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Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics

Chapter 1
Introductory Concepts and Definitions
From Greek words therme (heat) and dynamis (force).
Scope: the consideration of the capacity of hot bodies to produce work (ancient).
dealing generally with energy and with relationships among the properties of
matter (modern).
Scientific aspect: fundamental understanding of physical and chemical behavior of
matter and the relationships among them.
Engineer aspect: interaction between systems with their surroundings.
Human uses different disciplines of knowledge to design systems (see Table 1.1) to
meet their needs. The principles of thermodynamics play an important part
in making them better.

Basic Terms
Heat
System

Surroundings
Work

Bounda ry

System: the subject to be studied (analyzed). It can be as simple as a free body or as


complex as an entire chemical refinery.
Surroundings: everything external to the system is considered to be part of the
systems surroundings.
Boundary: the system is distinguished from its surroundings by a specified boundary
which can be at rest (fixed, rigid) or in motion (flexible).
Heat, Work: the interaction between the system and its surroundings which can be in
many formats, such as electricity, pressure, magnetic field, and others.
Types of Systems
Closed System (Control Mass System): systems have no mass exchange with its
surroundings.

Control Volume System (Open System): systems have both mass and energy
exchanges with its surroundings.

Isolated System: systems have neither mass nor energy of any kind exchange with its
surroundings.
Classical Thermodynamics is the macroscopic approach to thermodynamics
concerning with the gross or overall behavior of the matter which composes the
system. Classical thermodynamics allows important aspects of system behavior to
be evaluated from observations of the overall system.
Statistic Thermodynamics is the microscopic approach to thermodynamics
concerning directly with the structure of matter. Statistical means are used to
characterize the average behavior of particles making up a system and relate this
information to the observed macroscopic behavior of the system.
A property is a macroscopic characteristic of a system such as mass, volume, energy,
pressure, and temperature. To describe a system and predict its behavior requires
knowledge of its properties and how those properties are related.
A numerical value (quantity) can be assigned at a given time without knowledge of
the history of the system.
A quantity can be non-property such as flow rate, work, and heat..
A state is the condition of a system as described by its properties. Usually a state
can be described by the subset of its properties. (PV=nRT)
When any of the properties of a system changes, the state changes and the system is
said to have undergone a process.
A quantity is a property if, and only if, its change in value between two states is
independent of the process
A thermodynamic cycle is a sequence of processes that begins and ends at the same
state.
A system is at steady state if none of its properties changes with time.
The value for an overall system of an extensive property is the sum of its values for
the parts into which the system is divided. (examples: mass, volume, energy, etc.)
The value of an intensive property is independent of the size or extent of a system.
(examples: temperature, pressure)

State 1
m, P1, T1, V1

Process A

State 2
m, P2, T2, V2

Thermodyna mi c Cyc l e
Process C

State 3
m, P3, T3, V3

Process B

The term phase refers to a quantity of matter that is homogeneous throughout in both
chemical composition and physical structure(solid, liquid, or vapor). Liquid water
and oil are both liquid but immiscible, form two liquid phases. Gaseous nitrogen
and oxygen (air) are mixed to form a single gas phase.
A pure substance is one that is uniform and invariable in chemical composition (not
necessary in physical structure) such as gaseous air, system of liquid and gaseous
water, etc. A uniform mixture of gases can be regarded as a pure substance provided
it remains a gas and does not react chemically.

vapor H2O

vapor

vapor oil

N2/O2
liquid oil
liquid H2O
liquid H2O
pure substance
1-phase

pure substance
2-phase

3-phase
(2-substance)

Classical thermodynamics places primary emphasis on equilibrium states


and changes from one equilibrium state to another.
Equilibrium Properties are uniform throughout the system and do not change along
time.
Mechanical equilibrium uniform pressure
Thermodynamic Equilibrium

Thermal equilibrium uniform temperature


Chemical equilibrium composition uniform
Phase equilibrium mass and composition in
phases are individually
uniform and invariant.

Quasi-equilibrium Process All states through which the system passes may be
considered at equilibrium.
Units
Primary dimension:
International System of Units
(SI Unit)

mass
length
time
kilogram kilometer second
(kg)
(km)
(s)

temperature
degree Kelvin/
Degree Celsius
(K)/(C)

English Engineering Units

pound

foot

second

degree Rankine/

(lbm)

(ft)

(s)

degree Fahrenheit
(R)/( F)

Factor
102
103
106
109
1012

Prefix
hecto
kilo
mega
giga
tera

SI Unit Prefixes
Symbol
Factor
h
10-2
k
10-3
M
10-6
G
10-9
T
10-12

Prefix
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico

Symbol
c
m

n
p

Second dimension: force, area, viscosity,, etc.


Force Newtons second law of motion, F ma. For SI base units of force, the
Newton is defined so that the proportionality constant in the expression is equal to
unity, F=ma.
1 N (Newton) = (1kg)(1m/s2) = 1 kgm/ s2.
For English base units of force, the pound force (lbf), is the force required to
accelerate one pound mass at 32.174 ft/s2.
1 (lbf) = (1lb)(32.174ft/s2) = 32.174 lbft/ s2
Weight of a body always refers to the force of gravity.
(Standard acceleration of gravity: 9.80665 m/s2, or 32.174 ft/s2)
Density and Specific Volume
Continuum hypothesis From macroscopic perspective, the description of matter is
simplified by considering it to be distributed continuously throughout a region.
When substance can be treated as continua, it is possible to speak of their intensive
thermodynamic properties at a point.

V
Where V is the smallest volume which is large enough to contain enough particles for
statistical average to be significant and small enough to be considered a point in
engineering sense.

lim

The density at a point is defined as

V V

is an intensive property, may vary from point to point within a system, thus the mass
associated with a particular volume V is determined by integration m dV .
V

The specific volume is defined as the reciprocal of the density, 1

(volume

per unit mass, m3/kg, ft3/lb), and is an intensive property.


Molar basis
mole (mol) one mole of any substance is the amount of that substance that contains
as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 12 grams of C 12.
The gram molecular weight is the number of grams per mole of substance.
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n (number of kmol)

m(mass in kg)
M (molecular weight in kg/kmol)

To signal that a property is on a molar basis, a bar is used over its symbol, thus
M (m3/kmol or ft3/lbmol)
Pressure

nornal stress
(normal force)

shear stress

A
shear stress
Absolute pressure is caused by the momentum conservation when gas particles
collide on the measuring area. Press at the specified point is defined as
F

p lim normal , where A is the area at the point in the same limiting sense as used
A
A A

in the definition of density.


SI unit of pressure is pascal (Pa) and
1 pascal = 1N/m2,
1 bar = 105 N/m2,
1 atm (standard atmosphere) = 1.01325 bar = 1.01325105 N/m2 (Pa) = 14.696 lbf/in2.
Gauge pressure or vacuum pressure is the difference between the absolute pressure
in a system and the absolute pressure of the atmosphere existing outside the
measuring device.
pgauge pabsolute patm absolute
pvacuum patm absolute pabsolute
For English units, psia is for absolute pressure and psig is for gauge pressure.

p patm gL

The two types pressure measurement devices above are both gauge pressure
measurements. Other important types of pressure measurement devices are
diaphragm-type pressure gauge, diaphragm-type pressure transducer, and
piezoelectric transducer, etc.
Temperature
Temperature is related to the state of the internal energy of molecules in microscopic
point of view.
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Macroscopically, temperature is a notion to gauge the hotness or coldness of a


body.
Thermal equilibrium
When two different warmness bodies (e.g. copper block) were brought into contact
and isolated from their surroundings, thermal (heat) interaction begins and some
observable properties (volume, electrical resistance) starts to change. Eventually, all
changes of the observable properties ceases, the interaction is at an end. The two
bodies are then in thermal equilibrium.
Considerations such as these lead us to infer that the bodies have a physical property
that determines whether they will be in thermal equilibrium. This property is called
temperature.
Thermal insulations reduce the rate of interaction and there is no actual material can
prevent the body to interact. An ideal insulator which can prevent the body to
interact thermally is called an adiabatic wall. A system enclosed by adiabatic wall
and undergoes a process is an adiabatic process.
A process that occurs at constant temperature is an isothermal process.
Thermometer
When two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are in thermal
equilibrium with one another. This statement is called zero law of thermodynamics.
The third body is usually a thermometer.
Any body with at least one measurable property that changes as its temperature
changes can be used as a thermometer. Such a property is called a thermometric
property. The particular substance that exhibits changes in the thermometric
property is known as a thermometric substance.

Other temperature sensors Thermocouple (electromotive force), Resistance


Temperature Detectors (conductor), Thermistors (semiconductor), Radiation
Pyrometer.
Temperature Scale
Temperature scales are defined by the numerical value assigned to a standard fixed
point (triple point of water: 273.16K), which makes the temperature interval from the
ice point (273.15K, 0C) to the steam point (373.15K, 100C) equal to 100K.
For gas thermometer temperature measurements T p , where is an arbitrary
constant. When T 273.16K , p ptp . So

p
273.16
.
and T 273.16
p
ptp
tp

However, p and ptp are depend in part on the amount of gas in the gas bulb, the
value assigned by the above equation to the bath temperature varies with the amount
of gas in the thermometer due to their non-ideality. This difficulty is overcome by
repeating the experiments with reducing amount of gas in the gas bulb ( p and ptp )
and extrapolating the value of p

ptp

to zero pressure.

Celsius (Centigrade) temperature scale C


T C T K 273.15

The triple point of water is 0.01C and that 0K corresponds to 273.15C.


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Rankine temperature scale R


T R 1.8T K
Fahrenheit temperature scale F
T F T R 459.67
T F 1.8C 32

Engineering Design and Analysis


(Details see textbook)
Engineering design is a decision-making process which typically are subject to a
variety of constraints related to economics, safety, environmental impact, and others.
First step of the design is to define the design objectives (quantitative performance
specifications).
Selecting a final (best) design from alternative workable designs is done according to
some criteria: lowest cost, highest efficiency, smallest size, lightest weight, reliability,
manufacturability, maintainability, etc.
Engineering frequently do analysis as part of a design process. For thermodynamic
analysis, basic laws are
The conservation of mass principle
The conservation of energy principle
The second law of thermodynamics
Systematic approach for solving an engineering problem is necessary to maximize the
effort and to avoid making mistakes.

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