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GEOG 101:

Introduction to
Human Geography
Instructor: Dr. Amanda
Hooykaas
Week Two
Chapter 5: Migration Flows

Lecture Outline
Spatial Interaction
Theory of interaction
Perception of place
Migration versus Movement
Types of Migration
Motivations and Consequences
Whats Next

Spatial
Interaction:
Theory of
Interaction
Spatial interaction is a dynamic
flow process from one location
to another.
Edward Ullmans Geography as
Spatial Interaction is normally
cited as the seminal statement
of the concept.

Spatial
Interaction:
Theory of
Interaction
In Ullmans conception there
were 3 reasons for why things
move:

complementarity

transferability

intervening opportunity

Perception of
place

Reasons that you live here

How/why/when did you move


here

Which components make your


ideal place

Migration
A permanent relocation of
ones place of residence &
usually long-distance

Movement
Cyclical Movement:

When people move back &


forth between two places
or among a few locations

Movement
Periodic Movement:

Similar to cyclical
movement but longer in
duration

Example: guest workers


allowed to work in a
country for a limited
amount of time

Types of
Migration

Primitive Migration

Mass Migration (aka Group


Migration)

Hunter / Gatherers

Involves a large # of people,


such as colonialism

Free Migration

Deciding to migrate without


coercion, support,

or compulsion

Restricted Migration

Migration today is limited by


laws, quotas, etc.

Types of
Migration
Impelled & Forced Migration:

Trail of Tears pushing out


the native americans

Japanese-American
internment camps

Nazi resettlement

Slavery

Types of
Migration
Rural-to-Urban Migration:

Countries of low levels of


industrialization have urban
populations that account for
~24-40% of total population.

Industrialized countries have


urbanized populations of over
75%.

Measuring
Migration

Gross Migration

Net Migration

The difference between the


# of people who leave &
the # of people who enter

Out-Migration

The total # of people that


leave & enter a country

The total # of people who


leave a country

In-Migration

The total # of people who


arrive in a country

Human
Trafficking

The recruitment,
transportation, transfer,
harboring or receipt of
persons by threat or use of
force

600,000 800,000 per


year

People Smuggling is the


shipping of people to
circumvent immigration laws

Child Soldiers

~ 300,000 children

Refugees

A person living outside of his or


her own country who cannot
return home because of fear of
injury or persecution.

Refugees
The US government defines a
refugee as:

Any person who is outside any


country of such persons
nationality or, in the case of a
person having no nationality, is
outside any country in which
such person last habitually
resides, and who is unable or
unwilling to return to, and is
unable or unwilling to avail
himself or herself of the
protection of that country
because of persecution or a
well-founded fear of persecution
on account of race, religion,
nationality, membership in a
particular social group, or
political opinion.

Refugees

Internally Displaced Persons: a


person displaced in his or her
own country

Repatriation: the process of


moving refugees back into their
home country

Why do People
Migrate?
Ravensteins Laws

More people migrate a


short distance than a long
distance.

There is a flow of migrants


from remote areas to less
remote areas and finally to
the cities.

Flows of migration also


create small counterflows.

Why do People
Migrate?
Ravensteins Laws

Long-distance migrants
are more likely to be
heading to a major city.

Urban residents are less


likely to migrate than are
people who live in the
country.

Women migrate more than


men, but they tend to
migrate shorter distances.

Why do People
Migrate?
Distance Decay:

As the distance between two


places increases, the volume
of interaction between these
places decreases.

Why do People
Migrate?
Gravity Model:

postulates that the


interaction between two cities
is a function of each citys
population and the distance
between them

Why do People
Migrate?

Push-Pull Model

Everett Lee, 1966

Intervening obstacles may


affect a migrants decision

Why do People
Migrate?
Intervening Opportunities

While migrating from A to


B, migrants may become
aware of other
opportunities

Life Cycle Factors

Migrants move at
significant times in their
lives

Why do People
Migrate?
Factor Mobility Model

Argues that migrants move


from low- to high-wage
areas

Human Capital Model

People move for both


economics and for
personal reasons

Consequences of
Migration
Demographic Consequences

Economic Consequences

Social Consequences

Migration
History of
Canada
Migration
History of
Canada
Today, Canada is a
multicultural nation, home to
members from all walks of life.
That wasn't always the case,
however.

Migration
History of
Canada

Before 1914, some 170,000


Ukrainians, 115,000 Poles,
and tens of thousands from
Germany, France, Norway,
and Sweden settled in the
West and developed a
thriving agricultural sector.

Between 1928 and 1971, one


million immigrants came to
Canada through Pier 21
alone.

By the 1960s, one-third of


Canadians had origins that
were neither British nor
French, and took pride in
preserving their distinct
culture in the Canadian fabric.

Migration
History of
Canada
Immigrant groups should retain
their individuality and each
make its contribution to the
national character.
(John Buchan, the 1st Baron Tweedsmuir
and Governor General of Canada, 1937)

Migration
History of
Canada

Today, most immigrants come


from China, Philippines, and
India.

The proportion of foreign-born


Canadians was 19.8% in
2006.

24% of Canadas population


speaks languages other than
English and French.

Since the fertility rate in


Canada is only 1.68 children
per female, the majority of
Canadas population growth is
due to immigration.

Lecture
Summary

Key points/take away lessons?

What did you learn?

What do you need to clarify?

What would you like to know


more about?

Lecture Outline
Spatial Interaction
Theory of interaction
Perception of place

Migration versus Movement


Refugees
Motivations and Consequences
Whats Next

GEOG 101:
Introduction to
Human Geography
Instructor: Dr. Amanda
Hooykaas
Week Two
Chapter 5: Migration Flows