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PROJECTION GEOMETRY

INTRAORAL RADIOGRAPHIC
TECHNIQUES
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COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL
Some material in this presentation is
copyrighted. This material is only for
use by students in this course and is
not to be further distributed.

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS
1. Image unsharpness
2. Image magnification
3. Image shape distortion

UNSHARPNESS
Fuzzy, unsharp margin of
radiographic image.
Penumbra or edge gradient

Miles DA et al. Radiographic imaging for Dental


Auxiliaries. Copyright 1989, Saunders.

Rule #1.
Radiation source should be as small as
possible.

White SC., Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,


6th ed. Copyright 2009, Mosby

Rule #2.
Source-to-object distance should be as
long as possible.

White SC., Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,


6th ed. Copyright 2009, Mosby

Intraoral Radiography with Rinn XCP/BAI Instruments. Copyright 1989, Rinn

Rule #3.
Object-to-film distance should be as short
as possible.

White SC., Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, 6th
ed. Copyright 2009, Mosby

Razmus TF, Williamson GF. Current Oral and Maxillofacial


Imaging. Copyright 1996, Saunders.

MAGNIFICATION (Equal Enlargement)


Enlargement of radiographic image, compared
to actual size of object.
Image shows true shape of object

Rule #1.
Source-to-object distance should be as
long as possible.

White SC., Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,


6th ed. Copyright 2009, Mosby

Rule #2.
Object-to-film distance should be as short
as possible.

White SC., Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,


6th ed. Copyright 2009, Mosby

DISTORTION (Unequal Enlargement)


Variation from true shape of object.
Unequal magnification of parts of object.
Improper alignment of film, object, beam.

Rule #1:
Object and film should be parallel.

Razmus TF, Williamson GF. Current Oral and Maxillofacial


Imaging. Copyright 1996, Saunders.

Rule #2:
Beam should be perpendicular to object
and film.

Razmus TF, Williamson GF. Current Oral and Maxillofacial


Imaging. Copyright 1996, Saunders.

Foreshortening

Goaz PW, White SC. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,


2nd ed. Copyright 1987, Mosby

Elongation

Goaz PW, White SC. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, 2nd ed.
Copyright 1987, Mosby

5 RULES FOR ACCURATE IMAGE


FORMATION
1. Focal spot as small as possible.
2. Source-object distance as long as possible.
3. Object-film distance as short as possible.
4. Object parallel to film.
5. Beam perpendicular to object and film.

Frommer HH. Radiology for Dental Auxiliaries, 4th ed.


Copyright 1987, Mosby.

DIAGNOSTIC QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHS


1. Proper visual characteristics
2. Minimal geometric characteristics
3. Anatomic accuracy of image
4. Film coverage of anatomic region

ANATOMIC ACCURACY
1. Labial and lingual CEJ of anteriors superimposed
2. Buccal and lingual cusps of posteriors superimposed
3. Contacts of teeth opened.
4. Buccal and lingual aspect of alveolar crest superimposed.
5. No superimposition of zygoma over roots

Langland OE, Langlais RP, Preece JW. Principles of Dental Imaging,


2nd ed. Copyright 2002, Williams & Wilkins.

FILM COVERAGE
1. Area of interest shown
2. Periapical coverage (2-4 mm)
3. Supplemental views

INTRAORAL RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES

PROJECTION TECHNIQUES FOR PERIAPICAL


RADIOGRAPHY

1. Paralleling Technique use long cone


2. Bisecting Angle Technique use long or short cone

PARALLELING TECHNIQUE
1. Film parallel to tooth
increased object-film distance
increased source-film distance
2. Beam perpendicular to tooth/film.

Razmus TF, Williamson GF. Current Oral and Maxillofacial Imaging.


Copyright 1996, Saunders.

VERTICAL ANGULATION

Intraoral Radiography with Rinn XCP/BAI Instruments. Copyright 1989, Rinn Corp.

HORIZONTAL ANGULATION

Intraoral Radiography with Rinn XCP/BAI Instruments. Copyright 1989, Rinn Corp.

ALIGNMENT OF
BEAM AND FILM

Miles DA et al. Radiographic imaging for Dental Auxiliaries.


Copyright 1989, Saunders.

Intraoral Radiography with Rinn XCP/BAI Instruments. Copyright 1989, Rinn Corp.

Paralleling technique is the preferred


method.
If the paralleling technique cannot be
used, the bisecting angle technique
may be used.

Razmus TF, Williamson GF. Current Oral and Maxillofacial Imaging.


Copyright 1996, Saunders.

BISECTING ANGLE TECHNIQUE


Based on Rule of Isometry:
If two triangles have two equal angles and a
common side, then the two triangles are equal.

Miles DA, Van Dis ML, Razmus TF. Basic Principles of Oral and Maxillofacial
Radiology. Copyright 1992, Saunders.

BISECTING ANGLE TECHNIQUE


The angle formed by plane of tooth and
plane of film is bisected, and the beam is
directed perpendicular to the bisecting line.

White SC., Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,


6th ed. Copyright 2009, Mosby

FORESHORTENING
Tooth not parallel to film, and beam
directed perpendicular to film.

ELONGATION
Tooth not parallel to film, and beam
directed perpendicular to tooth.

Improper horizontal
angulation results in
overlapping of contacts.

Miles DA et al. Radiographic imaging for Dental Auxiliaries.


Copyright 1989, Saunders.

Improper alignment of
beam and film results in
cone cutting.

Miles DA et al. Radiographic imaging for Dental Auxiliaries.


Copyright 1989, Saunders.

BITEWING TECHNIQUE
Crowns, interproximal areas and alveolar bone support
Caries, periodontal condition, calculus, crown margins
Premolar and molar bitewing

Intraoral Radiography with Rinn XCP/BAI Instruments.


Copyright 1989, Rinn Corp.

BITEWING
TECHNIQUE

Miles DA, Van Dis ML, Razmus TF. Basic Principles of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology.
Copyright 1992, Saunders.

RADIOGRAPHIC LOCALIZATION
1. Right angle method
2. Buccal object rule
SLOB same lingual, opposite buccal.

Right Angle
Method

Buccal Object Rule

Goaz PW, White SC. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,


2nd ed. Copyright 1987, Mosby

Buccal Object Rule

Goaz PW, White SC. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation,


2nd ed. Copyright 1987, Mosby

Buccal Object Rule

Buccal
Object Rule

Richards AG. Buccal object rule. Dent Radiogr Photogr 1980; 53:37.
Copyright, Eastman Kodak.