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# PROJECTION GEOMETRY

TECHNIQUES
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- Joel

Some material in this presentation is
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use by students in this course and is
not to be further distributed.

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS
1. Image unsharpness
2. Image magnification
3. Image shape distortion

UNSHARPNESS
Fuzzy, unsharp margin of

## Miles DA et al. Radiographic imaging for Dental

Rule #1.
Radiation source should be as small as
possible.

## White SC., Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,

Rule #2.
Source-to-object distance should be as
long as possible.

## White SC., Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,

Rule #3.
Object-to-film distance should be as short
as possible.

White SC., Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, 6th

## MAGNIFICATION (Equal Enlargement)

to actual size of object.
Image shows true shape of object

Rule #1.
Source-to-object distance should be as
long as possible.

## White SC., Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,

Rule #2.
Object-to-film distance should be as short
as possible.

## DISTORTION (Unequal Enlargement)

Variation from true shape of object.
Unequal magnification of parts of object.
Improper alignment of film, object, beam.

Rule #1:
Object and film should be parallel.

## Razmus TF, Williamson GF. Current Oral and Maxillofacial

Rule #2:
Beam should be perpendicular to object
and film.

Foreshortening

## Goaz PW, White SC. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,

Elongation

Goaz PW, White SC. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, 2nd ed.

## 5 RULES FOR ACCURATE IMAGE

FORMATION
1. Focal spot as small as possible.
2. Source-object distance as long as possible.
3. Object-film distance as short as possible.
4. Object parallel to film.
5. Beam perpendicular to object and film.

## Frommer HH. Radiology for Dental Auxiliaries, 4th ed.

1. Proper visual characteristics
2. Minimal geometric characteristics
3. Anatomic accuracy of image
4. Film coverage of anatomic region

ANATOMIC ACCURACY
1. Labial and lingual CEJ of anteriors superimposed
2. Buccal and lingual cusps of posteriors superimposed
3. Contacts of teeth opened.
4. Buccal and lingual aspect of alveolar crest superimposed.
5. No superimposition of zygoma over roots

## Langland OE, Langlais RP, Preece JW. Principles of Dental Imaging,

2nd ed. Copyright 2002, Williams & Wilkins.

FILM COVERAGE
1. Area of interest shown
2. Periapical coverage (2-4 mm)
3. Supplemental views

## 1. Paralleling Technique use long cone

2. Bisecting Angle Technique use long or short cone

PARALLELING TECHNIQUE
1. Film parallel to tooth
increased object-film distance
increased source-film distance
2. Beam perpendicular to tooth/film.

## Razmus TF, Williamson GF. Current Oral and Maxillofacial Imaging.

VERTICAL ANGULATION

HORIZONTAL ANGULATION

ALIGNMENT OF
BEAM AND FILM

## Paralleling technique is the preferred

method.
If the paralleling technique cannot be
used, the bisecting angle technique
may be used.

## BISECTING ANGLE TECHNIQUE

Based on Rule of Isometry:
If two triangles have two equal angles and a
common side, then the two triangles are equal.

Miles DA, Van Dis ML, Razmus TF. Basic Principles of Oral and Maxillofacial

## BISECTING ANGLE TECHNIQUE

The angle formed by plane of tooth and
plane of film is bisected, and the beam is
directed perpendicular to the bisecting line.

## White SC., Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,

FORESHORTENING
Tooth not parallel to film, and beam
directed perpendicular to film.

ELONGATION
Tooth not parallel to film, and beam
directed perpendicular to tooth.

Improper horizontal
angulation results in
overlapping of contacts.

## Miles DA et al. Radiographic imaging for Dental Auxiliaries.

Improper alignment of
beam and film results in
cone cutting.

## Miles DA et al. Radiographic imaging for Dental Auxiliaries.

BITEWING TECHNIQUE
Crowns, interproximal areas and alveolar bone support
Caries, periodontal condition, calculus, crown margins
Premolar and molar bitewing

## Intraoral Radiography with Rinn XCP/BAI Instruments.

BITEWING
TECHNIQUE

Miles DA, Van Dis ML, Razmus TF. Basic Principles of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology.

1. Right angle method
2. Buccal object rule
SLOB same lingual, opposite buccal.

Right Angle
Method