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DESIGN OF A FUME EXTRACTOR (FROM KEROSINE S

Department of Mechanical Engineeri

LECTURER

Members of the Group


NAME
OLORUNFEMI Fredrick

MATRIC NUMBER
110404098

Temidayo
ADEMOLA Aleem Lolade
ADESOKAN Adedamola

120404004
120404007

Philip
AGBAMORO Joseph Emeka
AJAYI Oluwatosin Solomon
ALUKO Oluwabukunmi

110407060
120404008
120404016

Daniel
AWODIJI Joseph Babatunde
AZEEZ Ganiyu Eniola
BAMGBOYE Oluwamuyiwa

120404020
120404024
120404025

Bill
BRAIMOH Olawale Mumin
DAVIS Emmanuel Oladele
DUKOR Kenechi Franklin

120404029
120404035
120404036

ABSTRACT
This report presents the design of a device used to tackle fumes
from kerosene stove. The concept of the design uses a reverse
fan (suction fan) for suction of the fume. The materials procured
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and used for the design consisted of suction fan with a filter paper
at the entrance of the fumes into the fan compartment. The fan is
powered by a 12V rechargeable battery. All the materials procured
were assembled in the frame achieved through different
machining process such as drilling, sawing etc. The frame was
passed through stress analysis with the Autodesk Inventor to
balance the forces acting on the frame. The design has a very
important application in the public such as suction of fumes from
soldering iron, kerosene stove, burning paper, firewood, charcoal
etc. The working of the design is efficient enough to serve as a
model though lots of modification are needed for it domestic
application.

Acknowledgements
The project on designing a machine to tackle fumes from
kerosene stove was carried out by members of Group 6. The
machine was constructed in the mechanics laboratory,
University of Lagos Akoka, Nigeria.
This project wouldnt be a success without the help of our
lecturer; Dr. Onitiri, the laboratory technicians, and the
support and cooperation of the group members.

CONTENTS PAGE
Introduction
Body of Report
Concept

The Model

The Prototype ..

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10

Application of Design

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Conclusion

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Reference

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1.

INTRODUCTION

DESIGN OBJECTIVE: The project was aimed to design a device


that tackles the fumes from a kerosene stove.
What are fumes?
Fumes are gases or vapor that have a strong smell and make the
atmosphere unfit for breathing.
Fumes in cooking environment has always posed a challenge,
Apart from staining the wall, fumes also affect the atmosphere as
a result of the carbon monoxide content. What this device does is
to eliminate these problems to an extent. The design utilizes a
suction fan that sucks the fumes immediately as it is emitted from
the kerosene stove, but because the fumes go straight up, the
device was designed in such a way that it captures the fumes
before the diffusion takes place. While taking environmental
effects into play, a filter was used to filter out the soot in the
fumes. The design took a whole lot of things into consideration
like the fan weight, rotor weight and filter, hence the shape of the
device was aimed at compensating these factors by being rigid
and being able to withstand all stresses acting on it effectively.

Background
FUME
What are fumes? Fumes can be referred to as gas or vapour that
smell strongly and dangerous to inhale.
DANGERS OF FUMES TO THE ENVIRONMENT
As we know, carbon monoxide poisoning can kill, and of course
the number one source of carbon monoxide is from exhaust

fumes. When listing the dangers of exhaust fumes, death from


carbon monoxide poisoning falls at the top of the list.
SOURCES OF FUMES

Smoking materials: Lighted tobacco products almost always


cigarettes are the leading cause of fumes in the home.

Cooking: Cooking stove causes fumes in the kitchen of homes


which could lead to staining of the wall of the kitchen or choking.

Heating equipment: Heating equipment also causes fumes in


homes.

Candles: Candles used in the homes also cause small fumes.

2.

BODY OF REPORT

From the defined objective, the group needed to come up with a


design idea for how this device should be manufactured and how
it should work. Many design ideas were came up with by the
different members of the group, the different designs were
juxtaposed before we concluded with a final one and some of
these ideas we came up with were:
1. Constructing a vacuum to suck the fumes: this was however
not used for our design considering the fact that it could
suffocate the individual using it.
2. Using a suction fan: This was appreciated by the members of
the after factors such as its efficiency, mobility,
machinability, cost, and concept were considered and found
worthy of the design.
A number of design criteria were taken into consideration, they
are:
i.
Mobility
ii.
Simplicity
iii. Functionality
iv. Strength and stress
v.
Manufacturability
vi. Cost
vii. Flexibility
viii. Size

CONCEPT
The basic concept of the design is that air can be easily sucked by
a fan because of its extremely light weight. The fan is the major
component of the device, it sucks the air into a temporary
vacuum which is between the fan and the filter which is just in
front of the fan. The soot which causes the walls of the kitchen to
get black is contained in the fumes coming out of the stove and
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this is filtered and fumes without the soot is released at the back
of the fan.

DESIGN OF THE SUCTION FAN


Again we were caught up in a dilemma on:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The type of fan to use for the design.


Type of filter to use for filtering the fumes from the stove.
The type of battery to use for the design.
The position of the fan where the suction of the fume is most
effective.
5. How the frame of the suction fan would be constructed.
6. The type of material to use for the frame of the design.
After series of debate on what the design should look like, we
came up with this:
1. TYPE OF FAN: From our research, we found out that a fan is
a blowing device, then the reverse sucks air rather than blow
it since the blades are designed in such a way that it sucks
air.
This made us conclude on choosing the suction fan
2. TYPE OF FILTER: Because the fumes produced by the
kerosene stoves are hazardous to the environment, and as
engineering students, since safety comes first, we decided to
install a filter which not only reduces the effects of the
fumes, but also filters the fumes and prevents it from
staining the walls around the stoves.
We considered different types of filters such as foams, nets,
scouring pads and we decided to use it because its more
effective and readily procurable.
3. TYPE OF BATTERY: Because of the type of fan we used, it
was clear that we needed a 12v battery to power the kind of
fan we were procuring.
4. EFFECTIVE POSITIONING OF THE FAN: Different positions
were considered such as placing the fan beside the stove, at
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an angle to the stove, above the stove and as a surrounding


the stoves with fans to form a U- shape.
All these ideas were good, but we discovered that the most
effective was placing the fan with the filter above the stove.
But this was however not achievable considering the
available materials, mobility and mode of presentation.
We concluded that the best design that suits our design
criteria was mounting the fan on a stand with adjustable
height and the fan with the ability to move at different
angles such that the user can position it in a way that would
be best suits him/ her.
5. MATERIAL FOR THE FRAME OF SUCTION FAN: The type
of material that would best suit our design was pondered
upon and we concluded that the material should be light,
wear resistant, durable, machinable, mobile and effective,
and the material that met all our basic requirements was
mild steel.

THE MODEL
Before proceeding to the construction of the prototype, it is
necessary that we construct a model so as to measure the
efficiency of the design. A 1:7 model was built and tested.
The materials used for the prototype were:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Card board paper


Cello tape
Broomstick
Gamepad rotor
9V battery
Scouring pad as particle filter

Picture of the model after construction

In process of test-running the model, we observed its operation


and this helped us in making some modifications to the
construction of the prototype.

THE PROTOTYPE
In the design of the prototype, several machining and fabricating
processes were employed in the construction of our prototype
such as drilling, sawing welding etc.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF OUR PROTOTYPE
The design has a fan enclosed in a box shaped structure which is
attached to a moveable stand.
The box shaped structure is allowed to rotate about an angle
approximately 1800 so that the fan can be positions to the taste of
the user.
A filter is attached to the front of the fan so as to filter off the
fumes before they are released into the atmosphere.
The fan is connected to a 12v battery by means of wired
connection. This is the source of power for the fan

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The procedures taken in the construction of our design is as


follows:

1. DESIGN OF THE DEVICE:

A 2D MODEL OF THE DEVICE WITH


PREMILINARY DIMENSIONS.

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A 3D MODEL OF THE DEVICE.

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Stress analysis

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A force of 20N was applied to the stand which is equal to the


top base of extractor.
From the Von Mises stress analysis, the maximum stress is
40.59Mpa which is suitable considering the maximum yield
stress which is 210Mpa.

2. PROCUREMENT OF THE MATERIALS:


The materials used for the construction where:
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a. Mild steel

b. Fan

c. Filter paper

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d. Battery:

3. CONSTRUCTION OF DEVICE:
The parts of the device were machined, fabricated and
assembled at the university of Lagos machines laboratory.
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Picture of the extractor stand

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Stage when filter was installed

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Picture of finished construction of the fume extractor


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COST ANALYSIS
Suction Fan
Filter
Mild Steel
Stainless Steel
Battery
Miscellaneous
Workmanship

4.

2000
1000
9000
3000
2000
2000
5000
24000

APPLICATION OF OUR DESIGN TO THE


PUBLIC

The principle of our design can be applied in various ways.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Suction
Suction
Suction
Suction
Suction

5.

of
of
of
of
of

fumes
fumes
fumes
fumes
fumes

from a kerosene stove.


from soldering iron.
burning charcoal (corn and boli roasters).
from in-house cigarette smoking.
from burning firewood.

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK

The machine successfully extracted the fumes from the kerosene


stove when it was tested. The project was successful

6.

REFERENCES

1. Wikipedia: Fumes
http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fume
2. http://www.ohsrep.org.au/hazards/chemicals/exhaust-fumeshow-dangerous-are-they

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UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS
DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

MEG 302/312 PROJECT

DESIGN OF A FUME
EXTRACTOR
(FUMES FROM
KEROSENE STOVE)
DR. ONITIRI
ENGR. ORISALEYE
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