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Thomson Theorem about Circulation Constancy

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consists of the same

liquid particles. Such liquid contour moves together with the liquid and changes

its shape together with the liquid.

AB

AB

of finite size on the contour. Velocity circulation over arch

can be represented as (2.48)

AB

Let's determine

d

dt

d d

dt dt

(3.62)

d

V

dx

V

dy

V

dz

AB

AB

Carrying out the differentiation of the subintegral expression and taking into

account that the contour is liquid, we shall have

dV

dV

d

d

V x dx x dx V x dx x dx V x dV x

dt

dt

dt

dt

dV y

dV y

d

d

V y dy

dy V y dy

dy V y dV y

dt

dt

dt

dt

dV

dV

d

d

Vz dz z dz Vz dz z dz Vz dVz

dt

dt

dt

dt

Let's substitute the found values with derivatives under the integral:

dt

dVx

dV y

dV

dx

dy z dz V x dV x V y dV y Vz dVz

dt

dt

dt

AB

V 2

d

2

Considering that body forces have potential, and the liquid is barotropic,

we shall write down the Eulers equations (3.5) in the following form:

dU dP dVx

dx dx

dt

;

dU dP dV y

dy dy

dt

;

(3.63)

dU dP dVz

dz dz

dt

.

dV x dV y dVz

dt

dt

dt

Replacing the projections of the total acceleration

,

,

with their

values from the differential equations of motion (3.63), we shall have

dt

V 2

dU dP d

AB

or

d

dt

V 2

d U P

2

AB

from here

d

V 2

V 2

U P U P

dt

2

B

2

As the values in brackets, i.e.

U P

,

and

and

d

0

dt

or

(3.64)

const

Thus, the velocity circulation will not depend on time. This result received by

Thomson can be formulated in the form of the following theorem: the velocity

circulation over the closed contour, which passes through the same particles of

frictionless liquid does not change in time, with presence of the body forces

possessing the single-valued potential and barotropy.

It follows from the Thomson theorem, that if frictionless liquid starts moving from

quiesant state and is continuous, then the velocity circulation over arbitrary

closed contour within flow will be equal to zero because at the initial moment of

time it was equal to zero. Such flow, as follows from the Stokes theorem, will be

vortex-free, and the field of velocities will be potential.

Hence, the velocity circulation can appear in a flow of frictionless liquid under

condition of the potentiality of the body forces and presence of barotropy, as it

follows from equality (3.64) only when either function of pressure

r

V

, or flow

velocity

has a jump on some surfaces, and due to this reason the difference

(3.64) differs from zero.

Let's consider an arbitrary wing airfoil as an example. At the initial moment of

movement the liquid is motionless and the velocity circulation at this moment on

any closed contour drawn within liquid, is equal to zero, including the liquid

C0

contour

With the increasing of the movement the liquid flows, passing around the wing,

start to come down from its trailing edge. If the velocity of the flow coming down

C0

on this edge will have finite size and not equal to zero, then liquid contour

will start to stretch and drift into the flow by one part, as it is shown in fig.

3.11,b.

a the liquid is motionless along the airfoil; b the liquid moves along the

airfoil

C0

Let's cut the stretched contour

C1

contour

, covering the airfoil, and contour

, came down from the airfoil.

According to the theorem of velocity circulation change over the closed liquid

contour proved earlier we shall have during all time of movement

0 1 0

where

C1

circulation over contour

.

is the velocity

, i.e. over the airfoil contour will

always be equal to the velocity circulation taken with the opposite sign over

1

contour

, came down from the airfoil to the flow after the beginning of the

movement.

C1

Let's notice, that the velocity circulation over contour

will differ from zero

only in case when tangent velocities have a jump on this contour when

transitioning one contour side to opposite one along the normal. Such jump of

tangent velocities behind the airfoil placed in frictionless liquid can be created if

the airfoil trailing edge is sharp. Then, with increasing of the movement, the

flows moving from below of the wing will approach to the aft edge with the

smaller velocity, rather than the flows moving from above, this is the reason of

jump of tangent velocities created at the junction of flows.

Increasing of circulation

on the airfoil will continue with the increasing

movement of the flow incoming the airfoil. The line of the jumps of velocities

created during this time is curling up into a spiral behind the airfoil. This vortex

spiral is carried away by the flow far from the airfoil, after that the motion near

the airfoil becomes steady.

When movement of the flow near the airfoil became steady, the lift will be

defined using circulation

Let's notice in addition, that formation of vortexes behind the airfoil occurs not

only with appearance of the circulation on the airfoil , but also with its

disappearance, but in the last case the vortex of an opposite sign will be created

behind the airfoil.

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