Reproduction System Purpose: continuity of the species MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 1.

Penis – Organ that contains the urethra (tube) through which urine and semen (sperm and secretions) are discharged ○ Urine and semen are not secreted at the same time – valve controls release of sperm ○ Penis allows sperm to be transferred into the female ○ Urethra is surrounded by areas of special erectile tissues  Expanded ends of tissue make up the tip of the penis  glans  Normally covered by foreskin (circumcision removes foreskin) – Sexual excitement ○ Erection: vasodilation of arteries leading into the penis  Parasympathetic response ○ Ejaculation: semen moved out of the body through the urethra, release of semen  Sympathetic response  Volume: 3.5mL (120 000 000 sperm on average, less than 20 million are infertile) 1. Scrotum – Paired sac that holds the testes and epididymus outside the abdominal cavity – Allows for the production and storage of mature sperm to occur at lower temperatures than that of the abdomen – Has musculature to contract and relax to position for proper sperm production (scrotum moves closer to body when it’s cold, moves out when it’s warm) 1. Testicles – Includes testes, epididymus, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct ○ Testis (pl. testes)  Sperm (gamete) production organ  Arise early in embryonic development low in abdominal cavity  At about the time of birth, testes descend through the inguinal canal and come to lie external to the body sac (allows for proper temperature for sperm production – 2 to 3˚C)  Cryptochidism: testes fail to descend • It’s fine if it is corrected prior to puberty through surgery  2 functions of tests: a) Produce sperm: – Seminiferous tubules (about 700 feet) – produce 100 000 000 sperm/24 hours – Maturation of sperm takes about 75 days – In the walls of the seminiferous tubules are Sertoli cells which anchor and nourish sperm until mature – Sperm anatomy: i. Acrosome: contains enzymes for penetration (head)

ii.Flagellum: for motility iii.Mitochondria: “motor” iv.Microtubules: contains nucleus and chromosomes – Freshly ejaculated sperm are incapable of fertilizing until 23 hours later b) Endocrine glands: – Interstitial cells (Leydig Cells) interspersed between the seminiferous tubules in the testes produce male sex hormones (androgens) i. Testosterone – Primary sex characteristics (required for reproduction and specific to gender – eg. Having a penis) – Secondary sex characteristics (not required for reproduction but specific to gender – eg. Facial hair, deep voice) – Graph of testosterone levels:

(testosterone levels become slower as age increases) Pathway of Sperm: Seminiferous tubules  vas efferens  epididymis  vas deferens  ejaculatory duct  urethra 1. Accessory Structures a. Prostate Gland: – Not a paired structure – Surrounds urethra and parts of ejaculatory duct – Contraction of smooth muscle in gland help to push semen out during ejaculation – Secretions make semen alkaline (basic pH) which improves sperm motility and neutralizes acidic environment in female reproductive duct b. Cowper’s Gland: – Also called bulbourethral gland – Secretion neutralizes any acid left by urine – Also secretes alkaline solution and mucus c. Seminal Vesicle: – Secrete thick, yellow, alkaline substance which contains fructose (energy source) and citric acid

– Does not store sperm – Secretes prostaglandins (hormones) • React with cervical mucus to make it more receptive to sperm • Possibly causing reverse peristalsis in uterus and fallopian tubes to facilitate sperm movement FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 1. Vagina – Birth canal – Muscular tube (8 cm) – Connects cervix of the uterus to the exterior – Receives erect stimulus during sexual intercourse – Opens to outside 2. Cervix – Neck-like part – Entrance to uterus – Capable of very wide dilation during childbirth 3. Uterus (womb) – Virtually at a right angle to the vagina – Specialized to allow the embryo to become implanted in its inner wall and to nourish the growing fetus from the maternal blood – 3 layers: ○ Peritoneum (outer) ○ Myometrium (middle) – labour, cramps ○ Endometrium (inner) – sloughed off every 28 days during menstrual cycle – Endometriosus: ○ presence of endometrial tissues at sites other than the lining of the uterine cavity – such as ovaries, fallopian tube, outer layer of uterus ○ Results in blockage which can cause infertility ○ If not treated, may lead to infertility – NOTE: area where cancer often begins – uterine cancer/cervical cancer ○ Pap smears should be done periodically (tissue taken off from uterus and analyzed) 4. Fallopian Tube (oviducts) – Found at the top of the uterus on each side – Function is to conduct ova (eggs) from the ovary to the uterus – Not physically attached to the ovaries ○ Fimbraie (finger-like projections) help draw the egg into the fallopian tubes Right arm = fallopian tube, right hand = fimbraie, left fist = ovary – Fertilization occurs near the ovarian end of the fallopian tube (must take place within 24 hours of ovulation) – Movement of the egg down the fallopian tube is through peristalsis ○ Cilia in the tube also helps move the egg

○ Takes 3-5 days for the egg to travel through the fallopian tube (10-12 cm)

5. Ovaries (female gonads) – Main female reproduction organs – Produces egg cells which are nonmotile – Produces steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) – Held in place by ligaments – Each ovary contains numerous follicles (“shell”) each containing an egg – Follicle serves as the endocrine gland – All immature eggs are produced before birth ○ 30th week of gestation – 7 million eggs ○ At birth – 2 million ○ Puberty – 300 000 – 400 000 ○ 300 to 400 mature eggs released in a life time ○ At puberty, 1 mature egg is released every 28 days ○ Will occur usually until the age of 45-50 ○ When female has no more eggs to release she goes into menopause (physiological) ○ Fertilization must take place to complete meiosis II ○ As many as 20 follicles can begin development at the beginning of the menstrual cycle ○ Older eggs have more chances of having problems with the baby 6. External Genital Organs – Mons pubis – Labia majora – Labia minora – Clitoris (equivalent to penis) – Vestibule – Bartholin’s glands Gonadotropic Hormones - regulate the production of sex hormones - class of hormones synthesized and secreted by the anterior pituitary that act on the gonads (testes and ovaries) - may be given by injection to treat infertility - include FSH, LH (ICSH), and prolactin - Follicle Stimulating Hormone: ○ Stimulates ripening of the follicles (containing eggs) in the ovaries ○ Stimulates formation of sperm in the testes and the development of seminiferous tubules ○ Rise in FSH secretion initiates female puberty and fertility – Ovary responds to FSH by producing estrogens – Estrogen stimulates secondary sex characteristics in females - Luteinizing Hormone: ○ Synthesized and released by anterior pituitary ○ Stimulates ovulation (release of egg – Day 14)

Corpus luteum formation (remains of follicles) Estrogen synthesis by the ovary and progesterone synthesis by the corpus luteum ○ Androgen synthesis in the interstitial cells of the testes – Androgen: general term for a male sex hormone – key androgen is testosterone Sex Hormones - Testosterone ○ Principle male sex hormone ○ Secreted by the interstitial cells of the testes ○ Functions: – Development of primary sex characteristics – Development of secondary sex characteristics – Also stimulates protein synthesis in muscle (enhances athletic performance) – anabolic steroid anabalic – build up, catabolic – break down – Found in both sexes – only difference is in quantity - Estrogen ○ Class of steroid hormones ○ Have two major functions: I. Promote growth and function of the sex organs (Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina) and development of the secondary sex characteristics (start of adolescence – mammary gland development, pelvis broadens, genital organs enlarge, hair develops, and development of fat deposits) II. Menstrual cycle  Prepares body of possible pregnancy  Development of endometrium to become thicker and richly supplied with blood ○ Estrogens are mainly synthesized in the ovary (specifically by the follicle) and are stimulated by FSH and LH ○ FHS and LH increase  estrogen levels increase ○ Estrogens are a major constituent in oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ○ Estrogens are formed in Sertoli cells in males, probably important for conversion of spermatocytes to sperm ○ Small amounts of estrogens are also produced in adrenal cortex, testes (hypersecretion – feminization) and placenta
○ ○

- Progesterone ○ Secreted by the corpus luteum (produced after ovulation) which serves as an endocrine gland ○ Small amounts of progesterone are also produced by the adrenal cortex, testes, and placenta ○ Secretion of progesterone continues for about ten days after ovulation – the high level of progesterone in the blood stream functions during the menstrual cycle: 1. Stimulate further development of the lining of the uterus, specifically the endometrium. • Cells swell due to the extra quantities of glycogen, proteins, lipids, and even some necessary minerals for the development of the zygote (fertilized egg)

2. Inhibit contraction of the smooth muscle (myometrium) in the uterus. Eg. Inhibits

cramps 3. Causes slight enlargement of the mammary glands 4. Inhibits the development of a new follicle  the purpose of the above functions is for the preparation of the uterus for pregnancies (1,2,4) and the breasts for lactation (3) ○ Secretion of progesterone is stimulated by LH only and not FSH ○ LH increases (anterior pituitary)  progesterone increases MENSTRUAL CYCLE - periodic sequence of events in sexually mature non-pregnant women, by which an ovum is released from the ovary at “monthly” intervals, travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus. The ovum, along with the outer layers of the endometrium is shed (menstruation) - occurs until menopause (45-50 years) - does not occur during pregnancy or times of breast feeding - Three stages a) Menstrual phase – endometrial wall sheds (1-5 days long) b) Proliferative phase – rebuilding of endometrium (10 days long) c) Secretory phase – ovulation and endometrial lining maintained (about 14 days) - 28 day cycle ○ Days 1-5: menstrual phase ○ Days 6-12: FSH, estrogen, and LH all increase. (above three hormones peak on the 12th day) ○ Day 14 or 15: Ovulation ○ Day 20: Progesterone, produced by corpus luteum, reaches a peak ○ Day 21: Egg is not implanted (no pregnancy) ○ Day 21-28: LH, progesterone levels decrease Corpus luteum degenerates Degeneration of outer endrometrium (no hormonal support) Steps in Female Reproduction Cycle - release of hormone causes an action - estrogen builds endometrium - progesterone maintains endometrium - high levels of estrogen and progesterone in the luteal phase in the ovarian cycle inhibits GnRH

1. Increase in FSH 2. Causes follicle development 3. Causes increase in estrogen 4. Causes building of endometrium 5. Estrogen peaks 6. LH and FSH peak 7. Ovulation (both LH and FSH are required) 8. FSH/LH levels decline 9. Corpus luteum develops 10. Corpus luteum secretes progesterone/estrogen 11. Progesterone/estrogen causes building and maintenance of the endometrium 12. No fertilization 13. Corpus luteum degenerates 14. Progesterone/estrogen levels decline 15. Endometrium is sloughed off 16. GnRH increases

Male Hormonal System (negative feedback) - Testosterone inhibits LH production by the pituitary by deactivating the hypothalamus - The hypothalamus will release less GnRH, leading to decreased production of LH - A signalling chemical produced by the Sertoli cells inhibits both GnRH and FSH production

Female Hormonal System (negative and positive feedback)

BIRTH CONTROL - Methods that prevent the release of gametes are the most effective means of birth control - birth control pills are combinations of estrogen and progesterone - These 2 hormones act by negative feedback to stop the release of GnRH by the hypothalamus and FSH and LH by the pituitary - Birth control pills have been linked to cardiovascular problems - Birth control pills act before ovulation - Sterilization • Vasectomy: cutting and tying of vas deferens • Tubal ligation: fallopian tubes are cut and tied - Coitus interruptus • Very high failure rate • “withdrawal” – removal of penis from vagina before ejaculation • Sperm may be present in secretions that precede ejaculation - Abortion • Termination of a pregnancy in progress • Spontaneous abortion: known as a miscarriage - RU-486 (“morning after pill”) • For women who decide to terminate pregnancy within the first few weeks • Blocks progesterone receptors in the uterus, thus preventing progesterone from maintaining pregnancy Detecting Disorders in Fetus: - Non-invasive (safe) procedures use high-frequency sound waves, or ultrasound, to detect fetal condition - More invasive techniques • Amniocentesis ○ Long needle is inserted into the amnion (sac surrounding fetus) and a sample of fluid is withdrawn ○ Fetal cells in the fluid are cultured for 2 to 4 weeks which can then be analyzed for genetic disorders and chromosomal problems such as Down syndrome • Chorionic Villi Sampling (CVS) ○ Small sample of tissue is removed for genetic and metabolic analysis from the chorion, the fetal part of the placenta ○ Carries out greater risk than amniocentesis ○ Results may be obtained in days rather than weeks In Vitro Fertilization • Oviducts are blocked so women can have their ova surgically removed from hormonally prepared follicles • Ova are then fertilized in Petri dishes in labs • Ova is then placed in the uterus and allowed to implant after 2.5 days when the embryo has reached the 8 cell stage • Difficult and costly! (1/6 are successful at $4000) • Low success rate but is it not different from the pregnancy rate resulting for insemination by intercourse • Multiple embryos are often placed in the uterus to increase the chances • No evidence of any abnormalities

1. Fertilization and Implantation - before egg is fertilized and is in the Fallopian tube it continues to divide meiosis - for fertilization to occur sperm must be deposited in the vagina fairly near to the time of ovulation - during ejaculation, the semen is passed into the vagina - sperm swim through cervix, uterus, and Fallopian tube (lifespan of sperm in female genital tract is 24-48 hours, takes sperm about 15 minutes to reach ovarian end of Fallopian tube) • Fertilization takes place at upper end of the Fallopian tube – Many sperm die (several to a couple dozen sperm reach ovum) – Only require penetration of single sperm for fertilized egg • Sperm must be present in female genital tract for about 4-6 hours before ovum can be fertilized (physiological changes occur in sperm) – Required to penetrate ovum membrane (corona radiata) Stages of Fertilization (sperm goes through corona radiata then zona pellucida) 1. Capacitation ○ Essential change to the sperm surface 2. At the secondary oocyte, the acrosome reaction (release of enzymes of the acrosome) digests a narrow path through the follicle cells (corona radiata) and through the zona pellucida 3. Fusion between posterior region of sperm head and the secondary oocyte plasma membrane, leading to entry into cytoplasm (sperm head engulfed) 4. Cortical Reaction ○ Exocytosis of cortical granules alters zona pellucid to prevent further entry of sperm 5. The secondary oocyte is stimulated to complete meiosis II; the two haploid nuclei fuse, and a zygote is formed (male and female nuclei undergo parallel mitosis and their daughter chromosomes become enclosed in the same nuclear membrane (cell division follows) - Once the egg becomes fertilized (known as the zygote), it continues to travel down the Fallopian tube and reaches the uterus in about 7 days (aided by peristalsis and cilia) - zygote undergoes cell division (mitosis) ○ Zygote remains the same size, but the number of cells increase ○ End up with a hollow ball of cells – blastocyst - implantation occurs in the thickened lining of the uterus (eg. Endometrium) - once implantation occurs, hormonal levels (specifically estrogen and progesterone) do not decline and the endometrial lining is maintained - Gestation period (fertilization to birth) begins ○ The period in which the fertilized egg develops into a baby ○ Approximately 266 days long 2. Pregnancy is Maintained Through Hormonal Balance

- corpus luteum continues to produce estrogen and progesterone beyond the 26th day of the menstrual cycle and its effects are actually increased • After 5 months, corpus luteum is no longer able to produce enough estrogen and progesterone to maintain pregnancy • However, placenta by the 5th month, has become active as an endrocrine gland producing estrogen and progesterone • Placenta, specifically the chorion, also produces a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ○ Maintains corpus luteum which keeps up production of estrogen and progesterone until placenta can produce its own ○ LH also stays high to maintain corpus luteum ○ hCG is the hormone that’s tested for in home pregnancy tests because it is only present when a woman is pregnant ○ prevents menstruation by keeping progesterone levels high • progesterone diffuses in to the wall of the uterus (not secreted into the bloodstream) and thus inhibits muscular contractions of the uterus and menstruation • progesterone levels remain high until the onset of labour 3. Embryonic and Fetal Development - involves a placenta, amnion, chorion, and the umbilical cord - Placenta (“lungs”) • an organ within the uterus by means of which the embryo is attached to the wall of the uterus • becomes functional 16th day after fertilization • composed of fetal and maternal origin • primary function is to provide the embryo with nourishment, eliminate its wastes, transfer of antibodies from mother to fetus, and exchange respiratory gas • direction of gas exchange (diffusion) (accomplished by the close proximity of the maternal and fetal blood systems within the placenta) ○ oxygen: mother to fetus ○ carbon dioxide: fetus to mother • functions as a gland to secrete human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), relaxin, progesterone, and estrogens to maintain pregnancy • also acts as a barrier to prevent passage of some potentially harmful substances from mother to fetus but some do pass through like alcohol, HIV/AIDS, and drugs - Extraembronic Membranes (outside embryo): • membranes formed at an early stage from the zygote/embryo • Yolk Sac ○ Very small – no yolk ○ Temporary function early in life is to produce some blood cells • The Allantois ○ Very small, no function ○ Yolk sac combined with the allantois help to make up the umbilical cord ○ Contains umbilical arteries and veins ○ Connects the fetus with the placenta ○ Does not surround fetus

○ Accumulates some of the small amount of urine produced by the kidneys during embryonic development Amnion ○ Complete surrounds embryo/fetus ○ Filled with amniotic fluid ○ Function is to maintain a moist environment and also acts as a shock absorber ○ Protects against infection, dehydration, and temperature changes ○ Encloses fluid that surrounds and cushions the developing embryo and fetus Chorion ○ In communication with the tissue of the uterus (fetal contribution to the placenta) ○ Sends out fingerlike projections which together with uterine tissue form the placenta ○ Completely surrounds the embryo from the time of implantation ○ Produces hormones: estrogen, hCG, and progesterone ○ Layer underneath the trophoblast ○ Provides nutrients and oxygen needed for continued growth and development

Early Stages of Embryonic Development A. Cleavage (cell division) – Rapid cell division (mitosis) following fertilization – Individual cells called blastomeres – Size of embryo does not change but number of cells increases – Zygote: single cell – Morula: solid ball of cells – Blastocyst: hollow ball of cells (structure which implants in endometrium) B. Gastrulation – Process which involves extensive rearrangement of cells which transforms a blastocyst (hollow ball of cell) into a multilayered embryo called a gastrula. WHAT I CANNOT READ THIS? i. Ectoderm (outer layer) • Integumentary system: epidermis, hair follicles and hairs, nails, and glands communicating with the skin (apocrine and merocrine sweat glands, mammary glands, and sebaceous glands) • Skeletal/muscular system: pharyngeal cartilages and associated muscles • Nervous system: all neural tissue, including brain and spinal cord • Endocrine system: pituitary gland and the adrenal medullae • Respiratory system: mucous epithelium of nasal passageways • Digestive system: mucous epithelium of mouth and anus, salivary glands ii.Mesoderm (middle layer) • Skeletal system: all components except some pharyngeal derivatives (gill slits in throat) • Muscular system: all components except some pharyngeal derivatives • Endocrine system: adrenal cortex, endocrine tissues of heart, kidneys, and gonads • Cardiovascular system: all components, including bone marrow • Lymphatic system: all components • Urinary system: the kidneys, including the nephrons and the initial portions of the collecting system • Reproductive system: the gonads and the adjacent portions of the duct systems • Miscellaneous: the lining of the body cavities (pleural, pericardial, peritoneal) and the connective tissues supporting all organ systems iii.Endoderm (inner layer) • Endocrine system: thymus, thyroid, and pancreas • Respiratory system: respiratory epithelium (except nasal passageways) and associated mucous glands • Digestive System: the respiratory epithelium (except mouth and anus), exocrine glands (except salivary glands), liver, pancreas • Urinary system: urinary bladder and distal portions of the duct system • Reproductive system: distal portions of the duct system, stem cells that produce gametes

* three germ layers form components of your entire body

C. Organogenesis – Early period of rapid embryonic development in which the organs take form from the primary germ layers – Includes the process of neurulation (formation of nervous system) Postfertilization Events 1. Zygote travels down the oviduct toward the uterus 2. Zygote begins to divide about 24 hours after fertilization and then continues to divide rapidly (cleavage – cell division/mitosis) 3. 3-4 days after ovulation, the embryo, a ball of cells at this stage, reaches the uterus and floats freely for several days, nourished by fluid secreted by endometrial glands 4. At the blastocyst stage (implantation – occurs between days 20-23), the embryo is implanted into the endometrium about 7 days after ovulation

Mechanisms of Development 1. Cytoplasmic organization of the unfertilized egg leads to regional differences in the early embryo (specigically organized cells) 2. Cell-cell interactions compound the influence of location on a cell’s developmental fate Time Sequence of Human Development Fertilization (0h)  First Cleavage Completes (36h)  Second Division (60h)  Third Division (72h)  – bastomeres are equal in size – morula 100 cell (5 days)  – blastocysts formed – implantation – trophoblast ○ outer epithelium of blastocyst ○ secretes enzymes that penetrate uterine wall ○ trophoblast thickens and contributes to formation of the placenta ○ at the same time as implantation, inner cell mass of blastocyst forms embryonic disk Gastrulation (15th day)  – four extraembryonic membranes form (yolk sac, amnion, chorion, allantois)

– –

occurs by the inward movement of mesoderm and endoderm 3 primary germ layers form (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm)

Gestation: Week 1 – Zygote to formation of embryonic disk – Zygote cleaves; blastocyst implants – Two layered embryo forms; amniotic cavity and yolk sac open – Identical twins may form – Breakdown of cells of the uterine lining to form and a place for implantation is accomplished by the enzyme hyaluronidase (same enzyme sperm uses to penetrate egg) Week 2 – Placenta begins to form Week 3(embryo) – Gastrulation occurs; notochord and beginning of neural tube form – Heart takes shape Week 4(embryo) – Neural tube closes; heart beats; arm buds; tail and gill arches form – Heart is beating; circulation of blood – Thyroid, pancreas, liver, kidneys, and lungs are identifiable Week 5(embryo) – Optic cup and lens pits form; leg buds form; brain enlarges – Cranial (brain) nerves form (eg. Optic nerve) – Embryo grows a tail that will later disappear – Atria and ventricles begin to divide (formation of foramen ovale) Week 6(embryo) – Finger rays and external ear form; pigment appears in retina; tail and fill arches disappearing – Male begins to produce testosterone which will initiation formation of male reproduction structures – Embryo is the size of a peanut shell Week 7(embryo) – Toe rays form; bones begin to harden; back straightens; eyelids form – Spinal nerves begin to form Week 8(embryo) – Upper limbs bend at elbows; genitalia begin to differentiate; fingers are distinct – Problem of a cleft can occur Week 9(fetus) – Toes separate; eyelids develop; major parts of brain are present Week 10(fetus) – Chin grows; nostrils separate; face appears human; genitals appear male or female Weeks 11-12(fetus) – Well-defined neck appears; genitalia are complete; suckling reflect appears – Begins to practice swallowing by taking in amniotic fluid • Urine formation begins and urine is discharged into amniotic fluid • Fetal wastes are transferred across the placenta Months 4-5

Blood cells form; all major organs form; head and body hair appear; movements are felt by mother Months 6-7 – Fetus may be be viable (capable of living) if born; eyelids open; lungs and lung circulation develop; may suck thumb; fat deposits under skin Months 8-9 – Fetus may be viable if born; fat deposits increase; body hair is lost; head hair is well developed; most senses are well developed; fetus turns head down in uterus

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful