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All the thinking people in their quite moments ask themselves the eternal questions:
Why I am here, what is the reason for all existence, what is up there, how did the
universe happen? We still ask the same questions as our ancestors asked about
ourselves, our environment and our place in the cosmic environment of matter and
life. But today our present attempts to find the answers are aided by our experimental
tools made possible by modern technology.
We are in a period of grand technological progress striving to fit a load of recent
discoveries into a new emergent scientific philosophy. Space technology provides the
first truly global platform for observing the Earth. The scientific data about the Earth
are all provided from the space.
Now it it is become evident that the future of the mankind depends on what we
achieve in the space. Exploring the moon, planets and the depth of the universe might
excite. The pioneering spirits, but practices applications of space technology have
proved to be of more importance to mankind. Early space explorations and
utilizations were conducted entirely by U.S. and the Soviet Union but over the years
as more and more countries realizing the potential of space technology, they began
turning Space powers.



Space: a vast, dark wilderness, a wasteland that is of no value to explore. That money
could be spent on worthy causes like health care, education and social development
projects. It is an often repeated argument, and it ignores the fundamental reasons
behind space exploration, reasons that transcend squabbles about budget deficits and
national debts. With manned missions to the moon and to Mars being discussed, we
are nearing a point where mankind will travel farther than ever before. We are set to
discover things that were unknown, perhaps fundamentally changing our
understanding of Earth, science and even ourselves. Here are six of the arguments that
explain why we need to continue space exploration.
Why do we have a space program anyway? Many people in the past have asked this
very same question. They usually continue on, "We should spend the money fixing
our problems here on Earth first."
This is a good question and a reasonable assertion regarding where we spend our
science dollars. Some of the old answers such as "Because exploring is in our souls,"
or "Because it is our destiny", seem a little trite to the concerned taxpayer. So why do
we go?
Exploring, in the past, has almost always delivered much more in economic or
scientific benefits than the original explorers could ever have imagined. Think of
Lewis or Clark standing in downtown Portland Oregon today, or even better,
Christopher Columbus standing in Times Square. It would be beyond their
imaginations. There would be the same feeling of amazement if Neil Armstrong could
look up at the enormous pressurized structures that will probably exist on the moon in
a hundred years time.


The next reason we go concerns resources. The peoples of the developing world will
never attain a standard of living comparable to the advanced Western nations unless
they have access to natural resources. Energy, metals, fresh water, etc. If we only
continue to acquire our resources within the closed system that is our planet Earth we
will eventually run out of many of those materials essential to an industrialized
society. When resources become scarce people tend to squabble over what's left.
Considering our species propensity for violence that could be a disaster for all of us,
we need new inexhaustible resources, ones where we do not pollute our air or water
trying to extract them. There is only one place where these resources exist in copious
quantities and that place is off world. It sounds like sci-fi but it's really just a question
of putting our minds to it and going and doing it.

2.1 The 3 reasons of need of space programs.

2.1.1 For our survival

Firstly, we know that at some stage in the future our Sun will die. If we haven't left
town by then, we'll die with it. There's not much urgency for this one since it probably
won't happen for around four billion years or so, but what if something unexpected
did go wrong with the Sun? What if sunflare activity suddenly increased to the point
of being seriously destructive? Since it hasn't happened any time recently we can say
that it probably won't happen any time soon. But if it did, we'd be stuffed.

Satellites have revealed problems such as deforestation, atmospheric ill-health and

ozone depletion. Without satellites (and spacecraft to maintain them) we would be


unaware of these issues and have no effective way to monitor them.

Spaceflight also motivates us to develop self-contained systems (i.e. absolutely
environmentally friendly). Spacecraft life support systems require an environment
with virtually no pollution or waste. A great deal of research goes into developing
such systems, which can then be applied to our Earthly environment. The ideal
situation would be a colony on the Moon or Mars, since it would be desirable for any
such settlement to be 100% self-sufficient. Humans are perfectly capable of learning
how to exist without destroying their environment - a project like this would force us
to do it.

2.1.2 For Our Health, Comfort and Convenience.

On one hand I think we have to be very careful about using "personal convenience" as
a motivation to do anything. In fact, I have quite an issue with pointless "convenience
products. On the other hand, if something is going to make life easier or more
efficient at no cost to the environment, then by all means let's run with it.
There are so many benefits to our everyday lives which are a direct result of the space
program that it's not possible to list them. From Teflon frying pans to personal
computers, from weather forecasts to heart monitors. The routine events which take
place on board the Space Shuttles don't attract much media attention, but they are
creating technologies, medicines and procedures which impact significantly on our

2.1.3 For Our Evolution as a Species.

This is the most important reason of. Humans have an incredible capacity to learn.
Not just as individuals, but as a species. Every single generation passes new
information and wisdom to it's successor. We now have the knowledge (albeit with
very questionable wisdom) to consciously affect our own evolution.



1000 years ago, we believed that only God could understand how the Sun shines.
100 years ago, we believed that only God could know how the age of the Universe.
In the 1990s, we assume that only God can know why we exist.
For most of our history, we believed that we were at the centre of the Universe. That
belief went hand in hand with our attitudes and religious ideas - we weren't just at the
centre of everything, we were the centre of everything. We believed that everything in
existence was provided for our benefit. The realisation that the Earth is just another
planet has allowed us to mature beyond that misunderstanding (something we're still
working on centuries later).
To learn about ourselves, we must learn about our environment.
Things that are happening at the other end of the universe are not just curiosities to
amuse a bunch of middle-aged star-gazers with no lives. Certainly we need to be
learning more about our local environment (the Earth), and how to survive as part of
it. But the wider universal environment, whilst being less urgent, is just as important.
The Truth Is Out There.



3.1 Brief History of Indian space research
India's experience in rocketry began in ancient times when fireworks were first used
in the country, a technology invented in neighbouring China, and which had an
extensive two-way exchange of ideas and goods with India, connected by the Silk
Road. Military use of rockets by Tipu Sultan during the Mysore War against the
British inspired William Congreve to invent the Congreve rocket, predecessor of
modern artillery rockets, in 1804. After India gained independence from British
occupation in 1947, Indian scientists and politicians recognized the potential of rocket
technology in both defence applications, and for research and development.
Recognizing that a country as demographically large as India would require its own
independent space capabilities and recognising the early potential of satellites in the
fields of remote sensing and communication, these visionaries set about establishing a
space research organisation.

3.1.1 1960-1970
Dr. Vikram Sarabhai was the founding father of the Indian space program, and is
considered a scientific visionary by many, as well as a national hero. After the launch
of Sputnik in 1957 he recognized the potential that satellites provided. India's first
Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, who saw scientific development as an essential
part of India's future, placed space research under the jurisdiction of the Department
of Atomic Energy in 1961. The DAE director Homi Bhabha, who was father of India's


atomic programme, then established the Indian National Committee for Sapce
Research (INCOSPAR) with Dr. Sarabhai as Chairman in 1962.
The Indian Rohini programme continued to launch sounding rockets of greater size
and complexity, and the space programme was expanded and eventually given its own
government department, separate from the Department of Atomic Energy. On August
15th 1969 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was created from the
INCOSPAR programme under the DAE, continued under the Space Commission and
finally the Department of Space, created in June of 1972.

Fig 3.1 File photo of First launch of Indian rocket near Thumba



3.1.2 1970-1980
In the 1960s Sarabhai had taken part in an early study with NASA regarding the
feasibility of using satellites for applications as wide as direct television broadcasting,
and this study had found that it was the most economical way of transmitting such
broadcasts. Having recognized the benefits that the satellites could bring to India from
the very start, Sarabhai and the ISRO set about designing and creating an independent
launch vehicle, capable of launching into orbit, and providing the valuable experience
needed for the construction of larger launch vehicles in future. Recognizing the
advanced capability India had in building solid motors with the Rohini series, and that
other nations had favoured solid rockets for similar projects, the ISRO set about
building the technology and infrastructure for the Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV).
Inspired by the American Scout rocket, the vehicle would be a four-stage all-solid
Aryabhata - India's first satellite
Meanwhile, India began developing satellite technology anticipating the remote
sensing and communication needs of the future. India concentrated more on practical
missions, directly beneficial to people instead of manned space programs or robotic
space explorations. The Aryabhata satellite, launched in 1975 from Kapustin Yar
using a Soviet Cosmos-3M launch vehicle, was India's first satellite.
SLV - India's first satellite launch vehicle
By 1979 the SLV was ready to be launched from a newly-established second launch
site, the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC). The first launch in 1979 was a failure,
attributed to a control failure in the second stage. By 1980 this problem had been
worked out. The first indigenous satellite launched by India was called Rohini-1.



Fig 3.2 Rocket launching setup in Thumba

3.1.3 1980-1990
Following the success of the SLV, ISRO was keen to begin construction of a satellite
launch vehicle that would be able to put truly useful satellites into polar orbits. Design
of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) was soon underway. This vehicle would
be designed as India's workhorse launch system, taking advantage of both old
technology with large reliable solid-stages, and new liquid engines. At the same time,
it was decided by the ISRO management that it would be prudent to develop a smaller
rocket, based on the SLV that would serve as a test bed for many of the new
technologies that would be used on the PSLV. The Augmented Satellite Launch
Vehicle (ASLV) would test technologies like strap-on boosters and new guidance
systems, so that experience could be gained before the PSLV went into full



Eventually, the ASLV was flight tested in 1987, but this launch was a failure. After
minor corrections, another launch was attempted in 1988, this launch again failed, and
this time a full investigation was launched into the cause, providing valuable
experience, specifically because the ASLV's failure had been one of control - the
vehicle could not be adequately controlled on removal of the stabilizing fins that were
present on the SLV, so extra measures like improved maneuvering thrusters and flight
control system upgrades were added. The ASLV development had also proven useful
in the development of strap-on motor technology.

3.1.4 1990-2010
It was not until 1992 that the first successful launch of the ASLV took place. At this
point the launch vehicle, which could only put very small payloads into orbit, had
achieved its objective. In 1993 the time had come for the maiden flight of the PSLV.
The first launch was a failure. The first successful launch took place in 1994, and
since then, the PSLV has become the workhorse launch vehicle - placing both remote
sensing and communications satellites into orbit, creating the largest cluster in the
world, and providing unique data to Indian industry and agriculture. Continual
performance upgrades have increased the payload capacity of the rocket significantly
since then.
Currently the most powerful Indian launch vehicle in operation; the first development
flight of the GSLV took place in 2001. The programs benefits have been scrutinized
due to frequent payload cutbacks and delays. The indigenous cryogenic engine for the
GSLV's upper stage was tested in 2007. ISRO has reconsidered the effectiveness of
the GSLV for the needs of the 2000-2010 decade and began development of an
indigenous and new heavy launch vehicle, GSLV III. The latter is not related to the
GSLV-I/II and will be based around the proven format of liquid main stages and two
solid strap-on boosters. It will resemble the Ariane 5 and other modern launchers and




will have sufficient payload capacity for manned spaceflight. The inaugural flight is
scheduled for 2008.
Chandrayaan 2008: ISRO intends to send a small robotic spacecraft into lunar orbit
mounted on a modified PSLV. It will survey the surface of the moon in greater detail
than ever before and attempt to locate resources. Countries, including the US have
expressed interest in attaching their own payloads to the mission. ISRO and NASA
have an agreement to carry two NASA probes as a payload.
AVATAR Scramjet: This is a long-term project to develop a reusable launch vehicle
(RLV) restricted to the launch of satellites. Theoretically, AVATAR would be a cost
effective launch vehicle for small satellites and therefore a commercially competitive
launch system. A scaled-down technology demonstrator is scheduled to fly c.2008.
Recently ISRO successfully tested a scramjet air breathing engine which produced
Mach 6 for seven seconds. ISRO will continue research related to using scramjets in
RLVs after 2010.
ISRO has entered the lucrative market of launching payloads of other nations.
Prominent among them are the launches of Israel Space Agencys, TecSAR spy
satellite, and Israeli Tauvex-II satellite module. The CARTOSAT-2, launched on the
July 2006, carried a small Indonesian payload of 56 kg.
Leveraging its expertise in cryogenic technology to design Hydrogen fuel cells to
store and handling of hydrogen; ISRO teamed up with Tata motors to develop a
prototype hydrogen passenger car for Indian market, expected to hit road by end of
On November 15, 2007 ISRO achieved a significant milestone through the successful
test of indigenously developed Cryogenic Stage, to be employed as the upper stage of
India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). The test was conducted for
its full flight duration of 720 seconds on November 15, 2007 at Liquid Propulsion test
facility at Mahendragiri, in Tamil Nadu.



The Indian Space Research Organization is the primary space agency of India. ISRO
is among the largest government space agencies in the world. Its primary objective is
to advance space technology and use its applications for national benefit.
Established in 1969, ISRO superseded the erstwhile Indian National Committee for
Space Research (INCOSPAR) (established in 1962 by Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru, the
1st Prime Minister of the Indian Government), thus institutionalizing space activities
in India, which emanated from a shared vision of Jawaharlal Nehru and Vikram
Sarabhai , the 1st chairman of INCOSPAR
ISRO has several field installations as assets, and cooperates with the international
community as a part of several bilateral and multilateral agreements. In June 2014, it
launched five foreign satellites by the PSLV.

Fig 4.1 Formation of ISRO in 1969

4.1 Formative years




Modern space research in India is most visibly traced to the 1920s, when the scientist
S. K. Mitra conducted a series of experiments leading to the sounding of the
ionosphere by application of ground based radio methods in Calcutta. Later, Indian
scientists like C.V. Raman and Meghnad Saha contributed to scientific principles
applicable in space sciences. However, it was the period after 1945 which saw
important developments being made in coordinated space research in India. Organised
space research in India was spearheaded by two scientists: Vikram Sarabhaifounder
of the Physical Research Laboratory at Ahmedabadand Homi Bhabha, who
established the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in 1945.
In 1950, the Department of Atomic Energy was founded with Homi Bhabha as its
secretary. The Department provided funding for space research throughout India.
During this time, tests continued on aspects of meteorology and the Earth's magnetic
field, a topic which was being studied in India since the establishment of the
observatory at Colaba in 1823. In 1954, the Uttar Pradesh state observatory was
established at the foothills of the Himalayas. The Rangpur Observatory was set up in
1957 at Osmania University, Hyderabad. Both these facilities enjoyed the technical
support and scientific cooperation of the United States of America.
As a mark of respect, ISRO placed the Indian National Flag on the moon's surface on
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru's birthday(November 14) in the year 2008. The Indian flag
was painted on the sides of Moon Impact Probe (MIP), one of the 11 payloads of
Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, that successfully hit the lunar surface at 20:31 hrs (8:31
pm) IST. It was the first Indian built object to reach the surface of the moon

4.2 Goals and objectives




The prime objective of Indian space research organisation (ISRO) is to develop space
technology and its application to various national tasks. The Indian space programme
was driven by the vision of Dr Vikram Sarabhai, considered the father of Indian Space
Programme. As he said in 1969: Both China and India are great countries,

There are some who question the relevance of space activities in a d

As the former Indian President Dr APJ Abdul Kalam said:

Many individuals with myopic vision questioned the relevance of sp

India's economic progress has made its space programme more visible and active as
the country aims for greater self-reliance in space technology. Hennock etc. hold that
India also connects space exploration to national prestige, further stating: "This year
India has launched 11 satellites, including nine from other countriesand it became
the first nation to launch 10 satellites on one rocket." ISRO has successfully put into
operation two major satellite systems namely Indian National Satellites (INSAT) for
communication services and Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites for management
of natural resources. ISRO has also developed the PSLV for launching IRS type of
satellites and GSLV for launching INSAT type of satellites.
On July 2012, the former President, Dr APJ Abdul Kalam said that research was being
done by ISRO and DRDO for developing cost reduction technologies for access to

4.3 Launch vehicle fleet

During the 1960s and 1970s, India initiated its own launch vehicle programme owing
to geopolitical and economic considerations. In the 1960s1970s, the country



successfully developed a sounding rockets programme, and by the 1980s, research

had yielded the Satellite Launch Vehicle-3 and the more advanced Augmented
Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV), complete with operational supporting infrastructure.

ISRO further applied its energies to the advancement of launch vehicle technology

resulting in the creation of PSLV and GSLV technologies.

The Satellite Launch Vehicle, usually known by its abbreviation SLV or SLV-3 was a
4-stage solid-propellant light launcher. It was intended to reach a height of 500 km
and carry a payload of 40 kg.[21] Its first launch took place in 1979 with 2 more in each
subsequent year, and the final launch in 1983. Only two of its four test flights were

4.4 Earth observation and communication satellites

India's first satellite, the Aryabhata, was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April
1975 from Kapustin Yar using a Cosmos-3M launch vehicle. This was followed by
the Rohini series of experimental satellites which were built and launched
indigenously. At present, ISRO operates a large number of earth observation satellites.
The INSAT series
INSAT (Indian National Satellite System) is a series of multipurpose geostationary
satellites launched by ISRO to satisfy the telecommunications, broadcasting,
meteorology and search-and-rescue needs of India. Commissioned in 1983, INSAT is
the largest domestic communication system in the Asia-Pacific Region. It is a joint
venture of the Department of Space, Department of Telecommunications, India
Meteorological Department, All India Radio and Doordarshan. The overall
coordination and management of INSAT system rests with the Secretary-level INSAT
Coordination Committee.
The IRS series
Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of earth observation satellites,
built, launched and maintained by ISRO. The IRS series provides remote sensing



services to the country. The Indian Remote Sensing Satellite system is the largest
constellation of remote sensing satellites for civilian use in operation today in the
world. All the satellites are placed in polar Sun-synchronous orbit and provide data in
a variety of spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions to enable several programmes to
be undertaken relevant to national development. The initial versions are composed of
the 1 (A, B, C, D) nomenclature. The later versions are named based on their area of
application including OceanSat, CartoSat, Resource Sat.
Radar Imaging Satellites
ISRO currently operates two Radar Imaging Satellites. RISAT-1 was launched from
Sriharikota Spaceport on 26 April 2012 on board a PSLV.RISAT-1 carries a C-band
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) payload, operating in a multi-polarisation and multiresolution mode and can provide images with coarse, fine and high spatial resolutions.
India also operates RISAT-2 which was launched in 2009 and acquired from Israel at
a cost $110 million.

4.5 Satellite navigation

The Ministry of Civil Aviation has decided to implement an indigenous SatelliteBased Regional GPS Augmentation System also known as Space-Based
Augmentation System (SBAS) as part of the Satellite-Based Communications,
Navigation and Surveillance (CNS)/Air Traffic Management (ATM) plan for civil
aviation. The Indian SBAS system has been given an acronym GAGAN GPS Aided
GEO Augmented Navigation. A national plan for satellite navigation including
implementation of Technology Demonstration System (TDS) over the Indian air space
as a proof of concept has been prepared jointly by Airports Authority of India (AAI)
and ISRO. TDS was successfully completed during 2007 by installing eight Indian




Reference Stations (INRESs) at eight Indian airports and linked to the Master Control
Centre (MCC) located near Bengaluru.
The first GAGAN navigation payload has been fabricated and it was proposed to be
flown on GSAT-4 during Apr 2010. However, GSAT-4 was not placed in orbit as
GSLV-D3 could not complete the mission. Two more GAGAN payloads will be
subsequently flown, one each on two geostationary satellites, GSAT-8 and GSAT-10.
On 12 May 2012, ISRO announced the successful testing of its indigenous cryogenic
engine for 200 seconds for its forthcoming GSLV-D5 flight.[40]
The IRNSS series
IRNSS is an independent regional navigation satellite system being developed by
India. It is designed to provide accurate position information service to users in India
as well as the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary, which is its primary
service area. IRNSS will provide two types of services, namely, Standard Positioning
Service (SPS) and Restricted Service (RS) and is expected to provide a position
accuracy of better than 20 m in the primary service area. [41] It is an autonomous
regional satellite navigation system being developed by Indian Space Research
Organisation which would be under total control of Indian government. The
requirement of such a navigation system is driven by the fact that access to Global
Navigation Satellite Systems like GPS are not guaranteed in hostile situations. ISRO
On 4 April 2014, at 17:14 Hrs IST ISRO has launched IRNSS-1B from Sriharikota, its
second of seven IRNSS series. After 19 mins of launch PSLV-C24 was successfully
injected into its orbit.

4.6 Human spaceflight programme

The Indian Space Research Organisation has proposed a budget of 124 billion
(US$2.0 billion) for its human spaceflight programme. [44] According to the Space
Commission which recommended the budget, an unmanned flight will be launched



after 7 years of final approval.


and a manned mission will be launch after 7 years of

funding.[46][47] If realised in the stated time-frame, India will become the fourth nation,
after the USSR, US and China, to successfully carry out manned missions
The Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SCRE or more commonly SRE or SRE-1)

is an experimental Indian spacecraft which was launched using the PSLV C7

rocket, along with three other satellites. It remained in orbit for 12 days before reentering the Earth's atmosphere and splashing down into the Bay of Bengal. [49] The
SRE-1 was designed to demonstrate the capability to recover an orbiting space
capsule, and the technology for performing experiments in the microgravity
conditions of an orbiting platform. It was also intended to test thermal protection,
navigation, guidance, control, deceleration and flotation systems, as well as study
hypersonic aero-thermodynamics, management of communication blackouts, and
recovery operations. ISRO also plans to launch SRE-2 and SRE-3 in the near future to
test advanced re-entry technology for future manned missions.[50]

4.7 Planetary sciences and astronomy

India's space era dawned when the first two-stage sounding rocket was launched from
Thumba in 1963. Even before this, noteworthy contributions were made by the Indian
scientists in the following areas of space science research:[citation needed]

Cosmic rays and high energy astronomy using both ground based as well as
balloon borne experiments/studies such as neutron/meson monitors, Geiger
Muller particle detectors/counters etc.

Ionospheric research using ground based radio propagation techniques such as

ionosonde, VLF/HF/VHF radio probing, a chain of magnetometer stations etc.




Upper atmospheric research using ground based optical techniques such as

Dobson spectrometers for measurement of total ozone content, air glow
photometers etc.

Indian astronomers have been carrying out major investigations using a

number of ground based optical and radio telescopes with varying

With the advent of the Indian space programme, emphasis was laid on indigenous,
self-reliant and state-of-the-art development of technology for immediate practical
applications in the fields of space science research activities in the country.
One of most important achievements of ISRO in this field was the discovery of three
species of bacteria in the upper stratosphere at an altitude of between 2040 km. The
bacteria, highly resistant to ultra-violet radiation, are not found elsewhere on Earth,
leading to speculation on whether they are extraterrestrial in origin. These three
bacteria can be considered to be extremophiles. Until then, the upper stratosphere was
believed to be inhospitable because of the high doses of ultra-violet radiation. The
bacteria were named as Bacillus isronensis in recognition of ISRO's contribution in
the balloon experiments, which led to its discovery, Bacillus aryabhata after India's
celebrated ancient astronomer Aryabhata and Janibacter Hoylei after the distinguished
astrophysicist Fred Hoyle

4.8 Extraterrestrial exploration

First mission to the Moon: Chandrayaan-1
Chandrayaan-1 was India's first mission to the Moon. The unmanned lunar
exploration mission included a lunar orbiter and an impactor called the Moon Impact
Probe. ISRO launched the spacecraft using a modified version of the PSLV on 22
October 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. The vehicle was
successfully inserted into lunar orbit on 8 November 2008. It carried high-resolution



remote sensing equipment for visible, near infrared, and soft and hard X-ray
frequencies. During its 312 days operational period (2 years planned), it surveyed the
lunar surface to produce a complete map of its chemical characteristics and 3dimensional topography. The polar regions were of special interest, as they possibly
had ice deposits. The spacecraft carried a total of 11 instruments: 5 Indian and 6 from
foreign institutes and space agencies (including NASA, ESA, Bulgarian Academy of









institutes/companies) which were carried free of cost. Chandrayaan-1 became the first
lunar mission to discover existence of water on the Moon.
Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalayaan)
Artist's rendering of the Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft, with Mars in the
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), informally known as 'Mangalayaan' was launched
into Earth orbit on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation
(ISRO) and has entered Mars orbit on 24 September 2014.[57] India is the first country
to enter Mars orbit in first attempt. It was completed at a record cost of $74 million.[58]
MOM was successfully placed into Mars orbit on September 24, 2014 at 8:23 AM
IST. It has a highly elliptical orbit with a periapsis of 421.7 km (262.0 mi) and an
apoapsis of 76,993.6 km (47,841.6 mi).
The spacecraft had a launch mass of 1,337 kg (2,948 lb), with 15 kg (33 lb) of five
scientific instruments as payload.

4.9 Applications
India uses its satellites communication network one of the largest in the world for
applications such as land management, water resources management, natural disaster



forecasting, radio networking, weather forecasting, meteorological imaging and

computer communication. Business, administrative services, and schemes such as the
National Informatics Centre (NICNET) are direct beneficiaries of applied satellite
technology. Dinshaw Mistry, on the subject of practical applications of the Indian
space programme, writes:
"The INSAT-2 satellites also provide telephone links to remote areas; data
transmission for organisations such as the National Stock Exchange; mobile
satellite service communications for private operators, railways, and road
transport; and broadcast satellite services, used by India's state-owned
television agency as well as commercial television channels. India's EDUSAT
(Educational Satellite), launched aboard the GSLV in 2004, was intended for
adult literacy and distance learning applications in rural areas. It augmented
and would eventually replace such capabilities already provided by INSAT3B."
India's satellites and satellite launch vehicles have had military spin-offs. While
India's 93124-mile (150250 km) range Prithvi missile is not derived from the
Indian space programme, the intermediate range Agni missile is drawn from the
Indian space programme's SLV-3. In its early years, when headed by Vikram Sarabhai
and Satish Dhawan, ISRO opposed military applications for its dual-use projects such
as the SLV-3. Eventually, however, the Defence Research and Development
Organisation(DRDO)based missile programme borrowed human resources and
technology from ISRO. Missile scientist Dr APJ Abdul Kalam (elected president of
India in 2002), who had headed the SLV-3 project at ISRO, moved to DRDO to direct
India's missile programme. About a dozen scientists accompanied Kalam from ISRO
to DRDO, where he designed the Agni missile using the SLV-3's solidfuel first stage
and a liquid-fuel (Prithvi-missile-derived) second stage. The IRS and INSAT satellites
were primarily intended and used for civilian-economic applications, but they also
offered military spin-offs. In 1996 New Delhi's Ministry of Defence temporarily



blocked the use of IRS-1C by India's environmental and agricultural ministries in

order to monitor ballistic missiles near India's borders. In 1997 the Indian air force's
"Airpower Doctrine" aspired to use space assets for surveillance and battle
Institutions like the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) and the Indian
Institutes of Technology use satellites for scholarly applications.[71] Between 1975 and
1976, India conducted its largest sociological programme using space technology,
reaching 2400 villages through video programming in local languages aimed at
educational development via ATS-6 technology developed by NASA. This
experimentnamed Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE)conducted
large scale video broadcasts resulting in significant improvement in rural education.
Full Credit should go to ISRO for open education revolution in India . Education
could reach far remote rural places with the help of above programmes.
ISRO has applied its technology to "telemedicine", directly connecting patients in
rural areas to medical professionals in urban locations via satellites. Since highquality healthcare is not universally available in some of the remote areas of India, the
patients in remote areas are diagnosed and analysed by doctors in urban centres in real
time via video conferencing. The patient is then advised medicine and treatment. The
patient is then treated by the staff at one of the 'super-specialty hospitals' under
instructions from the doctor. Mobile telemedicine vans are also deployed to visit
locations in far-flung areas and provide diagnosis and support to patients.[71]
International co-operation
ISRO has had international cooperation since inception. Some instances are listed




Establishment of TERLS, conduct of SITE & STEP, launches of Aryabhata,

Bhaskara, APPLE, IRS-IA and IRS-IB/ satellites, manned space mission, etc.
involved international cooperation.

ISRO operates LUT/MCC under the international COSPAS/SARSAT

Programme for Search and Rescue.

India has established a Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in
Asia and the Pacific (CSSTE-AP) that is sponsored by the United Nations.

India hosted the Second UN-ESCAP Ministerial Conference on Space

Applications for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific in
November 1999.

India is a member of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of







Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), Inter-Agency Space Debris

Coordination Committee (IADC), International Space University, and the
Committee on Earth Observation Satellite (CEOS).

Chandrayaan-1 carried scientific payloads from NASA, ESA, Bulgarian Space

Agency, and other institutions/companies in North America and Europe.

The United States government on 24 January 2011, removed several Indian

government agencies, including ISRO, from the so-called Entity List, in an
effort to drive hi-tech trade and forge closer strategic ties with India.

ISRO carries out joint operations with foreign space agencies, such as the
Indo-French Megha-Tropiques Mission.

At the International Astronautical Congress 2014 at Toronto, ISRO chairman

K. Radhakrishnan and NASA administrator Charles Bolden signed two




documents. One was regarding the 2020 launch of a NASA-ISRO Synthetic

Aperture Radar (NISAR) satellite mission to make global measurements of the
causes and consequences of land surface changes. The other was to establish a
pathway for future joint missions to explore Mars.
Antrix Corporation, the commercial and marketing arm of ISRO, handles both
domestic and foreign deals

5.1 Origins



Most space launch vehicles trace their heritage to ballistic missiles developed for
military use during the 1950s and early 60s. Those missiles in turn were based on the
ideas first developed by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in Russia, Robert Goddard in the
United States, and Hermann Oberth in Germany. Each of these pioneers of space
exploration recognized the centrality of developing successful launch vehicles if
humanity were to gain access to outer space.
Tsiolkovsky late in the 19th century was the first to recognize the need for rockets to
be constructed with separate stages if they were to achieve orbital velocity. Oberths
classic 1923 book, Die Rakete zu den Planetenrumen (The Rocket into
Interplanetary Space), explained the mathematical theory of rocketry and applied the
theory to rocket design. Oberths works also led to the creation of a number of rocket
clubs in Germany, as enthusiasts tried to turn Oberths ideas into practical devices.
Goddard was the first to build experimental liquid-fueled rockets; his first rocket,
launched in Auburn, Massachusetts, on March 16, 1926, rose 12.5 metres (41 feet)
and traveled 56 metres (184 feet) from its launching place.

5.2 Working
Launch vehicle, in spaceflight, a rocket-powered vehicle used to transport a spacecraft
beyond Earths atmosphere, either into orbit around Earth or to some other destination
in outer space. Practical launch vehicles have been used to send manned spacecraft,
unmanned space probes, and satellites into space since the 1950s. They include the
Soyuz and Proton launchers of Russia as well as several converted military missiles;
Russia is developing a new family of launchers called Angara. Europe operates the
Ariane V and Vega launchers. The United States operated the space shuttle until its
retirement in 2011. Current U.S. launch vehicles include the Atlas, Delta, Falcon, and
Antares expendable boosters.
In order to reach Earth orbit, a launch vehicle must accelerate its spacecraft payload to
a minimum velocity of 28,000 km (17,500 miles) per hour, which is roughly 25 times
the speed of sound. To overcome Earths gravity for travel to a destination such as the
Moon or Mars, the spacecraft must be accelerated to a velocity of approximately
40,000 km (25,000 miles) per hour. The initial acceleration must also be provided



very rapidly in order to minimize both the time that a launch vehicle takes to transit
the stressful environment of the atmosphere and the time during which the vehicles
rocket engines and other systems must operate near their performance limits; a launch
from Earths surface or atmosphere usually attains orbital velocity within 812
minutes. Such rapid acceleration requires one or more rocket engines burning large
quantities of propellant at a high rate, while at the same time the vehicle is controlled
so that it follows its planned trajectory. To maximize the mass of the spacecraft that a
particular launch vehicle can carry, the vehicles structural weight is kept as low as
possible. Most of the weight of the launch vehicle is actually its propellantsi.e., fuel
and the oxidizer needed to burn the fuel. Designing reliable launch vehicles is
challenging. The launchers with the best recent records have a reliability rate between
95 and 99 percent.

5.3 Principles of Rocket Propulsion

A rocket is a machine that develops thrust by the rapid expulsion of matter. The major
components of a chemical rocket assembly are a rocket motor or engine, propellant
consisting of fuel and an oxidizer, a frame to hold the components, control systems
and a cargo such as a satellite. A rocket differs from other engines in that it carries its
fuel and oxidizer internally, therefore it will burn in the vacuum of space as well as
within the Earth's atmosphere. The cargo is commonly referred to as the payload. A
rocket is called a launch vehicle when it is used to launch a satellite or other payload
into space. A rocket becomes a missile when the payload is a warhead and it is used as
a weapon. At present, rockets are the only means capable of achieving the altitude and
velocity necessary to put a payload into orbit.
There are a number of terms used to describe the power generated by a rocket.

Thrust is the force generated, measured in pounds or kilograms. Thrust

generated by the first stage must be greater than the weight of the complete
launch vehicle while standing on the launch pad in order to get it moving.
Once moving upward, thrust must continue to be generated to accelerate the
launch vehicle against the force of the Earth's gravity. To place a satellite into




orbit around the Earth, thrust must continue until the minimum altitude and
orbital velocity have been attained or the launch vehicle will fall back to the
Earth. Minimum altitude is rarely desirable, therefore thrust must continue to
be generated to gain additional orbital altitude.

The impulse, sometimes called total impulse, is the product of thrust and the
effective firing duration. A shoulder fired rocket such as the LAW has an
average thrust of 600 lbs and a firing duration of 0.2 seconds for an impulse of
120 lbsec. The Saturn V rocket, used during the Apollo program, not only
generated much more thrust but also for a much longer time. It had an impulse
of 1.15 billion lbsec.

The efficiency of a rocket engine is measured by its specific impulse (Isp).

Specific impulse is defined as the thrust divided by the mass of propellant
consumed per second. The result is expressed in seconds. The specific impulse
can be thought of as the number of seconds that one pound of propellant will
produce one pound of thrust. If thrust is expressed in pounds, a specific
impulse of 300 seconds is considered good. Higher values are better.

A rocket's mass ratio is defined as the total mass at liftoff divided by the mass
remaining after all the propellant has been consumed. A high mass ratio means
that more propellant is pushing less launch vehicle and payload mass, resulting
in higher velocity. A high mass ratio is necessary to achieve the high velocities
needed to put a payload into orbit.

Rocket Engines
Many different types of rocket engines have been designed or proposed. Currently, the
most powerful are the chemical propellant rocket engines. Other types being designed
or that are proposed are ion rockets, photon rockets, magnetohydrodynamic drives
and nuclear fission rockets; however, they are generally more suitable for providing




long term thrust in space rather than launching a rocket and its payload from the
Earth's surface into space.
Liquid Propellants
Liquid propellant rocket engines burn two separately stored liquid chemicals, a fuel
and an oxidizer, to produce thrust.
Cryogenic Propellant
A cryogenic propellant is one that uses very cold, liquefied gases as the fuel and the
oxidizer. Liquid oxygen boils at 297 F and liquid hydrogen boils at 423 F. Cryogenic
propellants require special insulated containers and vents to allow gas from the
evaporating liquids to escape. The liquid fuel and oxidizer are pumped from the
storage tanks to an expansion chamber and injected into the combustion chamber
where they are mixed and ignited by a flame or spark. The fuel expands as it burns
and the hot exhaust gases are directed out of the nozzle to provide thrust.
Hypbrid Propellants
Hybrid propellant rocket engines attempt to capture the advantages of both liquid and
solid fueled rocket engines. The basic design of a hybrid consists of a combustion
chamber tube, similar to ordinary solid fueled rockets, packed with a solid chemical,
usually the fuel. Above the combustion chamber tube is a tank, containing a
complementary reactive liquid chemical, usually the oxidizer.

Various Launch Vehicles
6.1 Satellite Launch Vehicle-3
Satellite Launch Vehicle-3 (SLV-3), India's first experimental satellite launch vehicle
was successfully launched on July 18, 1980 from SHAR Centre Sriharikota, when
Rohini satellite, RS-1, was placed in orbit. SLV-3 was a 22 m long, all solid, four
stage vehicle weighing 17 tonnes capable of placing 40 kg class payloads in low earth



It employed an open loop guidance (with stored pitch programme) to steer the vehicle
in flight along pre-determined trajectory. The first experimental flight of SLV-3, in
August 1979, was only partially successful. Apart from the July 1980 launch, there
were two more launches held in May 1981 and April 1983, orbiting Rohini satellites
carrying remote sensing sensors.

Fig 6.1 Launch photo of SLV in 1980

6.2 Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle

Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) was developed to act as a low cost
intermediate vehicle to demonstrate and validate critical technologies. With a lift off
weight of 40 tonnes, the 23.8 m tall ASLV was configured as a five stage, all-solid
propellant vehicle, with a mission of orbiting 150 kg class satellites into 400 km
circular orbits. The strap-on stage consisted of two identical 1m diameter solid
propellant motors, Under the ASLV programme four developmental flights were

6.3 Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle

The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, usually known by its abbreviation PSLV is the
first operational launch vehicle of ISRO. PSLV is capable of launching 1600 kg



satellites in 620 km sun-synchronous polar orbit and 1050 kg satellite in geosynchronous transfer orbit. In the standard configuration, it measures 44.4 m tall, with
a lift off weight of 295 tonnes. PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion
systems alternately. The first stage is one of the largest solid propellant boosters in the
world and carries 139 tonnes of propellant. A cluster of six strap-ons attached to the
first stage motor, four of which are ignited on the ground and two are air-lit.

Fig 6.2 Photo of PSLV

6.4 Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)-Mark I & II, is capable of placing
INSATII class of satellites (2000 2,500 kg) into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit
(GTO). GSLV is a three stage vehicle GSLV is 49 m tall, with 414 t lift off weight.
It has a maximum diameter of 3.4 m at the payload fairing. First stage comprises S125
solid booster with four liquid (L40) strap-ons. Second stage (GS2) is liquid engine
and the third stage (GS3) is a cryo stage.
The vehicle develops a lift off thrust of 6573 kn. The first flight of GSLV took place
from SHAR on April 18, 2001 by launching 1540 kg GSAT-1. It was followed by six



more launches, GSLV-D2 on May 8, 2003 (GSAT-2 1825 kg), GSLV-F01 on

September 20, 2004 (EDUSAT 1950 kg), GSLV-F02 on July 10, 2006, GSLV-F04 on
September 2, 2007 (INSAT-4CR 2130 kg), GSLV-D3 on April 15, 2010, GSLV-F06
on December 25, 2010 and GSLV-D5 on January 05, 2014 (GSAT-14 1982 kg).

Fig 6.3 Photo of GSLV

Where do we stand now?
After the successful launch of India's first lunar probe, the head of the Indian Space
Research Organisation, Gopalan Madhavan Nair, raised both his hands in a "thumbs
up" sign at a post-launch press briefing, inspiring the rest of his colleagues to do the




Fig 7.1 Launch Vehicles at at a glance

The Chandrayaan-1 probe was launched into space aboard a homemade rocket - an
upgraded Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-11. Chandrayaan-1 boasts 11
instruments and is designed to study the Moon in more detail than ever before.
After the Moon, "Mars is our natural next destination," said the ISRO chief.
But these new missions mean a whole new rocket technology for India. It will have to
modify some features of its Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), which
currently launches 2-tonne spacecraft for weather observation and telecommunication




Identifying potential astronauts and training them is another challenge, but two NASA
astronauts of Indian descent - both women - are already providing plenty of
inspiration for the country's hopeful space-farers. Kalpana Chawla was a crew
member aboard NASA's space shuttle Columbia, which was destroyed when it reentered the atmosphere in 2003. And last year Sunita Williams broke the record for
the longest stay in space by a woman and became the first person to run a marathon in

India occupies a unique position in the world having formulated its own nuclear
programme and cultivated self-reliance in areas of reactor technology and its entire
associated fuel cycle. Similarly, in the high-tech area of space research India can now
design, build and operate state-of-the-art communication and remote sensing satellites



as well as launch 1000 kg class remote sensing satellites into polar sunsynchronous
orbit. Many of the technologies developed for the nuclear and space research
programmes are now finding their way into the market and being used in other
sectors. Indian industry is striving to keep pace with these developments.
In the field of Aeronautics, the country has developed and successfully flown an allcomposite trainer aircraft. Projects are in hand for the development of Light Transport
Aircraft and Light Combat Aircraft.
The major programmes being pursued in the field of marine sciences include
exploration and exploitation of living and non-living marine resources, study of airsea interactions, coastal zone management and scientific expeditions to Antarctica.
India has established its reputation for carrying out oceanographic surveys. A major
assignment completed was the comprehensive survey of the Caribbean waters under
the CORE project.