ECG signal processing tutorial

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ECG signal processing tutorial

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You are on page 1of 18

(Tutorial)

Topic

The Application of Time-Frequency

Analysis on Biomedical ECG Signals

ID: D00942010

Date: 2013.01

National Taiwan University

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CONTENTS

I.

Introduction.......................................................................................3

II. Methods..............................................................................................4

A. Time Domain Algorithms...........................................................5

(a) Derivative Method I................................................................5

(b) Derivative Method II...............................................................6

B. Frequency Domain Algorithms.................................................8

(a) Hilbert Transform Method......................................................8

(b) Discrete Wavelet Transform Method......................................9

C. Other Algorithms......................................................................10

(a) Genetic Method.....................................................................10

(b) Geometrical Match Method..................................................12

(c) Topological Mapping Method...............................................13

(d) Filter Bank Method...............................................................13

(e) Zero Crossing Method...........................................................14

(f) Morphology Method..............................................................15

III. Detection Performance Estimators................................................16

IV. One Popular Ecg Database.............................................................16

V. Performance Comparisons.............................................................17

VI. Conclusions......................................................................................17

VII.References........................................................................................19

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a lot of knowledge to handle different biomedical signals through mathematical

techniques and Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to help analyze medical data in

order to get quick and accurate analyzed result. Sometimes biomedical signals

are randomly and quickly changing to lead that it is hard to analyze such signals

in most cases. In this tutorial, it will focus on ElectroCardioGram (ECG)

biomedical signal analysis. The ECG signal can provide the information of

human heart status and are the most important indicator among all vital body

parameters. Many heart diseases can be found by analyzing ECG waves. Thus

an ECG analyzing method with good performance (faster and more accurate

result) is very helpful for determining the characteristics of the ECG signals.

This tutorial will introduce several ECG R-wave peak detection algorithms and

summarize the performance results between those methods. Because biomedical

signals are usually non-stationary, sometimes Fourier Transform is not suitable

to apply for all biomedical signals. To solve such problems, time-frequency

analysis and wavelet transform will be a good choice to provide both time and

frequency information at the same time..

Positive Prediction (+P), Detection Error Rate (DER) and MIT/BIH.

I. INTRODUCTION

The ECG signal is a biological signal and can be represented by a cyclic occurrence

of patterns with different frequency contents (QRS complex, P and T waves). By

observing the QT interval, the ST interval, and the PR interval, these differences can

lead to many physiological conditions as shown in Fig. 1.

Nowadays the applications of ECG signal analysis are feature extraction, feature

detection, data compression, heart rate variability (HRV) and R-wave detection. By

considering such information, the different types of diseases can be determined if

using the time-frequency analysis and wavelet transform.

ECG R-wave peak detection is the most important job in all automated ECG

analysis algorithms. When the position of R-wave peak is found, the locations of

other components of ECG signals such that Q, S waves can be found by considering

the relative position of R-wave peak and P wave is relative to the Q wave as well as T

wave is relative to the S wave. The normal ECG waveform is shown in Fig. 1.

Therefore, accurate detection of the R-wave peak becomes more essential in ECG

signal analysis.

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Software QRS detector is an integral and essential part of ECG signal detection.

The most cases of QRS detectors usually own two processing steps. The first step is to

do digital filtering of the ECG signals by linear or nonlinear method and to find out all

possible locations of the QRS R-wave peak by peak detection algorithm. The second

step is to do peak decision rule by considering peak characteristic properties

(including peak heights from the processed ECG signal and time of peak occurrence)

and to classify each R-wave candidate as either an actual QRS complex peak or a

noise peak.

The automatic detection of ECG waves is important to cardiac disease diagnosis. A

good performance of an ECG analyzing method will highly affect the accurate and

reliable detection of the QRS complexes as well as the T and P waves. Thus this

tutorial will focus on introducing the existing R-wave detection algorithms for ECG

signals.

II. METHODS

Many R-wave detection algorithms have been proposed by researchers for the past

several decades. These detection algorithms can be divided into the following

mathematical algorithms including Time domain detection algorithms [2][3][8][9].

Considering that R-wave is characterized by of high amplitude and the ECG signal is

changing quickly, these algorithms directly detect R-wave in time domain by using

detecting threshold of ECG signal with first-order or second-order derivative. Time

domain algorithms are often good enough for real-time application but they are

sensitive to interference. Thus such existing algorithms are suitable for the ECG

signal without changing quickly sometimes. Frequency domain detection algorithms

[4][5][6][12]. Firstly, obtain transformation of ECG signal by linear or nonlinear

transform, in which SNR is higher than original ECG signal. Then apply appropriate

threshold detection rules. The representative transform includes wavelet transform,

Hilbert transform, etc. Transform domain algorithms often have high detection rate

and good robustness to interference but sometimes need more detection time. Other

algorithms [20][21][22][23] include template matching and morphologic filtering

algorithms, gene-based design, morphology-based design, zero-crossing design and

filter bank design.

In the past several decades, there were many studies focusing on ECG signal

detection for QRS complex. The goal is to get higher sensitivity, higher positive

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predication and lower detection error rate. In the follows, several published

algorithms in the past years were shown in many topics of conferences and journals.

In this section, now the detailed existing methods will be introduced to show

development processes of the ECG detection algorithm in the past years in detecting

R-wave peaks.

(a) Derivative Method I

In order to attenuate noise, the signal passes through a digital band-pass filter

composed of cascaded high-pass and second-order low-pass filters. The stop

frequencies are set at 5 and 15 Hz.

The transfer function of the low-pass filter is

(1 z 6 ) 2

H ( z)

(1 z 1 ) 2

The transfer function of the high-pass filter is

(1 32 z 16 z 32 )

H ( z)

(1 z 1 )

After filtering, the signal is differentiated to provide the R-wave slope information.

The transfer function of the differentiation is

( z 2 2 z 1 2 z1 z 2 )

H ( z)

8T

After differentiation, the signal is squared point by point. Obtain waveform feature

information in addition to the slope of the R wave by moving-window integration. It

is calculated as below. The symbol N is the number of samples in the width of the

integration window.

y (nT )

N

The filtered signal and the integration signal process the threshold detection

respectively. To be identified as the R-wave, a peak must be detected in both the

integration and the filtered waveforms with adaptive thresholds.

The rules to c1assity the R-wave peak or noise peak are presented as below. The

maximal peak detected in a regular RR time interval that satisfies the condition of

peak height > threshold. If the condition is true, the peak is considered to a R-wave

peak, other peaks are considered to the noisy peak. If no R-wave is detected in a

regular RR time interval, search-back procedure is required to look for the

waveforms. The more details can be referred in [1].

(b) Derivative Method II

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In order to attenuate noise, the signal passes through a digital band-pass filter

composed of cascaded high-pass and second-order low-pass filters. After this,

following steps are differentiation, squaring, and time averaging of the ECG signal. A

separate derivative of the original ECG is used for wave discrimination.

The low-pass filter is one of a class of filters and implemented with the difference

equation as below.

Where T is the sampling period, n is an arbitrary integer, x( n) is the differentiated

ECG signal and y (n) is the bandpassed ECG signal.

The high-pass filter is implemented with the difference equation as below.

The difference equation for the derivative is

y (nT ) (2 x( nT ) x( nT T ) x(nT 3T ) 2 x( nT 4T )) / 8

The nonlinear squaring function squares each output data point. Time averaging is

done by adding together the 32 most recent values from the squaring function and

dividing the total by 32.

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(c) Output after bandpass, differentiation and squaring processes

(d) Final time-averaged signal.

The final step of this method is to do peak detection. A typical large waveform

produced by the time-averaged window is very similar to a QRS complex. Although it

is easy to visually identify one large peak, simple peak detection algorithms falsely

detect multiple peaks due to ripples in the wave. A simple local maximum peak

detector should have the ability of detecting many small-amplitude peaks. Although

both peaks result from the same QRS complex, one peak is classified as resulting

from a QRS complex, the others are classified as noise. This can bias the noise level

estimate on the high side. In contrast, some ripples in the baseline of the timeaveraged signal can bias the noise estimate on the low side. The more details can be

referred in [15].

(a) Hilbert Transform Method

Mathematically, the Hilbert transform is defined as

1 x( )

xH (t )

d

t

Or

xH (t ) IFT {FT [ x(t )]H ( f )}

where x(n) is the differentiated ECG input.

In the frequency domain, the signal is transformed with a filter of response.

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j, 0 f

j , f 0

H( f )

o

The input signal x(n) is equivalently processed with an all-pass filter with 90

o

shift for positive frequencies and 90 shift for negative frequencies. The Hilbert

transform is the imaginary part of the analytic signal that has the input as its real part.

Because the Hilbert transform is the zero-crossings and an odd filter of the

differentiated ECG, the Hilbert transform will be represented as peaks in the output of

the transform. The output of the Hilbert transform on the differentiated ECG has been

explained in terms of its odd symmetry property and signal envelope. The all-pass

characteristic of Hilbert transform prevents unnecessary signal distortion. In contrast

to the second derivative method, it tends to attenuate the signal at the lower

frequencies. Thus, the odd-phase component of the filter provides the necessary

modification of the differentiated ECG signal in order to identify the QRS peaks

while the uniform magnitude of the filter ensures that necessary information of the

QRS complexes is preserved. The effects of the magnitude and phase of this

transform are further used.

The first differential in discrete domain of the ECG waveform sequence x(n) can

be obtained by

x (n 1) x (n 1)

y ( n)

2

The Hilbert transform h( n) of the sequence y (n) that represents the first

differential of the ECG waveform in this subset is then obtained using the following

methodology. At first obtain the Fourier transform F (n) of the input sequence y ( n)

and set DC component to zero. Later multiply the positive and negative harmonics by

j and j respectively.

Perform the inverse Fourier transform of this resulting sequence to obtain the

Hilbert transform h(n) . Finally, threshold detection is used to locate the peaks in

h(n) sequence. The position of the R-wave is located by threshold detection if its

value is greater than 18% of the maximum value of the sequence. The Hilbert

transform can have other modified forms such as it can combine with one or two

adaptive thresholding method. The more details can be referred in [8].

(b) Discrete Wavelet Transform Method

The main idea behind this algorithm was to use Discrete Wavelet Transform

(DWT) and Cubic Spline Interpolation (CSI) techniques with an improved dynamic

weights adjusting strategy to enhance the detection robustness and the signal-to-noise

ratio (SNR) of this ECG signal in heavy noise condition. It made use of the property

that symmetric wavelet decomposition can be used to retrieve delta-function peak

location precisely. DWT aims to separate base line drift, QRS R-wave peak and highfrequency noise. The interpolation was employed to adjust the coefficients of each

-8-

decomposition levels, which generates smooth curves and suppresses noise. In

addition, an improved dynamic weight adjusting strategy was adopted to assign

proper weight for each level to further enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, a

peak detector is employed to generate R peak candidates and an adaptive threshold

detector to locate R peaks.

It is obvious that wavelet coefficient has better time resolution in low

decomposition levels and has better frequency resolution for high decomposition

levels. When wavelet coefficients from different levels are found, it is reasonable to

improve high level resolution to achieve higher time accuracy. In fact, all these

preserved levels are interpolated with different gains. As cubic spline interpolation

technique is used to evaluate new points between given R-wave candidates, it is

employed in the preprocessing step to find out the wavelet coefficients.

From here, we can observe that symmetric wavelet is suited to precisely locate the

R-wave peaks in the ECG signal. There is a local maximum in the wavelet

coefficients to find out the locations of R-wave peaks. Using the local maximum of

wavelet coefficients is the essential point of such an algorithm. Spline interpolation is

adopted in this method to improve time resolution of wavelet coefficients in high

decomposition levels, which generates smooth curves and suppresses noise. In

addition, an adaptive coefficient weighting strategy is used to improve the SNR in

heavy noise condition. Such method sometimes has better accuracy on detection on

ECG signals but may need more computation time. The more details can be referred

in [9],[12].

C. Other Algorithms

(a) Genetic Method

There is an approach to design optimal QRS detectors which used a detector

including the linear or nonlinear polynomial filter to enhance the QRS complexes as

well as a simple and adaptive maxima detector. The design of such a QRS detector

required the definition of the characteristics of the polynomial filter as well as the

selection of its coefficients and the parameters of the maxima detector. Some of these

variables were set by the human designer, the others were chosen by a genetic

algorithm. In genetic algorithm application, it used several filters including the QuasiLinear filter and the Quadratic filter to apply to consecutive samples and selected

samples.

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In polynomial filters, the output signal y at time i is the value taken by a

x , x ,..., xi d N

polynomial of order M of a set of N input samples i d1 i d 2

.

k1 0 k2 0

kN 0

and

d

where j is the time delay with respect to time i .

The maximum detector is used to detect the maxima of the filter output. To avoid

false detections in the presence of noise, QRS-like artifacts, and filter responses, only

the maxima that have amplitude greater than a threshold.

Genetic algorithm has allowed optimizing the parameters of the maxima detector

and the coefficients of the filter according to a single criterion: minimizing the

number of erroneous detections. While this objective function is commonly used in

the optimization of detectors having few parameters, it has never been adopted in

designing more complicated QRS enhancing filters or detectors. The joint

optimization of the two stages of detectors has made optimally adapted to each other.

This has allowed for the discovery of parameters which yield robust and efficient

QRS detectors even with very simple layouts and only a few operations per sample.

The more details can be referred in [23].

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(b) Geometrical Match Method

One approach was developed which is based on a geometrical matching rule

evaluated using a decision function in a local moving-window procedure. The

decision function was a normalized measurement of a similarity criterion comparing

the windowed input signal with the reference beat-pattern into a nonlinear-curve

space. A polynomial expansion model described the reference pattern. For the curve

space, an algebraic-fitting distance was built according to the canonical equation of

the unit circle. The geometrical matching approach operated in two stages including

training and detection. In the first stage, a learning method based on genetic algorithm

estimated the decision function from training beat-pattern. In the second stage, a

level-detection algorithm evaluated the decision function to establish the threshold of

similarity between the reference pattern and the input signal.

The first step is to define geometrical matching. it is similar to pattern recognition.

The goal of matching procedure is to determine the similarity between two entities. It

is proposed to evaluate the matching between the pattern and the analyzed signal

according to a nonlinear geometric metric.

The second step is to define data set and geometric curve. A measurement vector

describes the signal pattern to be detected. The selection of the most effective features

reduces the dimensionality on the measurement vector. The proposed decision

function will be trained to take into account the discriminatory features of the pattern,

evaluating the concept of -similarity. In literature, this problem involves a

preprocessing stage referred as the feature extractor machine.

The third step is to do polynomial model estimation. It must be capable to generate

the polynomial parameters. The more details can be referred in [21].

(c) Topological Mapping Method

A topological mapping is used from one dimensional sampled ECG signals to two

dimensional vectors for a real-time detection of the QRS complexes of ECG signals.

In order to describe a change of curvature, it derived a modified spatial velocity

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(MSV) to locate QRS complexes more easily. In this method, firstly it should choose

the mapping parameters including time delay and mapping dimension to obtain a clear

representation of the QRS complex in the new space for a discrimination of QRS

complex from other components, such as P and T waves. Secondly it should find out

the relation between noise and phase portrait which is essential to reduce highfrequency noise components. Finally the detection method was to accept only the

QRS complex spectral components by filtering. It used only one low-pass filter to

remove high-frequency components relative to the QRS complex spectral

components. In summary, this algorithm reliably detected QRS complexes using the

rate of curvature of the vector loop. The distinct feature of this method was a change

of signal dimension to the new dimension vector loop. This topological mapping

made overall processing steps simpler and very robust to low-frequency noise or

artifact.

For this method, it is at first to choose mapping parameters including time delay

and mapping dimension. By obtaining proper reconstruction parameters and a clear

representation of the QRS complex, it is a purely geometrical considerations and

guarantees a maximum distance of trajectories represented in the new dimension.

The second step is to find out the relationship between noise and phase portrait. The

high-frequency noise includes power line interference, electrode contact noise, muscle

contractions and the low-frequency noise includes base line drift. In high-frequency

noise, the structure of phase portrait could not be recognized and it can be removed by

using filter. In low frequency noise, the structure of phase portrait does not hide and is

clearly recognizable. The more details are shown in [16].

(d) Filter Bank Method

A multi-rate digital signal processing algorithm is used to detect heart beats in the

electrocardiogram (ECG). The algorithm incorporated a filter bank (FB) which

decomposed the ECG into sub-bands with uniform frequency bandwidths. The Filter

Bank-based algorithm enabled independent time and frequency analysis to be

performed on a signal. Features computed from a set of the sub-bands and a detection

strategy was used to fuse decisions from multiple one-channel beat detection

algorithms. Further improvements to the algorithm may be easily achieved by using

more features of the frequency components of the ECG.

FB contains a set of analysis and synthesis filters. The analysis filters decompose

an incoming signal into specific frequency bands or sub-bands. Processing can be

performed on each sub-band independently. The set of synthesis filters can then

combine the processed sub-bands to result in a processed version of the input signal.

Thus, a FB-based algorithm involves decomposing a signal into frequency sub-bands,

processing these sub-bands according to the application at hand, and then sometimes

reconstructing the processed sub-bands.

The choice of filter bank is important that the FB used to process the ECG have

certain characteristics. The analysis and synthesis filters should have linear phase.

Linear phase ensures that the R-wave points in the ECG. The perfect reconstruction

property was also incorporated into the design of the FB because an overall goal is to

develop one set of filters to accomplish multiple ECG processing tasks. The more

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(e) Zero Crossing Method

It is an algorithm based on a feature obtained by counting the number of zero

crossings per segment. The algorithm operates for feature extraction, event detection

and localization of R peak by counting zero crossings. It was a feature signal that was

largely independent of sudden changes in the amplitude level of the signal and was

robust against noise and pathological signal morphologies. It was shown that this

feature could be used for a computationally simple algorithm with a high detection

performance. Due to this simple principle, QRS detection can be realized at low

computational costs.

In feature extraction step, due to these spectrum characteristics of the ECG

components, it is reasonable to filter the ECG signal at first in order to attenuate the

mean, the P-wave, T-wave, and the high frequency noise. The bandpassed filtered

signal oscillates around zero. From observation, it is obvious that many zero crossings

are in non-QRS segments and only a small number of zero crossings are during the

QRS complex.

In event detection step, an event begins when the feature signal (number of zero

crossings per segment) falls under an adaptive threshold. The event ends when the

signal rises above the threshold. Both the beginning and the end of the event are in the

boundaries of the search interval for the temporal localization of the R-wave. If

adjacent events are temporally very close (multiple events), they will be combined

into one single event. The beginning of the combined event is the beginning of the

first event, and the end of the combined event is the end of the last event.

In temporal localization of the R-wave step, the detection of the QRS complex is

completed by the determination of the temporal location of the R-wave. If only one

ECG channel is used for the detection of the R-wave, the temporal location is

determined by a combined maximum and minimum search. Using the maximum or

the minimum position of the search interval as the temporal location of the R-wave is

a simple decision boundary. The more details can be described in [22].

(f) Morphology Method

It is an algorithm to remove background noise and baseline wandering from

original ECG signal by morphological filter , which uses two most fundamental

mathematical morphological operators (erosion and dilation). The modulus

accumulation and combination are utilized to act as a low-pass filter to enhance the

QRS complex and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Finally peak extraction is done

by adaptive thresholding and decisions. In morphology, opening and closing are two

extended morphological operators and could also work as morphology filters with

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clipping effects to cut down peaks and fill up valleys from ECG signals. Although this

paper presented a morphology-based algorithm for QRS detection which is different

from other frequency-based methods, the calculations of erosion and dilation

operations for ECG signals takes more computation time. The more details can be

referred in [10].

For the R-wave detection of the ECG signals, there are three parameters to be

proposed as standard. There are Sensitivity (SE), Positive Prediction (+P) and

Detection Error Rate (DER). The three parameters are used to evaluate the detection

performance of R-wave detection of the ECG signals for all existing detection

algorithms and their corresponding meanings are described as below.

TP

%

TP FN

TP

P(%)

%

TP FP

FP FN

DER (%)

%

Total R wave peaks

SE (%)

that the numbers of a missed true beat by the proposed algorithm. FP means the

numbers of a false beat detection. Thus the detection performance parameters of

Sensitivity (SE), Positive Prediction (+P) and Detection Error Rate (DER) are

calculated by using above equations respectively.

In order to compare the detection performance for those proposed algorithms in the

world, a common ECG signal database is very important for this. It is very lucky that

one database website is used and all related algorithms for ECG R-wave peak

detection are using the MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database [1]. The characteristic

features about this database are described as below with more detailed information.

The database is public to everyone and it can be gotten by those people who are

interested in such ECG research for FREE.

It contains 48 half-hour and two-channel ambulatory ECG recordings. The subjects

are 25 men aged from 32 to 89 years-old (Records 201 and 202 came from the same

male subject) and 22 women aged from 23 to 89 years-old. From the current data

distribution of those recordings, the total 11 records from healthy persons are

including 113, 115, 116, 117, 208, 210, 212, 215, 223, 231 and 234. Other 37 records

belong to sick persons. These recordings have 11-bit resolution over 10mV and are

sampled at 360Hz and each recording has 650000 sampling points. The ground truth

data is obtained from the current MIT/BIH database website [1] and the total number

of the ground truth beats is 112647 beats.

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For all recordings with many different beat types, the five beat types (+, ~, |, x

and !) could be removed from the ground truth data because they are not standard

ECG waveform. The beat types of +, ~ and | belongs to isolated QRS-like artifact. The

beat types of ! and x are ventricular flutter wave and non-conducted p-wave

respectively. The total number of final ground truth beats without considering these

five beat types is 109494 beats.

V. PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS

In order to compare the detection performance, the three parameters Sensitivity

(SE), Positive Prediction (+P) and Detection Error Rate (DER) described before are

listed here again. For the Sensitivity and Positive Prediction parameters, their values

are as higher as possible for representing the better performance. For the Detection

Error Rate parameter, its value is as lower as possible for representing the better

performance.

After collecting the performance results from all existing published algorithms,

From TABLE I, it can be seen the total ground truth beats of all existing published

algorithms ,and the values of SE, +P and DER respectively on different ECG R-wave

peak detection algorithms.

VI. CONCLUSIONS

In summaries for all existing detection algorithms, even they used different methods

or mixed methods on both time domain and frequency domain, the ONLY one goal is

to get better performance on Sensitivity (SE), Positive Prediction (+P) and Detection

Error Rate (DER) on the ECG signals for improving R-wave peak detection accuracy

of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and obtaining better performance gain.

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TABLE I

PERFORMANCE COMPARISON

WITH OTHER PUBLISHED ALGORITHMS AND THE PROPOSED ALGORITHM IN THE PAPER ON THE

STANDARD MIT/BIH ARRHYTHMIA DATABASE

Algorith

m

[7]

Total

Beats

109508

[8]

97794

[9]

90989

[10]

109510

[11]

109492

[12]

102934

[13]

107344

[14]

109267

211

884 98.03% 99.17% 2.79%

2

340 248 99.69% 99.77% 0.54%

[15]

116137

[16]

109481

[20]

90909

[21]

60431

[22]

91283

124

521 97.94% 99.13% 2.92%

6

277 390 99.70% 99.57% 0.73%

[23]

109963

FN

FP

SE

+P

DER

For all existing detection algorithms with better performance, we can observe that

the original ECG data is FIRSTLY processed by using filter to do baseline extraction

of ECG signals in order to reduce false detections caused by the various types of

interference which are present in ECG signals. SECONDLY, the specific methods in

time domain or frequency domain or mixed methods are used to obtain R-wave

candidates. At the THIRD step, use one or two adaptive thresholding methods to sift

for true R-wave peak of the ECG signals.

From the previous sections, we can observe there are always some trade-off

conditions on computation time and performance (SE, +P and DER) for different

ECG R-wave detection methods. There is one summary table for these proposed

methods which are shown in TABLE II.

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TABLE II

SUMMARY OF ALGORITHMS

Year

Algorithm

Method

Filter

Thresholding

Comments

2011

[7]

Derivation

N/A

2011

[8]

Hibert transform

Band-Pass filter

2008

[9]

Wavelet transform

N/A

2012

[10]

Morphology

Low-Pass filter

2012

[11]

Wavelet transform

Band-Pass filter

2010

[12]

Wavelet transform

Band-Pass filter

2008

[13]

Hibert transform

Band-Pass filter

1986

[14]

Derivation

Band-Pass filter

1985

[15]

Derivation

Band-Pass filter

1996

[16]

Topological mapping

Low-Pass filter

1999

[20]

Filter bank

Band-Pass filter

2007

[21]

Geometrical match

N/A

2003

[22]

Zero crossing

Band-Pass filter

1995

[23]

Genetic algorithm

Band-Pass filter

VII. REFERENCES

[1] Physionet website. MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database Directory.

http://www.physionet.org/physiobank/database/, [Data is Online to be updated in

04 Apr, 2011]. 1997.

[2] J.P.Pan, A Real-Time QRS Dection Algorithm, IEEE Transaction Biomedical

Engineering, pp. 230-236, 1985.

[3] Gary. M. Friesen, A Comparison of the Noise Sensitivity of the Nine QRS

Detection Algorithms, IEEE Transaction Biomedical Engineering, vol. 37, no.1,

pp. 85-98, January. 1990.

[4] CHEN S-W, CHEN H-C and CHAN H.-L. A real-time QRS detection method

based on moving-averaging incorporating with wavelet denoising, Comput.

Meth. Prog. Biomed, pp. 187-195, 2006.

[5] SCHUCK JR A, WISBECK 1.0, QRS detector pre-processing using the complex

wavelet transform. Proc. 25th Ann. Int. Conf. IEEE/EMBS Cancun, Mexico,

pp.17-21, September. 2003.

[6] DS.Benitez, A New QRS Detection Algorithm Based on the Hilbert Transform,

Computers in Cardiology, pp. 379-382, 2000.

[7] Wang, Y, Deepu C.J and Lian, Y, A Computationally Efficient QRS Detection

Algorithm for Wearable ECG Sensors, Engineering in Medicine and Biology

Society, pp. 5641-5644, 2011.

[8] Cui Xiaomeng, A NEW real-time ECG R-wave detection algorithm, Strategic

Technology (IFOST), pp. 1252-1255, 2011.

[9] Huabin Zheng and Jiankang Wu, Real-time QRS detection method, e-health

Networking, Applications and Services, pp. 169-170, 2008.

[10] Zhang, C.F and Tae-Wuk Bae, VLSI Friendly ECG QRS Complex Detector for

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Body Sensor Networks, Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems,

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