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(English grammar)

(The definite article)

(The indefinite article)

(Nouns)

(Adjectives)

(Adverbs)

(Numerals)

, ,
(Personal, possessive, reflexive and emphatic pronouns)

(Reciprocal pronouns)

(Demonstrative pronouns)

(Interrogative pronouns)

(Relative and conjunctive pronouns)

(Indefinite pronouns)

(Ordinary verbs)

(Auxiliary verbs)

(Modal verbs)

(The tenses of the verb)

(Sequence of the tenses)

(The moods of the verb)

(The progressive forms)

(Expression of habit)

(The passive voice)

to

- (Infinitive without to)

to

- (Infinitive with to)

(Special use of the infinitive)

(Accusative with infinitive)

(Nominative with infinitive)

(The gerund)

(The participles)

, (Transitive, Intransitive, reflexive verbs)

(The prepositions)

(Phrasal verbs)

(The conjunctions)

(Irregular verbs)

(THE)
(The definite article)
1.

the [] : : the book, the boy, the lady,


the university, the union

2.

the [i] : : the American, the animal;


h- :hour, honour, honest;
h- : the horizon .

I .

: towards the North, in the North, : from north to south, from


east to west .

: the East-Indies, the Netherlands, the


Hebrides.

, , , , : the Thames, the Atlantic, the


Alps

: the moon - , the earth - , the sun -

: I bought a postage stamp yesterday.


The stamp is very interesting.

republic, union, kingdom, states : The United


states of America -


, the old - , the wolf - .

: the English -

: the first week -


, the second floor - .

: the highest mountain in the world .

: the Smiths -

, , : the Daily News,


the Bach Choir, the Beatles

: all, both, half, double, quite, twice -


"the" . all the world, double the sum, all the money.

II .

( poor, old, little, good, saint -) : poor Peter, little John

: dmiral Nelson, King Richard, Queen


Elizabeth,
Uncle
Sam,
Dr.Miller
: the Queen
of
England

.
: the : emperor, czar, archduke,
elector : the Emperor William, the Czar Peter I

: Switzerland,
: the London of today - .

Mount-

Turkey,

London,

, cape- , lake- , harbour- , bay- : Mount Everest,


Cape Trafalgar, Lake Geneva, New York Harbour, Hudson Bay,
: the Cape of Good Hope .

, , : Oxford street, Trafalgar


square, Windsor castle, London bridge.

: life, death, love, Earth, Heaven, Hell ;


He
was
weary
of
life.
: the life of the whole nation .

, : two boys, his friend, this room,


some apples.

Church,

school, college, prison, bisiness, chapel, hospital, market, sea, table, town,
work, bed : church is over, school
begins,
he
was
sent
to
prison,
go
to
bed.
: : The school is near
the church. - .

: coal, iron , wood, gold : coal is important for export,


: the coal of Wales ( ) .

: cats, mice, dogs, birds : swallows are pretty birds.


: the swallows of this summer -
.

, : summer, March, Sunday : on Monday, in Winter, in April, at


Christmas
: the last Sunday in August. .

My
brother
studies
algebra.

Photography is my hobby. - .

:
.

: "of"-


.
the Cape of good Hope, The England I know is different from . . .

(, AN)
(The indefinite article)
1.

a : : a boy, a lady, a European

2.

an : : an animal, an english book,


h- : an hour, an heir, an honour
h- : an historian

: I
have a pen. I see a dog.

: a dof is domestic
animal. ("" )

, : my brother is a painter, he is an
englishman,
she
became
a
Protestant
: the title of (doctor), the rank of (general), the dignity of (senator)-
.

, , : four shillings a yard, sixpence a pound, twice a


year, four times a day

: a million, a thousand, a dozen, a


couple, a little

: "" - half, such, quite, many ( ), rather, what : half a dozen - 6 , such a good story -

.
"" - as, so, too, how, however -
: as good a swimmer as I am -
; to heavy a weight - ; too difficult a task -

(The noun)
I . : =
.

, he him his he met his friend

, she her

she saw her friend

the book is in its place

it

its

.
: The lion licked its paw.
:
.
() = : the dog, his name
( ) = : the cat, she is dead
"-ess" . :
actor - actress, host - hostess, prince - princess, waiter - waitress, lion
- lioness, duke - duchess
: ,
: the 'Atlantic' lost her crew, England and her
dominions
II .
Singular
+
s : dog
dogs,
friend
friends
"-s" .
: leg -legs, wall - walls, tree - trees, table - tables.
:
s,

ss, x, z, ch, sh, tch, "-es" . : ass - asses, box - boxes, church hurches


fe,

+ y "-ies" . : baby - babies

f "-ves" . : wife - wives, knife - knives, wolf - wolves


. : chief - chiefs, roof - roofs .

- "- oes" : hero - heroes, potato - potatoes. : photo


- photos, piano - pianos, radio - radios .

, : sheep , fruit - , grouse - .

, deer -

, swine -

, fish -

: trout - , salmon - , carp - , pike -


. herring, -s = , eel, -s = .

, : Japanese, Swiss, Vietnamese

ox, child, brother -(r)en : ox - oxen, child


- children, brother - brethren
.
: man - men, woman - women, foot - feet, tooth - teeth,
goose - geese, mouse - mice, person -people, louse - lice
: man

: gentleman - gentlemen, Frenchman - Frenchmen


.
: German, -s; Roman, -s; Norman, -s "s" .


(Abstract)

(Collective)
.

:
advice , business
, furniture , knowledge - , merchandise - , progress .
:



: scissors - , tongs - , spectacles -
, lungs - , trousers - , scales - ,
These spectacles are strong. - .
! :

.
They came in with their hats on their heads -
.

III . (The case)


(Normative) = (the,
a,
an)
(Genitive - ) =of (the, a, an)
(Dative - ) = to (the, a, an)
(Accusative) = (the, a, an)

's,
s' - . :

: Jack's blue book. they boys'


book

, , : a
week's holiday, a month's stay, a mile's walk, at arm's length, a stone's throw

: for Heaven's sake - , for God's


sake - , for goodness' sake -

: house, shop, church,


practice

.
I am at my uncle's (house). - () . at the
doctor's (practice) -


to - .

We

Gave

the beggar

a penny

Sent

you

some books

:
to - .

..

We

Gave

a penny

to the beggar

Sent

some books

to you(and not to him)


to - . :

english

mongolian

english

Mongolian

english

mongolian

to add

to reply to

cruel to

to listen to

to happen to

just to

to declare,
explain to

to say to

polite to

to mention
to

kind to


. :

english

mongolian

english mongolian english

mongolian

english mongolian

to give

to bring

to lend

to take

to offer

to send -

to promise

to forgive

- to cost

to fetch

to tell

to write

to owe

to sell

to pay

to show

: "it" -


:
give it me - ; bring it us -

(The adjective)
. The
great poets of England - .
I .
Comparison of the Adjective)

(positive
(comparative)
)

- er

long

longer

(Degrees

of

(superlative)

- est

the longest

large

larger

more

the largest

Most


beautiful

more beautiful

the most beautiful

good

Better

the best

bad

worse

the worst

:
"the"- .

: ) b )
: (polite - politer - the politest , severe - severer - the
severest) -y, -le, -er, - ow, - some -
: happy - happier - the happiest, clever - cleverer - the cleverest .

: a )
: cautious - more cautious - the most cautious, useful - more useful - the
most useful. b )
: interesting - more interesting - the most interesting, delighted more delighted - the most delighted.

:
"e"

- -er, -est . : fine - finer - finest, polite politer - politest

"y" "y" - "- i -" .


: dry - drier - driest, happy - happier - happiest.

,
,

. : big - bigger - biggest, hot hotter - hottest, fit - fitter - fittest.

later

latest

I'll see you later -


. the latest paper -

latter

last

the latter sentence -


VV, (the) last time -

farther

farthest

the farthest way -

further

furthest

older

oldest

late

far

old

without frther delay -

he is older than I -
, the oldest tree -

elder

eldest

my elder brother - , his eldest

son -

nearer

nearest

the nearest way to the station -


next month - . the next


stop -

near
next

smaller

smallest

the smallest room -

less

least

he drinks less wine than milk -


little

II .

: as - as : my sister is as big as I am - .

: not so - as ( not as - as) : he is not so (not as) tall as his


brother -

(comparative) + than : he is bigger than his brother -


.

the

- the : the further they went the worse the road was -
.

the

less - the less : the less you work, the less you will earn -
.


the
former
the
same
the .
.
the
latter .
.
other than - . . . - , . . . -

,
.
.

III . (Substantivization of adjectives)


V , , ,

the .

the good

the blind


, man / woman, boy / girl,

gentleman / lady, person / people .


: the blind women, the poor person, poor people . . .

the poor

"-sh", "-ch'' -


man
/
woman,
gentleman
/
lady

.
: the English - an Englishman, the French - a French lady, the
Scotch
two
Scotchmen,
the
Dutch
some
Dutchmen
.
: (the) Americans, (the) Germans, (the) Russians
IV .
1.

(attributive
use) . : This is an interesting book. -
. They live in the old house. - .

2.

(predicative
use) : This book is interesting. - . Their
house is old. - .

(Adverb)
, , ,
, , .
I .
Adjective + ly = Adverb ,


.

"- ly"

1.

+ "y" "-y"- "-i" - . :happy - happily, easy - easily.

2.

"-y" - . dryly drily,


: gay - gaily .

3.

-e . true - truly, whole - wholly, due - duly,


noble - nobly

4.

full - fully

5.

"- ic" "- ally" -


: fantastic - fantastically, diplomatic - diplomatically

! "-ly" in a . . . manner
(way) . : in a friendly manner;
in a lovely way
.
"-ly" : early, daily, weekly, monthly,
yearly . . .
.

pretty

only

(adjective)

(adverb)

Still

very

, ,

, ,

, ,

"-ly"
. : hardly - ,
;nearly - ,

: " " = very -

: very good,
very
badly,
(very) much V V : I thank you very much.
: (Adjective) (adverb)
: to work hard -
, to walk slow - , to talk loud (low) -
, to spell right (wrong) - () , to feel happy , to stop short -
II.

(Degrees of Comparison of the adverb)

1.

: ("-ly" - "more,
most"
)
brightly - more brightly - most brightly ; slowly - more slowly - most slowly

2.

: ("-ly"
"-er,
est" )
soon - sooner - soonest ; often - oftener - oftenest ; early - earlier - earliest

3.

:
well - better - best ; badly - worse - worst ; little - less - least ; much - more most
late - latter - last ; far - farther (further) - farthest (furthest) ; near - nearer nearest (next)

III.

:
1.

(,
)
.
(
!)

:
in
1999

:I
: We thanked him heartily

we
met

went
to
him

London
yesterday.

2.

(
) ,
. :
: She allways heard the child cry. -

.
I have often been in America -
: I did not quite understand you. -
.

3.

: + +
. :We arrived safely in London
yesterday.

(The Numeral)
(Cardinal numerals)
1 -one, 2 - two, 3 - three, 4 - four, 5 - five, 6 - six, 7 - seven, 8
- eight, 9 - nine, 10 - ten,11- eleven, 12 - twelve, 13 - thirteen,14 fourteen,15 - fifteen, 16 - sixteen, 17 - seventeen, 18 - eighteen, 19
- nineteen, 20 - twenty, 21 - twenty one, 22 - twenty two, 30 - thirty,
40 - forty, 50 - fifty, 60 - sixty, 70 - seventy, 80 - eighty, 90 - ninety,
100 - a (one) hundred,101 - a (one) hundred and one, 200 - two
hundred, 1000 - a (one) thousand, 2000 - two thousand, 100 000 - a
(one) hundred thousand, 1 000 000 - a (one) million, 2 000 000 - two
million(s)
(Ordinal numerals and Fractional numerals)
Ordinal numerals = Cardinal numerals + th : the hundredth .

: first,
second,
third
(1st,
2nd,
3rd)
: five - fifth, eight - eighth, nine - ninth, twelve
- twelfth,
twenty
- twenthieth
.
: He was born on July 14th on the 23rd of
July ; : Elizabeth II - Elizabeth the
second()
"the" . the first, the
second,
the
eleventh, 101
- the
hundred
and
first
(Common Fractions): 1/2 a (one) half, 1/3 one third,
2/5 two
fifths,
2.3/7 two
and
three
sevenths
(Decimal Fractions): 0.3 nought (zero) point
three, 2.35 two point three five (thirty five)

= first
then
:
First he lived at home, then he went to England. -
.
: - = at first - at last, at lenght :
At first I believed him, but at last I became distrustful. -
, .
: = firstly in the first place ;
= thirdly in the third place . . . ;
in the fifth place . : = in the sixth
place

=once ?

=how many
times?

three times
(thrice)

=sometimes

once more

:
=twice

=single

=treble,
threefould

100

=a (one)
hundredfold

=double

=fourfold

=manifold

, ,

(Personal, Possessive, Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns)

Accusative
Nominative = Subject
Objective

=
=

II

.
-self -
.

me -, my - mine -

myself - ()
,

you

your you - , ,
,
,

yourself - (, )
,

yours ,

he - ()

him - ,

his

his -

himself - ,
()

she - ()

her - ,

her

hers -

herself - ,
()

it - ,

it - , , its -
,
( )

its -

itself - ,
(, )

we - ,

us - ,
,

our ,

ourself ours - ,
,

()

you -

you - ,

your ,

yours ,

they - ,

their theirs them - ,


, ,
,

themselves - ()
,

one

one

oneself

one's

one's (own)

yourselves - ( )
,

to
- : give
me
the
book
to : give the book to me
:

I shall speak to him. - .

That was he. - .

.-

I shall speak to him. - .

Her paper was interesting. -


My ruler is long yours is longer. , .

This car is his. - .

We haven't seen your paper, we have


seen only theirs. -
,

II

I wash myself. - .

( )-

He himself saw it. -


.
He saw it himself. -

(Reciprocal pronouns)
each other - , one another - ,

:
They greeted each other. - .
We know each other very well. - .
The children look at each other in the mirror. -
.
(Demonstrative pronouns)

this -

that

these -

those

1.

: This was pleasant. - .

2.

: It was that. - .

3.

: He likes this. - .
(Interrogative Pronouns)

1.

2.



(, )

who? = ?
Who can swim?

what? = ?
What is this?

which? = , ,
, ?
what?,which?
Which of you is ill?

whose = ?
of whom? =
?
1. Whose book is
this?
2. Of whom did
you speak?

to whom? = ? to what? = ?
To whom did you To what does this
give?
refer?

to which?
There are two
teams, to which do
you belong?

whom? = ?
what? = ?
Whom did you
What do you see?
call?

which?
Which do you like
better, tea or coffee?

of what? =
?
Of what did you
speak?

of which? =
, ?
There were two
accidents. Of which
did you near?

what
(which) boy?
what
(which) table?


(Prepositions) :
Whom are you speaking of? - .
What
is
he
laughing
at?

?
What are you talking about? - .

(Relative and conjunctive pronouns)

who

which

that

whose, of
whom

of which (whose)

(that - of)

to whom

to which

(that - of)

whom

which

that

who

my friend who made a trip to


London

the girl whose father I know

the house whose walls are grey

the boy of whom we spoke

to whom

the pupil to whom he gave the


book

whom

the man whom I asked

which

the train which (that) arrived

of which

the house, the windows of


which . . .

(
)

the story to which we listened

whose

of whom

to which

which

the things which (that) we need

:
(Preposition)

.
The man whom I was waiting for. - .
The house, that I lived in. - .
that

1.

who,
which-

:
Who was the man that you were talking of? -
?
This is the bird (that) he caught. - .

2.

(Indefinite
pronouns)
: all, everything, something, anything, much, little, nothing,
the
same
:
That is everything (that) I know. - .

3.

it is . . . , it was . . . - :
It was the storm that destroyd the house. -
.

4.

V :
They talked about the natives and plants (that) they had found interesting. .

: that -

.
The train that I waited for arrived. -
.
:

.
This is the boy (whom) Iike best. -

.
The house (that) we live in. - .


(Indefinite pronouns)
some = , , , (
)
1.

: We had some books. -


.

2.

: In the evening we had some


tea. - .

any = , ,
1.

, : You may come at


any time. - .

2.

a) : Do you see any mistakes? -


?
b) : No, I do not see any mistakes. - ,

.
c) : If you see any mistakes ... -
...

3.

" " : Give me any


book.

some

any-

.
someone, somebody - , ; something - ,
; somewhere - , , ; anyone, anybody V, ; anything - , , ; anywhere -
, , ,

each = , , , (,
)

: Each player did his best -

: Each of them did his best -

every = (, )

: Every house has a roof -


.

: everyone, everybody ; everything - ,

: every day - ; every fortnight - 14 ; every other


day -

all = , (
)

: all men -

: all of them -

: he was all dirty -

: all the better - ; not at all - , ; all at once : after all - , ; first of all - , ; once
for all - ; all the day - , ;

whole = , (all - ): the


whole town, the whole of Asia

: the whole day - , ;

either = , ; neither = , ,
,

: on either side of river -


; neither way is right -

: either one or the other one must leave -


; neither of us could help him -

: either ... or - ... ...; neither ... nor - ...


...

nor either

I cannot swim, nor my borther either - ,


not either

I cannot swim, he cannot swim either - ,


other = , ,

: the other girl -

: the others stayd at home -

the other day - , ; the other morning - ; every


other day - ; one after another - ; some day or other -
; some time or other - , ; on the other
hand - ; another (cup of coffee) - ( )

much =
many =
it takes too much many families live
time
there

few =
little =
I saw only few
I have little hope
boys

many a = ()
a little = ,
a few = , ,

a greate deal of = ; a good many = ,


; very much = ; in few words = V; very many,
greate many =

(Ordinary verbs)
to
open (, ) .

(Affirmate

)
(Negative) (Interrogative) (Interrogativenegative)


(The present indefinite
tense)

I open
he opens

I do
not open
he does
notopen

do I not open?
do I open?
does he not
does he open?
open?


(The past indefinite tense)

I opened

I did
not open

did I open?


(The present perfect tense)

I have opened

I have
have
notopened I opened?


(The past perfect tense)

I had opened

I had
had I
had I opened?
notopened
not opened?

did I not open?

have I
not opened?


I shall open
(The future indefinite tense) you will open

I should
notopen
you will
not open

shall I open?
shall (will)
you open?

shall I
not open?
shall (will) you
not open?



I should open
V
you would open
(The future indefinite in the
past)

I should
notopen
you would
notopen

should
I open?
should (would
)youopen?

should I
not open?
should (would)
you notopen?

- V V when, if,
while, as soon as - VV

V.
:
I shall go out when I am ready -
.
he would do it if he could - VV
.

V V
(Auxiliary verbs)
to have = -,
: he has come -

to

have + + = - , : I
have my hair cut - .

to

have + / + (infinitive) = -, , - ,
: the teacher will the boys learn by heart -
.

to

have + to - (infinitive with to) = : he has much


to do - .

to have - ( got
) : have you (got) a new house?
to do - . Do you have a
new house? - ?

to be =

(passive) : the story was told by father

(progressive form) : it is raining .

to

be + to - (infinitive with to) = (3



) : he was to die in Africa - .

to

be + = - : the lesson is to be
finished - .

to

be - : "To be or not to be" that is the


question - " " .

to do = ,


: do you like it? - ?

to do-
:
1.

: will he come? -
?

2.

: who knows
that?

?
to do -
: who does not know that? - ?

: we do not forget it

to do -
:
1.

: he cannot swim -
.

2.

not (never, nothing etc.) -


: you never can tell - . we sow
nothing - .

3.

not
: is she ill? - no I suppose not. ?
.

to do -
to have to be - : do not have
a look at it? - don't be sorry! - ?
!

( ) to do -
:
1.

: he
knows more then I do. - .

2.

, yes no - : Do
you listen to the music? Yes, we do. No we do not.

3.

" ", " ", " ", "


" - : He reads much - so do I - ,
. She does not read much - nor do we -
.

4.

"

?"

: You feel better, do not you? - ,

?
: he didn't say
so,
did
he?

?

: You are not glad, are you? - ,
?

( to do -
): He did his best -
. How do you do? - ?


(Modal verbs)

.

I can
...-

I could
...-

: I can swim -
: he could
translate -
: can I help you? -
?

to be able to: I play


chess = I'm able to play
chess -

( ) to be
unable to -
( 2-): to know,
(know to) -

to be to

I shall

( 3

shall:
:
you shall not steal! -
!
I should

I will
I would
... -
... -


: what am I to
do -
? : his
should:
death was to decide her
fate -
: the teacher said we should

work
: to be said - to

be supposed to : he is
,
said (supposed) to be
: you should tell the
ill -
truth -

will: : I will get on in my : to want, to wish,
life -
to like: I wantto see

him -
.
do as you like -


.

: going to,
would:
to mean to, to propose
to : to be
willinf to: he is willing
(
): he would not go abroad - to do all -


.
. : I
: to wish
would I were at home -
: boys - would +
: I would the day
will be boys -
were over -
.

she would play every day -
.
.
: to pretend: he
pretends to be ill -

.
may:

may
-,

might
-

: this may be true -


: you may
come. : cannot: this
cannot be true -
. : may
not ( ): you may not
use this book -
.
: must not(
): you must not
smoke -
. : may
not : may you never be unhappy! -
!
might:
: he might have
missed the trian -
.

to be allowed to / to be
permitted to =

I have not been allowed


to smoke -

.
they will not be
permitted to play
.
it is possible -
.

to have to: I had to stay


at home -

must:
(I must)

I must

.
(
(

) (

)
)
I ought to

: all men
must survive -
.
: must not,need not: you must not
tell a lie -
.
: need not: I need not tell you this
story -
.

to be forced to: he was


forced to leave his
country -

.
to be obliged to: she
was obliged to earn her
living -

to be compelled to: they


were compelled to work
I ought to : : I ought to go
hard -
to church - .

to be bound to: she is
bound to her freedom

: :
(to)
need ,

.
he
does
not
need
to
come
/
he
need
not
come
(to)
dare ,

he did not dare to go out / he dared not go out

(The tenses of the verb)



(active)
16
(passive) 10
,

26
.
:
P1
-

P2 - / ( )

(The active tenses)


(Form)
(Example)

(Translation)


(The present indefinite
tense)

verb / verb + s
(es)

she works

()

(The present continuous


tense)

am / are / is + P1
(verb +ing)

he is working

()


(The present perfect tense)

have / has + P2
(verb +ed)

she has worked


(The present perfect


continuous tense)

have / has been +


P1 (verb + ing)

he has
beenworking

(Tenses)

(Present
tenses)


(The past indefinite tense)

(Past
tenses)

(Future
tenses)

verb + ed(d) {only


she worked
irregular verb}

was / were + P1
(The past continuous tense) (verb +ing)

he was working


(The past perfect tense)

she had worked

had + P2
(verb + ed)

had been + P1
(The past perfect continuous (verb + ing)
tense)

he had
beenworking


shall / will +verb
(The future indefinite tense)

she will work


(The future continuous
tense)

shall / will be +
P1 (verb +ing)

he will
be working


(The future perfect tense)

shall /will have +


P2 (verb+ ed)

she will
haveworked



(The future perfect
continuous tense)

shall / will have


been + P1
(verb + ing)

he will have
beenworking



should /

would + verb
(The future indefinite in the
past tense)




(The future continuous in
the past tense)

(Future in

the past)

(The future perfect in the


past)

she would work

should / would
be + P1
(verb + ing)

he would
beworking

should / would
have +P2
(verb + ed)

she would
haveworked

he would have
been working


should / would

have been + P1
(The future perfect
(verb + ing)
continuous in the past)


1.

"ed" . : work + ed =
worked

2.

"e" - "d" . : receive + d =


recieved

3.

"ed"
. : stop + ed = stopped

4.

"y" "ed"
"y" "i" .
: carry
+
ed
=
carried
( "" . : obey + ed = obeyed)


(The passive tenses)

(Tenses)



(The passive present
indefinite tense)

(Present
tenses)



(The passive present
continuous tense)



(The passive present
perfect tense)

(Past
tenses)



(The passive past
indefinite tense)



(The passive past
continuous tense)


(Form)

(Example) (Translation)


( )

am / are / is + P2

I am called

am / are / is being + P2


I am being
called
(
)

have / has been + P2

I have been
called
(
)

was / were + P2

I was
called

was / were being + P2

(
)

I was being
called

(Future
tenses)



had been + P2
(The passive past perfect
tense)

I had been
called
(



shall / will be + P2
(The passive future
indefinite tense)

I shall be
called



shall / will have been +
(The passive future
P2
perfect tense)

I shall have
beencalled (




should / would be + P2

(The passive future
indefinite in the past)

(Future in

the past)

should / would have

been + P2
(The passive future
perfect in the past)


( )


I should be
called
(
)

I should

have
(
beencalled


(Sequens of tenses)

.

:
a) ( ):

is angry (present)
he says (present)
was angry (past)

has been angry (perfect)


he has said (perfect)

that she
had been angry (past perfect)

will be angry (future)


he will say (future)
would be angry (conditional)

he said (past)

that she

was angry (past)

he had said (past


perfect)

had been angry (past perfect)

he would
say (conditional)

would be angry (conditional)


(present)
.
: He stated that the earth is round -
.
b) "if " - .

V VV (The moods of the verb)

The Imperative Mood , , ,


, , . Come
here! - ! , Close the door! - !

The Indicative Mood

The Subjective Mood


, .
( )

:
1.

: a)

3-
: He
have

"-s"He
live

) I, you, he etc. be : If that be true - .


I, you, he etc. were : I wish I were you - ; I wish I were
rich. - .
2.

: may - might : I wish(ed) he may(might) win the game. -

.
should ( ) : It is impossible that
he should know it. - .

:
1.

- - - it is right,
wrong, natural, necessary, good (better), impossible, time V
should, may, might - . :
It is natural that she should marry him. -
.
It is possible, is probable - may might - . : It is possible
that he may (might) come.

2.

: (al)though - whatever - whoever - however




:

Whoever he may be, we shall help him. -


.
3.

If -

Present

Past

Past perfect

Future indefinite

Conditional 1 Conditional 2

4.
a)

.
If you ask me, I shall answer. - .
b)
. :

I (Conditional 1)

If I
were
in
your
place I should go home
( )
( )

II (Conditional 2)

If I
had
been
in
your
place I should have gone home
( )
( )

5.

6.

a) , : ,
. :
We are afraid that we shall lose our money -

.
may - might - . :
She feared that she might be gravely ill. -
.
b) - - -
should - .

:
to be glad - ; it is a pity - ; It is pity than they
should be so lazy. - .
c) :
. :
I wish I were in England now. .
may - might .

:
May you
be
right
!

!
I wished that he might be right. - .
d) , :
that in order to - may - might - .
:
Speak loud that I may hear you. - .

V VV
(Progressive forms)



to be +
(to be + Participle present or
Participle 1) .
.
I
am
reading
(now) =

()

It was raining (then) = .

(Progressive
form) .
We were working, while they were sleeping.

(Expression of Habit)
(Present tense) will + to-
(will + infinitive without to) :
In April the weather will often change. -
.

.

would to-
(infinitive without to):

I would go there.

= .

used to +
(infinitive) :

I used to take a bus.

=
.

V
(The passive voice)

.to be

+ Participle perfect or Participle 2 ( to be to get- )

Active

Passive

(Present)

The master punishes John John is punished by the master

(Past)

Did the master punish


John?

Was John punished by the


master?

(Future)

The master will not


punish John

John wiil not be punished by the


master

(Progressive
form)

They are looking at John

John is being looked at by then

"to"-

(Infinitive without to)

"to" - :
1.

to
do -
:
I shall go home - . We do not drink. - .

2.

(Active) to make, to let,


I let him come. - .

3.

I hear him sing (singing) - .

4.

I had rather . . . ; I had better . . . ; I cannot but . . . ; I had as good . . . .

to

did-

"to"-
(Infinitive with to)
"to" - :

1.

:
o

. : Always to help is not easy. -


.

. : It is better to stay here. -


.

2.


He seemed to be angry. - .

3.


He promised to come. - .

4.

5.

:
:

: We helped him to translate the letter. -


.

: Be slow to promise. - .

: I have the pleasure to know him -


.

: He was the first to swim -


:
o

: I harried to fetch a doctor. -


.

V : He was too tired to learn. -


(Special use of the Infinitive)
how to, want to, where
to, so (such) . . . as to, in order to - .
,

, how to ( )
.
He learns how to ride a bike - .

what

to (), where
to ()-

He did not know what to say; I showed him where to buy the books.

"so" "such"- as to-


( ) :
You were such a fool as to believe him. -
.

in

order
to(-
)-

:
He made him come in order to punish him. -
.

:
.
1.

:
This apple is good to eat. - .

2.

there
is,
there
There is nothing to say. - .

3.

to
let,
to
Rooms to let, you are to blame.

are -

blame

:
V


(Accusative with the infinitive)
to - (without to) :
1.

to see (), to hear (), to feel (


), to watch (, ), to observe ( )
: I saw him come. - .

2.

:
) : to make, to have(to bid): You make me laugh. -

V
.
) : to let (, ). :
Let the boy return! - !

to - (with to) :
1.

to want, to wish, to like- .


I wish his to learn. - .

2.

:
) to cause, to order, to command
.

:
We caused him to send for a doctor. -
) to allow, to permit, to suffer .

:
We allowed the girls to come in. - .

3.

, to declare, to deny, to expect, to


believe, to think, to suppose, to remember :
England expect every man to do his duty. -
.

: that -
.
: to say, to tell (, ), to answer, to reply, to
hope, to fear
that - . :
He hoped that she would come. -
.


(Nominative with the infinitive)
(Accusative with the infinitive) (Passive)
(Nominative with the infinitive) .

:
He was heard to come in. - .
I am told to stay away. - .
My father was told to prepare everything. -
.
:

(Infinitive)
(Adjective)- for - .
:The town is too distant for me to be seen -
.
(The gerund)
"-ing"
.
.
1.

: Swimming is healthy. -
.

2.

: That is running a great risk -

3.

: ,
.
:

to go on

to have done with

to put off

to give up

to stop

to keep

I do not mind

to risk

I cannot

to finish

4.

: Go

on

reading. -

VVV

to like

to prefer

to mind

to remember

to excuse

to hate

to enjoy

to love

to regret

to start

5.

: I like walking - I like to walk - .

6.

, ,

.
) :

to complain of

to delight in

to insist (up) on

to object to

to succeed in

to depend on

to despire of

to prevent from

to quarrel about

to think of

succeeded

in

7.

He

escaping.

) :

to be in the habit of

to be in danger of

a plan for

to be on the point of

the way of

8.

He

was

in

danger

of

getting

) :

fond of

capable of

keen on

proud of

disappointed at

far from

9.
: She was found of being admired.

accustomed to

drowned.

10.
.
) before - after - on - upon - (temporal) :
on leaving
America

) for (= - , , ), for the sake of(= - ), on account


of(= - , - ) - (causal)

:
He was punished for having stolen. - . . . - .
) by (-), with (- ), without (- ), instead of (- ) -

:
He left without saying goodbye. - .
) by (- , ) - (instrumental) :
By inventing a machine he became famous. -

.
) in spite of (-, , ) - :
In spite of being late you can hear the speech. -
.
:
. ( after - ) :
after having finished - after finishing = , ; for
having stolen - for stealing -

(The participles)

"-ing" "ed" .
(The prsesent participle) =
(Participle 1)
(The perfect participle) =
(Participle 2) .
"-ing" : I saw a
boy beating a dog. - .
"ed"
.
(

)
There lived a little girl called Red riding hood. -
.
I .
:
1.

:
The American, visiting our town, was very delighted. -
.

2.

(adverbial
clause)
:
) : Having done their work, they went home. -

.
) : (being) tired of waiting, I went off
) : He entered the room carrying some books. -

.
) : This poem, if carefully declaimed, will be
impressive
. (while,
though )

II . (
)
.
a) : This done, we went home.
) : The task being too hard, he gave up all hope

:
. :

considering

excepting

including

supposing

strictly speaking

generally speaking

, ,
(Transitive, intransitive, reflexive verbs)
1.

(The transitive verb)



(Indirect object),
(Direct
object)
.

:
: to think - He thanked his father. -

.

. : His father was thanked by
him.

2.

(The intransitive verb)


( ) . :
He shouted laudly. - . I am going to the shop. -

.
: (The perfect participle) (

to

be

. He

is

gone. -


to .

English

mongolian

to add to

to mention to

to prefer to

to belong to

to present to

to deliver to

to explain to

to introduce to

to seem, appear to

to communicate to

to propose to

to yield to

to add to

to relate to

to say to

to repeat to

3.

( )

4.

(The

reflexive

verb) :

a) ( ) : to avail o.s -
to pride o.s - , . : Don't pride yourself!
) :

to defend

to excuse

to enjoy

to prove

5.

to warm

to mix

: I warmed my hands. - He warmed himself at the fire.


) :

to approach

to fear

to remember

to wash

to refuse

to mind

to join

to dress

6.
) :

to amount to

- ,

to sit down

to wonder at

to depend (up) on

to care for

to surrender

to happen

to turn to

to be mistaken

to rejoice

to complain of

to bow to

to be glad to, of

to differ from

to rise

to be ashamed of

- ,

to long for

- ,

to apply to

to drop

to grow

to run

to stand

to fly

to return

to sink

: The ball dropped. - . ; He dropped the ball. -


.
! VVV
V
V

V
(Passive) VV.

:
the captain decided to sink the ship - - the ship was sunk by the
captain.

(Phrasal verbs)


.
:
. what? when? where?

.
: give away - , ; give up - ,
; look after - , ; look for - , ; look
out -
.
I . + (verb + adverb)

a) . :
My parents get up very early. - , .

)
. :
The man called back his words. - .

II . + (verb + preposition) :


. :
I am looking for my passport - .
I rely on her. - .
She asked me for help. - T .

III . + + (verb + adverb +


preposition) :

+ +
. :
Let's go on with our lesson. - .

You should lead up to the exams. - .

(The preposition)



7
.
(Prepositions of Place)

english

Mongolian

example

on

on the house

in

in the house

at

, ,

at the house

over

over the house

near

near the flat

in front of

in front of the flat

behind

behind the flat

across

across the street

through

, , -

through the window

between

between the vases

among

among the students

around(round)

around the table

atop

atop his head

beneath

beneath the tree

beside

beside the house

beyond

beyond the building

by

, ,

by the river

nearby

nearby the flat

within

within the city

under
(below,
beneath)

under the house

(Prepositions of Direction)

english

mongolian

example

to

-, -, -

to the house

into

-, -, -()

into the house

()

out of

- ( )

out of the house

round

round the house

from

from the flat

over

over the city

along

along the river

towards(toward)

, . . .- , , towards the house


,

(Prepositions of Time)

english

on

mongolian

-, - ()

example

on Saturday

in

-, -,

at

-, - ()

on May 11

5 11-

on week days

in March

3-

in 2002

2002

in summer

()

in the morning

()

in an hour

in a day

in 4 months

in 5 years

at 7 o'clock

at first

at the beginning

by

by 3 o'clock

( )

since

since 1997

1997

since 1 o'clock

for an hour

for 5 months

for

during

during the lesson

before

before the lesson

before lunch

after the lesson

after 3 years

after

till, until

till June

6-

until I come back

from . . .
till

. . . . . .

from 2 till 4 o'clock

last

last night

last month

next week

next month

next April

a day ago

a month ago

at the ago of 21

21

next

ago

around

at around 10 o'clock 10

between

between one and


two o'clock

(The conjunction)

.
I . (Co-ordinating Conjunctions) :

English

mongolian

And

, ,

neither . . . nor

. . .

As

both . . . and

, . . .

Whereas

Or

as well as

not only . . .but also

. . . ,

But

While

- ,

either . . . or

:I
and
my
brother

He
is
small
but
strong.

.
He can't (either)read or write. - .
I know both you and your friend. - .
II . (Subordinating Conjunctions):

english

Mongolian

that

till (until)

because

lest

though, although

before

. . . -

. . .

where

if

when

. . . , -(4)

unless

for

if weather

(2), . . .

while

since

, ,

in order that

. . . - , . . . (4)

provided (that)

()

as soon as

-(4), -(2)
()

as long as

, -

as

, , , -(4)

supposing

. . .(4)

after

-(4)

wherever

so that

in case

-, -, , -

(comparative
conjuctions)

(conjunctive
words) .

.

I know who lives in this house.

The man who lives in this house works in a bank.

(Irregular verbs)

English

(Indefinite
infinitive)

Mongolian

(Simple past)
(Past participle)

I .

bid

bid

Bid

burst

burst

Burst

cast

cast

cast

cost

cost

cost

cut

cut

cut

hit

hit

hit

hurt

hurt

hurt

let

let

let

put

put

put

read

read

read

set

set

set

shed

shed

shed

shut

shut

shut

spread

spread

spread

bend

bent

bent

build

built

built

burn

burnt

burnt

dream

dreamt

dreamt

dwell

dwelt

dwelt

lean

leant

leant

learn

learnt

learnt

II . -t

lend

lent

lent

mean

meant

meant

send

sent

sent

smell

smelt

smelt

spell

spelt

spelt

spend

spent

spent

() ,

spoil

spoilt

spoilt

III .

bleed

bled

bled

breed

bred

bred

creep

crept

crept

deal

dealt

dealt

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

flee

fled

fled

keep

kept

kept

kneel

knelt

knelt

lead

led

led

leave

left

left

light

lit

lit

meet

met

met

sleep

slept

slept

sweep

swept

swept

weep

wept

wept

IV .

bring

brought

brought

buy

bought

bought

catch

caught

caught

have

had

had

- , -

hear

heard

heard

lay

laid

laid

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

pay

paid

paid

say

said

said

seek

sought

sought

sell

sold

sold

teach

taught

taught

tell

told

told

think

thought

thought

V .

arise

arose

arisen

, ,

begin

began

begun

drink

drank

drunk

drive

drove

driven

fly

flew

flown

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

sing

sang

sung

sink

sank

sunk

spring

sprang

sprung

swim

swam

swum

write

wrote

written

beat

beat

beaten

become

became

become

bid

bade

bidden

, ,

blow

blew

blown

come

came

come

draw

drew

drawn

eat

ate(eat)

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

forbid

forbade

forbidden

forgive

forgave

forgiven

VI .

give

gave

given

grow

grew

grown

know

knew

known

mistake

mistook

mistaken

run

ran

run

see

saw

seen

shake

shook

shaken

slay

slew

slain

take

took

taken

throw

threw

thrown

VII .

awake

awoke

awoke(awaked)

bear

bore

Borne

bind`

bound

bound

, ,

bite

bit

bitten

break

broke

broken

choose

chose

chosen

cling

clung

clung

dig

dug

dug

fight

fought

fought

find

found

found

forget

forgot

forgotten

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

got

hang

hung

hung

hide

hid

hidden

hold

held

held

lie

lay

lain

shine

shone

shone

shoot

shot

shot

sit

sat

sat

speak

spoke

spoken

spin

spun

spun

spit

spat

spat

stand

stood

stood

steal

stole

stolen

stick

stuck

stuck

sting

stung

stung

strike

struck

struck

swear

swore

sworn

swing

swung

swung

tear

tore

torn

wear

wore

worn

win

won

won

wring

wrung

wrung

VIII .

mow

mowed

mown

sew

sewed

sewn

show

showed

shown

sow

sowed

sown

strew

strewed

strewn

IX .

do

did

done

go

went

gone

be

was

been

, , ,