASK ACCOMPLISHMENTS  INCLUDES: PROBLEM-SOLVING / DECISION-MAKING / ROLE CLARIFICATION / GOAL-SETTING / ETC o TEAM RELATIONSHIPS  BUILDING & MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS; INCLUDING BOSSSUBORDINATE & PEER RELATIONSHIPS o TEAM & ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS  UNDERSTANDING & MANAGING GROUP PROCESSES & CULTURE

ROLE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE FOR ROLE CLARIFICATION & DEFINITION ROLE NEGOTIATION TECHNIQUES

 THE MAJOR PLAYERS IN A TEAM BUILDING ARE: CONSULTANT, GROUP LEADER & GROUP MEMBERS. THE FORMAL GROUP DIAGNOSTIC MEETING  PURPOSE IS TO TAKE THE STOCK OF HOW WE ARE DOING; WHERE WE ARE GOING  THE CONSULTANT & THE GROUP LEADER DISCUSS THE IDEA FIRST; & IF GENUINE NEED FOR DIAGNOSTIC MEETING EXISTS, THEN THE IDEA IS PUT TO THE GROUP FOR REACTIONS  THE LEADER ASKS THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS TO THE MEMBERS: o WHAT ARE OUR STRENGTHS? o WHAT PROBLEMS DO WE HAVE THAT WE SHOULD WORK UPON? o HOW WE ARE DOING IN REGARD TO OUR ASSIGNED TASKS? o HOW ARE OUR RELATIONSHIPS WITH EACH OTHER? o WHAT OPPORTUNITIES SHOULD WE BE TAKING ADVANTAGE OF?  AFTER THE DATA IS SHARED THE NEXT STEP IS DISCUSSING THE ISSUES, GROUPING THE ISSUES IN TERMS OF THEMES  THE PRIMARY FOCUS IS TO SURFACE THE ISSUES & PROBLEMS THAT SHOULD BE WORKED ON THE FORMAL TEAM BUILDING MEETING:  ITS GOAL IS TO IMPROVE TEAM’S EFFECTIVENESS, THROUGH BETTER MANAGEMENT OF TASK DEMANDS /RELATIONSHIP DEMANDS / GROUP PROCESSES.

 IT IS IN INWARD LOOK BY THE TEAM AT ITS OWN PERFORMANCE /BEHAVIOUR / CULTURE FOR THE PURPOSE OF ELIMINATING DYSFUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOURS & STRENGTHENING FUNCTIONAL ONES  THE GROUP CRITIQUES ITS PERFORMANCE / ANALYZES ITS WAY OF DOING THINGS / ATTEMPTS TO DEVELOP STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE ITS OPERATION.  THE CONSULTANT INTERVIEWS THE ENTIRE GROUP USING AN OPEN-ENDED APPROACH.  THE CONSULTANT PRESENTS THE INTERVIEW RESULTS IN TERMS OF THEMES.  THE THEMES ARE RANKED BY GROUP IN TERMS OF IMPORTANCE  THE MOST IMPORTANT ONE FORMS THE AGENDA OF THE MEETING  AS IMPORTANT PROBLEMS ARE DISCUSSED, ALTERNATIVES ARE OR ACTION ARE DEVELOPED  TARGET DATES ARE SET IN TERMS OF o AS TO WHO WILL DO WHAT

o AND WHEN  TEAM-BUILDING SESSIONS MAY BE DIRECTED TOWARDS PROBLEM-SOLVING FOR TASK ACCOMPLISHMENTS, EXAMINING & IMPROVING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS OR MANAGING ORGANIZATION’S CULTURE & PROCESSES PROCESS CONSULTATION INTERVENTIONS  PLACES GREATER EMPHASIS ON DIAGNOSING & UNDERSTANDING PROCESS EVENTS  CONSULTANT’S ROLE IS NONDIRECTIVE. HE GETS THE GROUP TO SOLVE THEIR OWN PROBLEMS  INTERVENTION TAKES PLACE IN ONGOING SYSTEM.

 THE CONSULTANT WORKS WITH INDIVIDUAL & GROUPS TO HELP THEM TO LEARN ABOUT HUMAN & SOCIAL PROCESSES & LEARN TO SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT STEM FROM PROCESS EVENTS.

GESTALT APPROACH TO TEAM BUILDING  FOCUSES ON INDIVIDUAL THAN THE GROUP  IT IS BASED ON THE BELIEF THAT PERSONS FUNCTIONS AS WHOLE TOTAL ORGANISMS.  AND EACH PERSON POSSESSES POSITIVE & NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTICS THAT MUST BE OWNED UP TO & PERMITTED EXPRESSION  PEOPLE GET INTO TROUBLE WHEN THEY GET FRAGMENTED, WHEN THEY DO NOT ACCEPT THEIR TOTAL SELVES & WHEN THEY ARE TRYING TO LIVE UPTO THE DEMANDS OF OTHERS RATHER THAN BEING THEMSELVES  THE GOALS OF GESTALT THERAPY ARE: o AWARENESS / INTEGRATION / MATURATION / AUTHENTICITY / SELF-REGULATION / BEHAVIOUR CHANGE  BASICALLY ONE MUST COME TO TERMS WITH ONESELF, MUST ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR ONE’S ACTIONS, MUST EXPERIENCE & LIVE IN THE “HERE & NOW” & MUST STOP BLOCKING OFF AWARENESS, AUTHENTICITY & THE LIKE BY DYSFUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOURS  IT CAN BE APPLIED TO BOSS-SUBORDINATE RELATIONS & TEAM BUILDING.  THE PRIMARY THRUST IS TO MAKE THE INDIVIDUAL STRONGER, MORE AUTHENTIC, & MORE IN TOUCH WITH THE INDIVIDUAL’S FEELINGS BUILDING A BETTER TEAM. THE INDIVIDUAL MUST RECOGNISE, DEVELOP, & EXPERIENCE HIS POTENCY & ABILITY

TO COPE WITH HIS ORGANIZATIONAL WORLD WHATEVER ITS PRESENT CONDITION.  TO DO THIS PEOPLE MUST BE ABLE TO EXPRESS THEIR FEELINGS FULLY BOTH POSITIVE / NEGATIVE  THEY MUST LEARN TO “STAY WITH” TRANSACTIONS WITH OTHERS & WORK THEM THROUGH TO RESOLUTION RATHER THAN SUPPRESSING NEGATIVE FEELINGS OR CUTTING OFF TRANSACTIONS PREMATURELY.  THE GESTALT OD PRACTITIONER OFTEN WORKS WITH GROUP SETTING, BUT THE FOCUS IS USUALLY ON INDIVIDUALS TECHNIQUES & EXERCISES USED IN TEAM BUILDING:  BEFORE USING THESE TECHNIQUES, A CAREFUL DIAGNOSIS SHOULD BE MADE TO ENSURE THAT THE TECHNIQUE IS APPROPRIATE  TEAM-BUILDING SESSIONS INCLUDES MANY OF THESE TECHNIQUES & EXERCISES  THE TECHNIQUES ARE: o ROLE ANALYSIS o ROLE NEGOTIATION THE APPRECIATIONS & CONCERNS EXERCISE:  THIS EXERCISE IS APPROPRIATE IN CASE OF DEFICIENCY WHICH CAN BE LACK OF o EXPRESSION OF APPRECIATION OR o AVOIDANCE OF CONFRONTING CONCERNS & IRRITATIONS  IT IS CONDUCTED AS FOLLOWS:  THE FACILITATOR ASK EACH MEMBER OF THE GROUP TO JOT DOWN 1 TO 3 APPRECIATIONS FOR EACH MEMBER OF THE GROUP

 EACH MEMBER IS ALSO ASKED TO WRITE 1 TO 3 MINOR IRRITATIONS OR CONCERNS RELATIVE TO EACH PERSON THAT MAY BE INTERFERING WITH COMMUNICATIONS GETTING THE WORK DONE EFFECTIVELY & SO ON. EACH GROUP MEMBER MENTIONS BOTH THE APPRECIATIONS & CONCERNS ABOUT THE VOLUNTEER, WHO HEARS FROM ALL THE GROUP MEMBERS. THE VOLUNTEER CAN ONLY SEEK CLARIFICATION, & NOT CHALLENGE

RESPONSIBILITY CHARTING:  IT HELPS TO CLARIFY WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR WHAT ON VARIOUS DECISIONS & ACTIONS.  AN EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUE FOR IMPROVING TEAM FUNCTIONING  IT CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING STEPS: o LIST THE ACTIVITIES TO BE PERFORMED o AGAINST EACH ACTIVITY, WRITE THE NAME OF THE PERSON WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR CARRYING OUT THAT ACTIVITY o IF ANY ACTIVITY HAS TO BE REVIEWED, STATE THE NAME OF THE PERSON WHO HAS THE AUTHORITY TO REVIEW IT. THE VETO RIGHT SHOULD NOT BE WITH MANY PEOPLE. NOR IT SHOULD IT VESTED WITH ONLY ONE PERSON; OTHERWISE THAT PERSON CAN BECOME A BOTTLENECK o IF ANY ACTIVITY NEEDS SUPPORT IN TERMS OF LOGISTICS OR RESOURCE, STATE THE NAME OF THE PERSON WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PROVIDING SUPPORT o IF ANY ACTIVITY AFTER ITS PERFORMANCE, HAS TO BE KEPT POSTED TO ANY INDIVIDUAL, SUCH INDIVIDUAL’S NAME SHOULD BE STATED AGAINST THAT ACTIVITY

 EACH ACTIVITY IS DISCUSSED, & RESPONSIBILITY IS ASSIGNED  IT IS AN INTERVENTION TO IMPROVE THE TASK PERFORMANCE OF A WORK TEAM

VISIONING:  AN INTERVENTION IN WHICH GROUP MEMBERS IN ONE OR MORE ORGANIZATIONAL GROUPS DEVELOP & OR DESCRIBE THEIR VISION OF WHAT THEY WANT THE ORGANIZATION TO BE LIKE IN FUTURE.  THE TIME FRAME MAY BE ANYWHERE FROM SIX MONTHS TO FIVE YEARS IN THE FUTURE CONSTRUCTIVE INTERVENTIONS  THE TEAM INTERVENTIONS CAN BE HIGHLY REWARDING FOR PARTICIPANTS, BUT THE DYNAMICS MUST BE ADDRESSED WITH EMPATHY & SKILL.  THE FOLLOWING STEPS ARE INVOLVED IN MAKING THE INTERVENTION CONSTRUCTIVE: o THE FORMAL LEADER NEEDS TO BE INFORMED OF THE NATURE OF INTERVENTION. THE LEADER SHOULD BE COMMITTED TO THE PROCESS THEREAFTER o THE TEAM SHOULD BE PROVIDED TRAINING IN EFFECTIVE GROUP SKILLS o TEAM MEMBERS NEED SOME PRACTICE & COACHING IN GIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK, & IN DEALING WITH A RANGE OF FEELINGS INCLUDING DEFENSIVE ONES, & IN PROCESSING CONFLICTS

o THE FACILITATOR NEEDS COUNSELLING & LISTENING SKILLS OF A HIGH ORDER o THE LEADER NEEDS SOME COACHING TO ASSURE NO PUNITIVE OR RETALIATORY BEHAVIOUR WILL BE THE CONSEQUENCE OF THIS EXERCISE

LESSON 10 INTER-GROUP & THIRD PARTY PEACEMAKING INTERVENTIONS INTER-GROUP TEAM BUILDING INTERVENTIONS  THE FOCUS IS ON IMPROVING INTER-GROUP RELATIONS  THE GOALS OF THESE ACTIVITIES ARE TO INCREASE COMMUNICATIONS & INTERACTIONS BETWEEN WORK-RELATED GROUPS TO REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF DYSFUNCTIONAL COMPETITION & TO REPLACE A PAROCHIAL INDEPENDENT POINT OF VIEW WITH AN AWARENESS OF THE NECESSITY FOR INTERDEPENDENCE OF ACTION CALLING ON THE BEST EFFORTS OF BOTH GROUPS  THE STEPS IN THIS INTERVENTION ARE AS FOLLOWS: o THE LEADERS OF THE TWO GROUPS [OR THE TOTAL MEMBERSHIP] MEET THE CONSULTANT & ARE ASKED IF THEY THINK THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO GROUPS CAN BE BETTER & ARE ASKED IF THEY ARE WILLING TO SEARCH FOR MECHANISM OR PROCEDURES THAT MAY IMPROVE INTER-GROUP RELATIONS. ALL ASKED TO COMMIT THEMSELVES TO AT THAT TIME o THE TWO GROUPS MEET IN SEPARATE ROOMS & BUILD TWO LISTS.

IN ONE LIST THEY GIVE THEIR THOUGHTS, ATTITUDES, FEELINGS & PERCEPTIONS OF THE OTHER GROUP. IN THE SECOND LIST THE GROUP TRIES TO PREDICT WHAT THE OTHER GROUP IS SAYING ABOUT THEM IN ITS LIST.

 THE TWO GROUPS COME TOGETHER TO SHARE WITH EACH OTHER THE INFORMATION ON THE LISTS. NO DISCUSSIONS ARE ALLOWED; ONLY CLARIFICATION CAN BE SOUGHT  THE TWO GROUPS RETURN TO THEIR SEPARATE MEETING PLACES & DO THE FOLLOWING: o THE MEMBERS REACT & DISCUSS WHAT THEY HAVE LEARNED ABOUT THEMSELVES & THE OTHER GROUP o IT TYPICALLY HAPPENS THAT MANY AREAS OF DISAGREEMENT & FRICTION ARE DISCOVERED TO REST ON MISPERCEPTIONS & MISCOMMUNICATION. THESE ISSUES ARE READILY RESOLVED BY SHARING INFORMATION. THE PROBLEMS BETWEEN THEM ARE SEEN TO BE FEWER THAN IMAGINED o THE GROUP IS THEN ASKED TO MAKE A LIST OF THE PRIORITY ISSUES THAT STILL NEED TO BE RESOLVED BETWEEN THE TWO GROUPS. THE LIST IS GENERALLY MUCH SMALLER THAN THE ORIGINAL LIST. o THE TWO GROUPS COME BACK TOGETHER & SHARE LISTS WITH EACH OTHER. AFTER COMPARING THEIR LISTS, THEY MAKE ONE LIST CONTAINING THE ISSUES & PROBLEMS THAT SHOULD BE RESOLVED. THEY SET PRIORITIES ON THE ITEMS IN TERMS OF IMPORTANCE & IMMEDIACY. TOGETHER THEY GENERATE ACTION STEPS FOR RESOLVING THE ISSUES & ASSIGN RESPONSIBILITIES FOR THE ACTIONS. THAT CONCLUDES THE INTERVENTION

o AS A FOLLOW UPTO THE INTERGROUP TEAM BUILDING ACTIVITY A MEETING OF THE TWO GROUPS OR THEIR LEADERS IS DESIRABLE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE ACTION STEPS HAVE IN FACT OCCURRED & TO ASSESS HOW THE GROUPS ARE DOING ON THEIR ACTION PLANS

THIRD-PARTY PEACEMAKING INTERVENTIONS  SHOULD BE UNDERTAKEN ONLY BY PROFESSIONALS  USED WHEN TWO PERSONS ARE IN CONFLICT.  THE THIRD PARTY SHOULD HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO CONTROL / CONTAIN THE CONFLICT OR RESOLVE IT.  A BASIC FEATURE IS CONFRONTATION OF THE CONFLICT.  THERE ARE FOUR BASIC ELEMENTS IN INTERPERSONAL CONFLICTS: o THE CONFLICT ISSUE o THE PRECIPITATING CIRCUMSTANCES o THE CONFLICT-RELEVANT ACTS OF THE PRINCIPALS. o CONSEQUENCES OF CONFLICT  FOR ACCURATE DIAGNOSIS, IT IS ESSENTIAL TO KNOW THE SOURCE OF CONFLICTS.  CONFLICTS COULD BE o SUBSTANTIVE  DISAGREEMENTS OVER POLICIES / PRACTICES / COMPETITIVE BIDS OVER THE SAME RESOURCES /DIFFERING CONCEPTIONS OF ROLES 7 ROLE RELATIONSHIPS

REQUIRES PROBLEM-SOLVING & BARGAINING BEHAVIOURS BETWEEN THE PRINCIPALS

o EMOTIONAL  INVOLVES NEGATIVE FEELING BETWEEN THE PARTIES  REQUIRES RESTRUCTURING PERCEPTIONS & WORKING THROUGH NEGATIVE FEELINGS  THE TACTIC CONSISTS OF STRUCTURING CONFRONTATION & DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE PRINCIPALS.  THE INGREDIENTS OF PRODUCTIVE CONFRONTATION ARE AS FOLLOWS: o BOTH PARTIES SHOULD BE WILLING TO RESOLVE THE DISPUTES o THERE SHOULD BE POWER PARITY BETWEEN BOTH THE PARTIES o INITIATIVE & READINESS TO CONFRONT SHOULD OCCUR IN CONCERT BETWEEN THE TWO PARTIES o TIME MUST BE ALLOWED FOR WORKING THROUGH NEGATIVE FEELINGS & CLARIFICATION OF POSITIVE FEELINGS o CONDITIONS SUPPORTING OPENNESS o MAKE CERTAIN EACH CAN UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER. o THERE SHOULD BE MODERATE STRESS ON THE PARTIES.  MEETINGS SHOULD BE SET ON NEUTRAL TURF  ALL INTERVENTION SHOULD BE TIME BOUND  THE STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED IN TWO-PERSON CONFLICT MANAGEMENT SESSIONS: o THE POSITIVES

WRITE DOWN WHAT WOULD YOU LIKE YOUR RELATIONSHIP TO BE; &THE POSITIVE ATTRIBUTES OF THE OTHER PERSON SHARE QUESTIONS OF CLARIFICATION. FOCUS ON UNDERSTANDING

o SHARING OF PAIN /RESENTMENTS  BEHAVIOUR OF THE OTHER PERSON OVER LAST 12 MONTHS, THAT CAUSES YOU PAIN / HURT / ANGER /EMBARRASSMENT / RESENTMENT  SEEK CLARIFICATION. ASK FOR SPECIFIC INCIDENTS, & THEN DISCUSS o CONTRACTING  IT WOULD CONTRIBUTE TO MY EFFECTIVENESS • • • o SHARE  NEXT ACTION STEPS IF YOU DID THE FOLLOWING THINGS MORE OR BETTER IF YOU DID THE FOLLOWING THINGS LESS OR STOPPED FROM DOING THEM IF YOU CONTINUED DOING THE FOLLOWING THINGS

METHOD OF NEGOTIATION:  ALSO CALLED PRINCIPLED NEGOTIATION  FOLLOWING ARE THE METHODS: o PEOPLE  SEPARATE PEOPLE FROM THE PROBLEM

o INTEREST  FOCUS ON INTEREST, & NOT ON POSITIONS

o OPTIONS

GENERATE A VARIETY OF POSSIBILITIES BEFORE DECIDING WHAT TO DO

o CRITERIA  INSIST THAT THE RESULT SHOULD BE BASED ON SOME OBJECTIVE STANDARD ORGANIZATION MIRROR INTERVENTIONS  IT IS A SET OF ACTIVITIES IN WHICH THE HOST GROUP, GETS FEEDBACK FROM REPRESENTATIVES FROM SEVERAL OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL GROUPS, ABOUT HOW IT IS PERCEIVED & REGARDED  AIMED AT IMPROVING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GROUPS, & INCREASE THE INTERGROUP WORK EFFECTIVENESS  PROVIDES FEEDBACK EFFECTIVELY  IT SHOULD BE FOLLOWED BY ACTION PLAN PARTNERING  USED WHEN CONFLICT EXISTS BETWEEN TWO OR MORE ORGANIZATIONS  INVOLVE THOSE MEMBERS, WHO HAVE A POSITIVE DISPOSITION IN LIFE.  THE HELP OF OD PRACTITIONER CAN BE TAKEN

LESSON 11 COMPREHENSIVE OD INTERVENTIONS 12TH September CHARACTERISTICS:  TOTAL ORGANIZATION IS INVOLVED.  CULTURAL CHANGE IS ADDRESSED  INTERVENTIONS ARE OF FOLLOWING TYPES: o GETTING THE WHOLE SYSTEM IN THE ROOM  IF WE GET ALL OF THE PEOPLE WITH CRUCIAL INTERDEPENDENCIES TOGETHER TO WORK ON MATTERS OF MUTUAL CONCERN, GOOD THINGS CAN HAPPEN  THE SAME PRINCIPLE CAN BE APPLIED IF THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT IS NOT IN ALIGNMENT WITH EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT o SEARCH CONFERENCES & FUTURE SEARCH CONFERENCES  HAS THE THREE PHASES: • ENVIRONMENTAL APPRECIATION o CHANGES THAT ARE TAKING PLACE IN THE WORLD AROUND US o DESIRABLE & PROBABLE FUTURE

SYSTEM ANALYSIS o HISTORY OF THE SYSTEM o ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT SYSTEM o DESIRABLE FUTURE FOR THE SYSTEM

INTEGRATION OF SYSTEM & ENVIRONMENT o DEALING WITH CONSTRAINTS o STRATEGIES & ACTION PLANS

LESSON 12: STRUCTURAL INTERVENTIONS:  AIMED AT IMPROVING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH CHANGES IN THE TASK, STRUCTURAL, TECHNOLOGICAL & GOAL PROCESSES IN THE ORGANIZATION  THE FOLLOWING ARE THE STRUCTURAL INTERVENTIONS: o SOCIO-TECHNICAL SYSTEMS [STS]  HAS TWO PREMISES: 1. EFFECTIVE WORK SYSTEMS MUST JOINTLY OPTIMIZE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEIR SOCIAL & TECHNICAL PARTS o SELF MANAGED TEAMS [SMT]  CREATION OF SMT INVOLVES: • PROVIDING TEAMS WITH GROUPING OF TASKS THAT COMPRISES A MAJOR UNIT OF THE TOTAL WORK TO BE PERFORMED o WORK REDESIGN  MOTIVATION & PERFORMANCE CAN BE ENHANCE THROUGH REDESIGNING JOBS TO HEIGHTEN SKILL

VARIETY, TASK IDENTITY, TASK SIGNIFICANCE, AUTONOMY, & FEEDBACK FROM THE JOB o MBO APPRAISAL  OBJECTIVES OR TARGETS SHOULD BE STATED IN QUANTITATIVE TERMS WHENEVER IT IS POSSIBLE.  GOAL SETTING & APPRAISAL SHOULD BE ONE-TO-ON o QUALITY CIRCLES  IT IS PARTICIPATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING AT THE SHOP FLOOR LEVEL.  TRAINING IS PROVIDED IN MEASURING TECHNIQUES / GROUP DYNAMICS / TEAM LEADERSHIP / INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION o QUALITY OF WORK LIFE PROJECTS  IT IS RE-STRUCTURING OF SEVERAL DIMENSIONS OF THE ORGANIZATION  PARTICIPATION & INVOLVEMENT OF EMPLOYEES IN THEIR DAY TO DAY ACTIVITIES   TRAIN EMPLOYEES IN PROBLEM-SOLVING ENCOURAGE SKILL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH JOB ROTATION o PARALLEL LEARNING STRUCTURES • ORGANIZATIONS ESTABLISHED WITHIN ONGOING ORGANIZATIONS o PHYSICAL SETTINGS  o TQM  INCLUDES: • A HIGH EMPHASIS ON CUSTOMERS, INCLUDING INTERNAL CUSTOMERS MAKING PHYSICAL SETTINGS CONGRUENT WITH OD ASSUMPTIONS & OD PROCESS

AN EMPHASIS ON TEAMS TEAMWORK, & CONTINUOUS TRAINING

o RE-ENGINEERING  NON CORE ACTIVITIES ARE ELIMINATED OR OUTSOURCED o THE SELF-DESIGN STRATEGY  THE ORGANIZATION SHOULD BUILT-IN CAPACITY TO TRANSFORM THEMSELVES TO ACHIEVE HIGH PERFORMANCE IN TODAY’S COMPETITIVE & CHANGING ENVIRONMENT  CONSISTS OF: • • • • EDUCATION CLARIFICATION OF THE VALUES DIAGNOSING OF THE CURRENT STATE OF ORGANIZATION USING VALUES CHANGES ARE THEN DESIGNED & IMPLEMENTED IN AN ATTRACTIVE MANNER o HIGH-INVOLVEMENT & HIGH PERFORMANCE WORK SYSTEMS  THE FEATURES ARE: • • • • • • DECENTRALIZATION OF DECISION MAKING USE OF SELF-MANAGEMENT-TEAM LINK REWARD TO INDIVIDUAL & TEAM PERFORMANCE WIDELY SHARED INFORMATION PARTICIPATIVE & SHARED LEADERSHIP EXTENSIVE TRAINING

o LARGE SCALE SYSTEMS CHANGE, & ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSFORMATION

REQUIRES MULTIPLICITY OF INTERVENTIONS, OVER AN EXTENDED TIME FRAME INCLUDES: • • • • • • • RE-CONCEPTUALIZING THE NATURE OF BUSINESS USE OF PARALLEL LEARNING STRUCTURE REDUCTION IN HIERARCHICAL LEVELS TEAM BUILDING & DEVELOPMENT, INCLUDING THE USE OF CROSS FUNCTIONAL TEAMS SURVEY FEEDBACK EXTENSIVE USE OF TASK FORCES INTENSIVE LEADERSHIP TRAINING

LESSON 13 ISSUES IN CONSULTANT –CLIENT RELATIONSHIPS THE FOLLOWING ISSUES SHOULD BE AVOIDED IN THE RELATIONSHIP:  ENTRY CONTRACTING o THE CLIENT ASKS FOR HELP; & THE CONSULTANT VOLUNTEERS o AGREEMENT IS MADE IN WRITING. o TERMS & CONDITIONS INCLUDING PROFESSIONALS ARE FINALIZED  DEFINING THE CLIENT SYSTEM o THE CLIENT COULD BE:    TRUST THE CEO THE HR HEAD

o A GOOD DEAL ON INTERACTIONS TAKES PLACE BETWEEN THE CLIENT & THE CONSULTANT TAKES PLACE. IN THE PROCESS TRUST GETS BUILT IN o CONFIDENTIALITY HAS TO BE MADE, IF TRUST IS TO BE MAINTAINED  THE NATURE OF CONSULTANTANT’S EXPERTISE o THE CONSULTANT SHOULD BE AN EXPERT IN THE SENSE OF BEING COMPETENT TO PRESENT A RANGE OF OPTIONS OPEN TO THE CLIENT o OD CONSULTANT SHOULD NOT PLAY THE ROLE OF AN EXPERT FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS: 1. THE OBJECTIVE OF AN OD EFFORT IS TO HELP THE CLIENT SYSTEM TO DEVELOP ITS OWN RESOURCES. THE EXPERT ROLE WILL CREATE DEPENDENCY, & DOES NOT CREATE INTERNAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT 2. IN THE EXPERT ROLE, THE OD CONSULTANT WILL HAVE TO DEFEND HIS RECOMMENDATIONS. IN THE EXPERT’S ROLE, THE OD CONSULTANT WILL STOP EXPLORING THE PROBLEM, & START GIVING SOLUTIONS 3. AN EXPERT’S ROLE CREATES MISTRUST AMONG THE EMPLOYEES. INSTEAD OF THE EMPLOYEES COMING OUT WITH A SOLUTION TO THEIR PROBLEMS, THE OD CONSULTANT STARTS PROVIDING THE SOLUTION 4. IF THE OD CONSULTANT PLAYS THE ROLE OF EXPERT, THEN THE EXPECT THE CLIENT WILL EXPECT MORE & MORE SUBSTANTIVE RECOMMENDATIONS, THUS NEGATING THE OD CONSULTANT’S CENTRAL MISSION WHICH IS TO HELP WITH PROCESS o THE OD CONSULTANT SHOULD ACT AS AN EXPERT ON THE PROCESS USED, & NOT ON THE TASK

 DIAGNOSIS & APPROPRIATE INTERVENTIONS o THE OD CONSULTANT SHOULD AVOID THE TEMPTATION TO APPLY THE INTERVENTION TECHNIQUE HE LIKES & THAT HAS PRODUCED RESULTS IN THE PAST. THEREBY COMPROMISE ON CAREFUL DIAGNOSIS. THE INTERVENTIONS SHOULD BE APPROPRIATE TO THE DIAGNOSIS, WHICH REQUIRES INTENSIVE LOOK AT THE DATA  DEPTH OF INTERVENTIONS: o THERE ARE TWO CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING THE APPROPRIATE DEPTH OF INTERVENTIONS:  INTERVENTION SHOULD BE TO THE LEVEL NO DEEPER THAN THAT REQUIRED TO PRODUCE ENDURING SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS AT HAND  TO INTERVENE AT A LEVEL NO DEEPER THAN THAT AT WHICH THE ENERGY & RESOURCES OF THE CLIENT CAN BE COMMITTED TO PROBLEM SOLVING & TO CHANGE  ON BEING ABSORBED BY THE CULTURE o THE OD CONSULTANT SHOULD NOT GET SEDUCED INTO JOINING THE CULTURE OF THE CLIENT ORGANIZATION  THE CONSULTANT AS A MODEL o THE OD CONSULTANT SHOULD PRACTICE WHAT HE PREACHES  THE CONSULTANT TEAM AS A MICROCOSM o THE CONSULTANTS WORKING AS A TEAM CAN PROBABLY BE VIEWED AS A MICROCOSM OF THE ORGANIZATION THEY ARE TRYING TO CREATE  ACTION RESEARCH & THE OD PROCESS

o THE VIABILITY OF OD EFFORTS & EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CONSULTANTS MAY BE AT STAKE, UNLESS FEEDBACK LOOPS RELATE TO VARIOUS INTERVENTIONS & STAGES IN THE OD PROCESS, THE CHANGE AGENTS & THE ORGANIZATIONS WILL NOT LEARN HOW TO MAKE THE FUTURE OD INTERVENTIONS MORE EFFECTIVE  CLIENT DEPENDENCY & TERMINATING THE RELATIONSHIP o THE CONSULTANT SHOULD ASSIST THE CLIENT TO INTERNALIZE SKILLS & INSIGHTS RATHER THAN CREATING A PROLONGED DEPENDENCY RELATIONSHIP  ETHICAL STANDARDS IN OD o THE FOLLOWING WILL BE THE UNETHICAL ACTS OF AN OD CONSULTANTS      MISREPRESENTATION & COLLUSION MISUSE OF DATA MANIPULATION & COERCION VALUE & GOAL CONFLICTS TECHNICAL INEPTNESS

LESSON 14 SYSTEM RAMIFICATIONS: HR, LEADERSHIP & INVOLVEMENT,  OD EFFORTS & HR POLICIES & PRACTICES ARE INTERDEPENDENT  OD EFFORTS HAVE IMPLICATIONS FOR STAFFING, REWARDS, TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT, INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, & OTHER BROAD HR PROCESSES RESISTANCE TO CHANGE EFFORTS:

 WHENEVER EMPLOYEES PERCEIVE POSSIBILITY OF LOSS OF POSITION OR STATUS, INEQUITABLE TREATMENT OR LOSS OF USE PRESENT COMPETENCIES OR THEY HAVE EXPERIENCED DUPLICITY OR FUTILE EXTRA WORK IN PAST CHANGE EFFORTS, RESISTANCE IS LIKELY TO EMERGE.  THE MANAGEMENT SHOULD REASSURE PEOPLE AS CLEARLY AS POSSIBLE ABOUT THOSE AREAS THAT PRESENT NO NEED FOR CONCERN & THOSE AREAS LIKELY TO SEE BENEFITS, ALONG WITH ESTABLISHING REALISTIC EXPECTATIONS ABOUT PAINS & CHALLENGES THAT WILL OCCUR LEADERSHIP & LEADERSHIP STYLES:  BOTH EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT ARE ESSENTIAL IF ORGANIZATIONS ARE TO BE SUCCESSFUL FOR THE LONG TERM. THE LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR IS CRUCIAL TO MAINTAINING THE MOMENTUM OF A CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT EFFORT.

TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT OF CONSULTATION SKILLS  TRAINING IS ESSENTIAL TO DEVELOP COMPETENCIES FOR THE NEW ASSIGNMENTS PRECIPITATED BY MAJOR ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE. REWARDS  ORGANIZATION IMPROVEMENT PROCESS THAT DEPEND UPON THE COOPERATION, TEAMWORK, CREATIVITY & INTENSIFIED EFFORT OF ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERS; THE ORGANIZATION MUST PAY ATTENTION TO THE ALLOCATION OF REWARDS IF THE PROCESS IS TO BE SUSTAINED & IF DYSFUNCTIONAL CONSEQUENCES ARE TO BE MINIMIZED

CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK  EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE TAUGHT TO GIVE & RECEIVE FEEDBACK, WHICH IS CONSTRUCTIVE  FOLLOWING ARE THE GUIDELINES FOR GIVING FEEDBACK: o IT SHOULD BE SOLICITED o IT SHOULD BE IMMEDIATE o IT SHOULD BE SPECIFIC o IT SHOULD BE NON-JUDGMENTAL STAFFING & CAREER DEVELOPMENT  AN OD PROCESS CARRIES IMPLICATIONS FOR: o SELECTION  INVOLVE IN SELECTION, BOTH THE TEAM LEADER & TEAM MEMBERS o ORIENTATION & ASSIMILATION  INTRODUCE THE NEW EMPLOYEE INTO THE NEW CULTURE.  ADDRESS THE ANXIETY o CAREER DEVELOPMENT & PROGRESSION  CAREER DEVELOPMENT IS ESSENTIAL, FOR THE EMPLOYEES SHOULD ALSO SEE THEIR OWN GROWTH ALONG WITH THE GROWTH OF THE ORGANIZATION  THE ORGANIZATION SHOULD BELIEVE IN INTERNAL RECRUITMENT FOR ALL ITS SENIOR POSITION o SEPARATION:  OD PROCESS SHOULD TEMPER THE IMPACT OF DOWNSIZING o CRISES:

OD INTERVENTIONS CAN ALSO ASSIST ORGANIZATION MEMBERS BY BECOMING SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE IN DEALING WITH CRISES LIKE FLOOD, EARTHQUAKE, DEATH OF ANY MEMBER

o ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE  A SHIFT IN TEAM & ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE TOWARD MORE OPENNESS & TOWARD MORE OPENNESS & TOWARD MORE MUTUAL CONCERN SHOULD, IN LARGE PART, FACILITATE THE AIRING OF FELT INJUSTICES  ESTABLISH PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING COMPLAINTS & GRIEVANCES, PROTECTION AGAINST PUNITIVE ACTION. o LABOUR RELATIONS  IN UNIONISED SETTING, THE RELATIONSHIP SHOULD BE TOWARDS PROBLEM-SOLVING, MUTUAL-REWARD KIND OF BARGAINING RELATIONSHIP  PRODUCTIVITY BARGAINING & AGREEMENTS UNDER QUALITY OF WORK LIFE [QWL] PROGRAMS ARE TWO FORMS OF INTEGRATIVE BARGAINING.

MONETARY COSTS & SKILL DEMANDS  FOR AN OD EFFORT TO BE SUCCESSFUL, THE TOP MANAGEMENT SHOULD BE COMMITTED  THEY SHOULD BE AWARE & REALIZE THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOTAL ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES & THE SOCIAL SYSTEM IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS, & WORTHY OF AN ONGOING INVESTMENT  THE NEW CULTURE IS LIKELY TO INCLUDE A COMMITMENT TO EXAMINE ALL OF THE FORCES BEARING ON A PROBLEM OR

CHALLENGE INCLUDING ONE’S OWN IMPACT. THUS, WHILE THE NEW CULTURE MAY BE, USUALLY IS, MORE EXCITING & REWARDING, IT IS LIKELY TO BE MORE DIFFICULT & CHALLENGING WELL

LESSON 15 POWER, POLITICS, & OD THE ROLE OF POWER & POLITICS IN THE PRACTICE OF OD:  OD ADDRESSES ISSUES OF POWER & POLITICS BY PROPOSING THAT COLLABORATION, COOPERATION & JOINT PROBLEMSOLVING ARE BETTER WAYS TO GET THINGS DONE IN ORGANIZATIONS THAN RELYING SOLELY ON BARGAINING & POLITICS

 OD REPRESENTS AN APPROACH & METHOD TO ENABLE AN ORGANIZATION MEMBERS TO GO BEYOND THE NEGATIVE FACE OF POWER &POLITICS ACQUIRING & USING POWER SKILL  THE OD PRACTITIONER SHOULD USE OD VALUES & METHODS TO SHOW POWER HOLDERS BETTER WAYS TO WIELD POWER FOR THE GOOD OF THE ENTIRE ORGANIZATION  THE TABLE BELOW SHOWS THREE MOST POWERFUL STRATEGIES & HOW THEY RELATE TO INDIVIDUAL’S POWER BASES
INDIVIDUAL POWER BASES KNOWLEDGE: 1. EXPERTISE 2. INFORMATION 3. TRADITION OTHER’S SUPPORT 1. POLITICAL ACCESS 2. STAFF SUPPORT PERSONALITY 1. CHARISMA 2. REPUTATION 3. PROFESSIONAL CREDIBILITY STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS PLAYING IT STRAIGHT 1. USE DATA TO CONVINCE 2. FOCUS ON TARGET GROUP 3. BE PERSISTENT USING SOCIAL NETWORKS 1. ALLIANCES & COALITIONS 2. DEAL WITH DECISION MAKER 3. CONTACTS FOR INFORMATION GOING AROUND FORMAL SYSTEM 1. WORK AROUND ROADBLOCKS 2. DON’T USE ORGANIZATION RULES

 ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT WAYS OF GAINING POWER IN AN ORGANIZATION IS BY ESTABLISHING A BROAD NETWORK OF TASK & INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP. NETWORK IS CRITICAL TO EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE, FOR NO ONE HAS NECESSARY INFORMATION & RESOURCES TO ACCOMPLISH WHAT’S EXPECTED OF HIM. NETWORKING IS USED TO INCREASE BOTH PERSONAL & POSITION POWER.  POWER IN USE IS CALLED AS INFLUENCE. INFLUENCE MEANS SEEKING CONSENT OF OTHER TO WORK WITH YOU IN ACCOMPLISHING THE OBJECTIVE. AND POWER IS CONVERTED

INTO INFLUENCE WHEN THE TARGET CONSENTS TO BEHAVE ACCORDING TO DESIRES OF THE POWER HOLDER.  THREE INFLUENCE STRATEGIES CAN BE USED TO INFLUENCE OTHERS: o REASON  PERSUASION BY FACTS

o RECIPROCITY  REFERS TO EXCHANGE OF FAVOURS

o RETRIBUTION  REFERS TO COERCION & THREAT

PLANNED CHANGE, POWER, & POLITICS  CHANGE ALWAYS INVOLVES POWER & POLITICS  CHANGE BRINGS INSTABILITY, UPHEAVAL & UNCERTAINTY  CHANGE MEANS NEW PATTERN OF POWER, INFLUENCE & CONTROL, & CONSEQUENTLY HIGH STAKE OFFICE POLITICS.  THAT’S WHY CHANGE IS SO HARD  POWER & POLITICS REACH THEIR HIGHEST PITCH DURING TRANSITION PERIOD. THAT’S WHY MANAGING A TRANSITION IS ONE OF THE BIGGEST CHALLENGES OF LARGE SCALE CHANGE EFFORTS  TRANSITION ALWAYS INVOLVES THREE CHARACTERISTICS: o INSTABILITY  FUTURE IS UNKNOWN

o UNCERTAINTY  NO ONE HAS THE ANSWERS

o STRESS  RESULT OF INSTABILITY & UNCERTAINTY IS STRESS: FOR BOTH LEADERS & FOLLOWERS  THE FOLLOWING ARE THE ACTION PLANS TO FOR MANAGING THE TRANSITION STAGE:

o BUILD THE SUPPORT OF KEY POWER GROUPS o USE THE LEADER BEHAVIOUR TO GENERATE SUPPORT o USE SYMBOLS & LANGUAGES DELIBERATELY o DEFINE POINTS OF STABILITY o CREATE DISSATISFACTION WITH THE CURRENT STATE o BUILD PARTICIPATION IN PLANNING & IMPLEMENTING CHANGE o REWARD BEHAVIOUR IN SUPPORT OF CHANGE o PROVIDE PEOPLE TIME & OPPORTUNITY TO DISENGAGE FROM THE OLD o DEVELOP & COMMUNICATE A CLEAR IMAGE OF THE FUTURE STATE o USE MULTIPLE LEVERAGE POINTS o DEVELOP TRANSITION MANAGEMENT STRUCTURES o COLLECT & ANALYSE FEEDBACK

LESSON 16 THE FUTURE & OD  ENORMOUS OPPORTUNITY & POTENTIAL EXISTS FOR THE OD MOVEMENT IN THE FUTURE  ORGANIZATIONS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD NEED UNIQUE HELP THAT CAN BE PROVIDED BY HIGHLY TRAINED INTERVENTIONS USING PEOPLE-ORIENTED, ACTION RESEARCH APPROACHES

 THE FUTURE OF OD IS BRIGHT, AS LONG AS THE HIGH QUALITY, HARD WORK OF THE PAST CONTINUES, & PROVIDING IT DOES NOT BECOME FASHIONABLE FOR TOP LEADERS TO REVERT TO AUTOCRATIC OR CAPRICIOUS PRACTICES IN TIMES OF HIGH TURBULENCE OR CRISIS.  MUCH CHALLENGING, DIFFICULT WORK REMAINS TO BE DONE, BUT ALSO GREAT FUN & MANY REWARDS IN WORKING WITH PEOPLE IN MAKING THEIR ORGANIZATION MORE SUCCESSFUL & SATISFYING.  OD IS REALLY ABOUT PEOPLE HELPING EACH OTHER TO UNLEASH THE HUMAN SPIRIT & HUMAN CAPABILITY IN THEIR WORKPLACE THE END THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENT LISTENING
STRUCTURAL INTERVENTIONS:   SOCIO-TECHNICALNSYSTEMS / WORK RE-DESIGN / QWL / TQM RE-ENGINERING

COMPREHESIVE INTERVENTION  GRID OD / CONFRONTATION MEETING ORGANIZATION POWER & POLITICS & ITS IMPACT ON OD OD CONSULTANT    CHOOSING THE ODCONSULTANT ROLE OF THE OD CONSULANT COMPETENCIES OF OD CONSULTANT ETHICAL ISSUES

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