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Chapter 1

Introductory Concepts and Definitions

From Greek words therme (heat) and dynamis (force).

Scope: the consideration of the capacity of hot bodies to produce work (ancient).

dealing generally with energy and with relationships among the properties of

matter (modern).

Scientific aspect: fundamental understanding of physical and chemical behavior of

matter and the relationships among them.

Engineer aspect: interaction between systems with their surroundings.

Human uses different disciplines of knowledge to design systems (see Table 1.1) to

meet their needs. The principles of thermodynamics play an important part

in making them better.

Basic Terms

Heat

System

Surroundings

Work

Bounda ry

complex as an entire chemical refinery.

Surroundings: everything external to the system is considered to be part of the

systems surroundings.

Boundary: the system is distinguished from its surroundings by a specified boundary

which can be at rest (fixed, rigid) or in motion (flexible).

Heat, Work: the interaction between the system and its surroundings which can be in

many formats, such as electricity, pressure, magnetic field, and others.

Types of Systems

Closed System (Control Mass System): systems have no mass exchange with its

surroundings.

Control Volume System (Open System): systems have both mass and energy

exchanges with its surroundings.

Isolated System: systems have neither mass nor energy of any kind exchange with its

surroundings.

Classical Thermodynamics is the macroscopic approach to thermodynamics

concerning with the gross or overall behavior of the matter which composes the

system. Classical thermodynamics allows important aspects of system behavior to

be evaluated from observations of the overall system.

Statistic Thermodynamics is the microscopic approach to thermodynamics

concerning directly with the structure of matter. Statistical means are used to

characterize the average behavior of particles making up a system and relate this

information to the observed macroscopic behavior of the system.

A property is a macroscopic characteristic of a system such as mass, volume, energy,

pressure, and temperature. To describe a system and predict its behavior requires

knowledge of its properties and how those properties are related.

A numerical value (quantity) can be assigned at a given time without knowledge of

the history of the system.

A quantity can be non-property such as flow rate, work, and heat..

A state is the condition of a system as described by its properties. Usually a state

can be described by the subset of its properties. (PV=nRT)

When any of the properties of a system changes, the state changes and the system is

said to have undergone a process.

A quantity is a property if, and only if, its change in value between two states is

independent of the process

A thermodynamic cycle is a sequence of processes that begins and ends at the same

state.

A system is at steady state if none of its properties changes with time.

The value for an overall system of an extensive property is the sum of its values for

the parts into which the system is divided. (examples: mass, volume, energy, etc.)

The value of an intensive property is independent of the size or extent of a system.

(examples: temperature, pressure)

State 1

m, P1, T1, V1

Process A

State 2

m, P2, T2, V2

Thermodyna mi c Cyc l e

Process C

State 3

m, P3, T3, V3

Process B

The term phase refers to a quantity of matter that is homogeneous throughout in both

chemical composition and physical structure(solid, liquid, or vapor). Liquid water

and oil are both liquid but immiscible, form two liquid phases. Gaseous nitrogen

and oxygen (air) are mixed to form a single gas phase.

A pure substance is one that is uniform and invariable in chemical composition (not

necessary in physical structure) such as gaseous air, system of liquid and gaseous

water, etc. A uniform mixture of gases can be regarded as a pure substance provided

it remains a gas and does not react chemically.

vapor H2O

vapor

vapor oil

N2/O2

liquid oil

liquid H2O

liquid H2O

pure substance

1-phase

pure substance

2-phase

3-phase

(2-substance)

and changes from one equilibrium state to another.

Equilibrium Properties are uniform throughout the system and do not change along

time.

Mechanical equilibrium uniform pressure

Thermodynamic Equilibrium

Chemical equilibrium composition uniform

Phase equilibrium mass and composition in

phases are individually

uniform and invariant.

Quasi-equilibrium Process All states through which the system passes may be

considered at equilibrium.

Units

Primary dimension:

International System of Units

(SI Unit)

mass

length

time

kilogram kilometer second

(kg)

(km)

(s)

temperature

degree Kelvin/

Degree Celsius

(K)/(C)

pound

foot

second

degree Rankine/

(lbm)

(ft)

(s)

degree Fahrenheit

(R)/( F)

Factor

102

103

106

109

1012

Prefix

hecto

kilo

mega

giga

tera

SI Unit Prefixes

Symbol

Factor

h

10-2

k

10-3

M

10-6

G

10-9

T

10-12

Prefix

centi

milli

micro

nano

pico

Symbol

c

m

n

p

Force Newtons second law of motion, F ma. For SI base units of force, the

Newton is defined so that the proportionality constant in the expression is equal to

unity, F=ma.

1 N (Newton) = (1kg)(1m/s2) = 1 kgm/ s2.

For English base units of force, the pound force (lbf), is the force required to

accelerate one pound mass at 32.174 ft/s2.

1 (lbf) = (1lb)(32.174ft/s2) = 32.174 lbft/ s2

Weight of a body always refers to the force of gravity.

(Standard acceleration of gravity: 9.80665 m/s2, or 32.174 ft/s2)

Density and Specific Volume

Continuum hypothesis From macroscopic perspective, the description of matter is

simplified by considering it to be distributed continuously throughout a region.

When substance can be treated as continua, it is possible to speak of their intensive

thermodynamic properties at a point.

V

Where V is the smallest volume which is large enough to contain enough particles for

statistical average to be significant and small enough to be considered a point in

engineering sense.

lim

V V

is an intensive property, may vary from point to point within a system, thus the mass

associated with a particular volume V is determined by integration m dV .

V

(volume

Molar basis

mole (mol) one mole of any substance is the amount of that substance that contains

as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 12 grams of C 12.

The gram molecular weight is the number of grams per mole of substance.

5

n (number of kmol)

m(mass in kg)

M (molecular weight in kg/kmol)

To signal that a property is on a molar basis, a bar is used over its symbol, thus

M (m3/kmol or ft3/lbmol)

Pressure

nornal stress

(normal force)

shear stress

A

shear stress

Absolute pressure is caused by the momentum conservation when gas particles

collide on the measuring area. Press at the specified point is defined as

F

p lim normal , where A is the area at the point in the same limiting sense as used

A

A A

SI unit of pressure is pascal (Pa) and

1 pascal = 1N/m2,

1 bar = 105 N/m2,

1 atm (standard atmosphere) = 1.01325 bar = 1.01325105 N/m2 (Pa) = 14.696 lbf/in2.

Gauge pressure or vacuum pressure is the difference between the absolute pressure

in a system and the absolute pressure of the atmosphere existing outside the

measuring device.

pgauge pabsolute patm absolute

pvacuum patm absolute pabsolute

For English units, psia is for absolute pressure and psig is for gauge pressure.

p patm gL

The two types pressure measurement devices above are both gauge pressure

measurements. Other important types of pressure measurement devices are

diaphragm-type pressure gauge, diaphragm-type pressure transducer, and

piezoelectric transducer, etc.

Temperature

Temperature is related to the state of the internal energy of molecules in microscopic

point of view.

7

body.

Thermal equilibrium

When two different warmness bodies (e.g. copper block) were brought into contact

and isolated from their surroundings, thermal (heat) interaction begins and some

observable properties (volume, electrical resistance) starts to change. Eventually, all

changes of the observable properties ceases, the interaction is at an end. The two

bodies are then in thermal equilibrium.

Considerations such as these lead us to infer that the bodies have a physical property

that determines whether they will be in thermal equilibrium. This property is called

temperature.

Thermal insulations reduce the rate of interaction and there is no actual material can

prevent the body to interact. An ideal insulator which can prevent the body to

interact thermally is called an adiabatic wall. A system enclosed by adiabatic wall

and undergoes a process is an adiabatic process.

A process that occurs at constant temperature is an isothermal process.

Thermometer

When two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are in thermal

equilibrium with one another. This statement is called zero law of thermodynamics.

The third body is usually a thermometer.

Any body with at least one measurable property that changes as its temperature

changes can be used as a thermometer. Such a property is called a thermometric

property. The particular substance that exhibits changes in the thermometric

property is known as a thermometric substance.

Temperature Detectors (conductor), Thermistors (semiconductor), Radiation

Pyrometer.

Temperature Scale

Temperature scales are defined by the numerical value assigned to a standard fixed

point (triple point of water: 273.16K), which makes the temperature interval from the

ice point (273.15K, 0C) to the steam point (373.15K, 100C) equal to 100K.

For gas thermometer temperature measurements T p , where is an arbitrary

constant. When T 273.16K , p ptp . So

p

273.16

.

and T 273.16

p

ptp

tp

However, p and ptp are depend in part on the amount of gas in the gas bulb, the

value assigned by the above equation to the bath temperature varies with the amount

of gas in the thermometer due to their non-ideality. This difficulty is overcome by

repeating the experiments with reducing amount of gas in the gas bulb ( p and ptp )

and extrapolating the value of p

ptp

to zero pressure.

T C T K 273.15

9

T R 1.8T K

Fahrenheit temperature scale F

T F T R 459.67

T F 1.8C 32

(Details see textbook)

Engineering design is a decision-making process which typically are subject to a

variety of constraints related to economics, safety, environmental impact, and others.

First step of the design is to define the design objectives (quantitative performance

specifications).

Selecting a final (best) design from alternative workable designs is done according to

some criteria: lowest cost, highest efficiency, smallest size, lightest weight, reliability,

manufacturability, maintainability, etc.

Engineering frequently do analysis as part of a design process. For thermodynamic

analysis, basic laws are

The conservation of mass principle

The conservation of energy principle

The second law of thermodynamics

Systematic approach for solving an engineering problem is necessary to maximize the

effort and to avoid making mistakes.

10

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