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Home Economics Education in the Elementary Level in the


Philippines

MENDOZA, MichelleApostol; IKEZAKI, Kimie

. , 57: 351-357

2006-02-00

http://hdl.handle.net/2309/1430

Committee of Publication of Bulletin of Tokyo Gakugei


University

Bulletin of Tokyo Gakugei University, Educational Sciences,

57

pp351 3572006

Home Economics Education in the Elementary Level in the Philippines


Michelle Apostol Mendoza and Kimie IKEZAKI
Home

Economics Education

Received for Publication ; September 30,2005

MENDOZA, M.A., IKEZAKI, K. : Home Economics Education in the Elementary Level in the Philippines. Bull. Tokyo Gakugei
Univ. Educational Sciences, 57 : 351_357 (2006)

ISSN 1880_4306
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to clarify the home economics subject in the elementary level in the Philippines. In the process of
gathering data for the input, the researcher floated questionnaires in order to verify the data. The questionnaire was carried out
from August to December 2004. There were about 34 home economics teachers who were given the survey forms which they
returned promptly.
Consequently, the following knowledge was acquired.
Home Economics is offered to the elementary level from the 4th to 6th grades and is called Home Economics and Livelihood
Education (HELE).
The topics taught are Health & Personal Hygiene, Clothing & Accessories, Learning Embroidery, Managing a Home, Caring &
Furnishing the Home, Caring for the Sick, Cooking for the Family, Table Setting, Sewing, Safety in the Home, Leisure Time,
Entrepreneurship, Food Preservation, Computer Education.
It is taught 40 minutes a day in the elementary level. Consequently, home economics education aims at teaching the students to
become healthy and responsible members of the family and society.
The instructional methodologies and materials employed are specifically described in the succeeding pages.
Home economics is like a catalyst of change to the betterment of the society primarily because of its focus, that is, the family.
(in Japanese)
Key words : home economics, elementary school, Philippines, curriculum, home economics teacher

INTRODUCTION

Home Economics deals with the family. It is concerned with people in contemporary society, managing human and material
resources for the benefit of individuals and families.1) Home Economics is like a catalyst of change to the betterment of the society
primarily because of its focus, that is, the family. In addition, Home Economics views the family as a major source of nurturance,
protection, and renewal for the individual.2) On the other hand, as an educational force, the family significantly contributes to the

Regional Science High School III (Philippines)


(I attended the teacher training program for foreign teachers from Oct. 2003 to March 2005. I completed the program at Tokyo Gakugei
University.)
Tokyo Gakugei University ( 4-1-1 Nukui-kita-machi, Koganei-shi, Tokyo, 184-8501, Japan)

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Bulletin of Tokyo Gakugei University, Educational Sciences, Vol. 57 (2006)

qualitative development of its individual members and has the potential to prepare them for effective productivity for self and
society. From this perspective, Home Economics works through family to affect an optimum balance between people and their
environments. The weight that home economics lay upon the family is the main factor for this research, as the author wanted to
know the depth of home economics education as it is passed on to the students, who incidentally, are the future homemakers.
RESULTS and DISCUSSION
1. Outline of Home Economics Education in the Philippines
1-1. Phillippines educational system
The educational ladder3) in the Philippines has a 6-4-4 structure, that is six years of elementary or primary education (some
private schools require seven), four years of high school or secondary education, and another four years of higher education for a
degree program (except for some courses like Engineering, Law and Medical Sciences which require five or more years of
schooling). (Figure 1)

Figure 1 Educational system


The 1987 Philippine Constitution mandates the establishment of a system of a free public education in the elementary and
high school levels. Pre-school education is optional. Some private schools offer seven years of primary education.
There are two types of secondary schools according to curricular offerings: the general high school and the vocational high
school. General high schools offer the four-year general academic secondary curriculum while vocational high schools offer the
same secondary curriculum with additional vocational courses. Science high schools offer an enriched Science, Mathematics and
English curriculum in addition to the requirements of the secondary education curriculum.
Higher Education is divided into collegiate, masters and doctorate levels in various programmes or disciplines. Foreign
students are allowed to pursue higher education in some 150 colleges and universities in the Philippines. A list of these schools,
colleges and universities authorized to accept foreign students is available in Philippine Embassies and Consulates.
The responsibility of administering, supervising and regulating basic education (elementary and secondary education) is
vested in the Department of Education (DepEd) while that of higher education is with the Commission on Higher Education
(CHED). The post-secondary technical-vocational education is under the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
(TESDA) which is also in charge of skills orientation, training and development of out-of-school youth and unemployed
community adults.
Schools opens in June and closes in April. There is a two-week Christmas break before classes resume in January.4) The
Philippines uses English as medium of instruction in teaching almost all the subjects offered except for which are taught in the
national language which is Filipino.
1-2. Home economics in the elementary school
In the Philippines, Home Economics was changed to Technology and Home Economics because the Department of
Education also wanted to inculcate the use of technology in the home. Naturally, this is in line with the modernization that the
whole world is geared to. The subject Technology and Home Economics which includes Entrepreneurship is offered to students in
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Mendoza, M.A. and Ikezaki, K. Home Economics Education in the Elementary Level in the Philippines

the elementary from 4th to 6th grades and the subject is called Home Economics and Livelihood Education (HELE) and in the
secondary level from 1st to 4th year. To further enhance the success of MAKABAYAN, several agencies help the Department of
Education in promoting nutrition in the Home Economics classes. This is where the Teacher-Child-Parent Approach comes in.
The DepEd Teacher-Child-Parent (TCP) Approach is an organized relay system that delivers nutrition messages from the school to
home. The child receives messages from the teachers and carries them to their parents through home activities and assignments.
The objective of the DepEd TCP Approach is to educate children and their parents on nutrition and promote adoption of
proper nutrition practices and a healthy lifestyle.5) The targets of this project are elementary school children and the implementers
are public elementary school teachers from Grades 1 to 6.
The project works as it is integrated in HELE in cooperation with another subject in MAKABAYAN which is Physical
Education, Health and Music (PEHM). The teacher will integrate nutrition concepts in the school curriculum and give home
assignments that will make the parents and other family members learn and practice at home.6) Furthermore, to reinforce the
learning and enhance the creativity of children and their parents, the following special events may be implemented:7)

a. Nutrition Quiz Contest


b. Recipe and Cooking Contest
c. Jingle-making Contest
d. Poster-making Contest
e. Nutrition Corner Contest
2. Procedure and research design

This study used the descriptive method of research. The survey form was mailed to the teachers of home economics subject
from August to December 2004 all over the Philippines. To gather all the data needed, Questionnaires in selected 34 elementary
schools were distributed. Then the MS Excel and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) program were employed to
analyze and interpret the data.
To give an overview of what this research seeks to obtain, listed below are the questions that this study seeks to answer.

. When is home economics as a subject introduced to the students?


. What are the topics taught?
. How long and how frequent is it taught? Its class population?
. What is the objective of home economics?
. What are the instructional materials and methodologies used?
. How does home economics education contribute to the well-being of the students? Of the family? Of the society?
2-1. When is home economics as a subject introduced to the students?
In the Philippines: elementary: 4th to 6th grades
2-2. What are the topics taught?
Health & Personal Hygiene, Clothing & Accessories, Learning Embroidery, Managing a Home, Caring & Furnishing the
Home, Caring for the Sick, Cooking for the Family, Table Setting, Sewing, Safety in the Home, Leisure Time, Entrepreneurship,
Food Preservation, Computer Education
2-3. How long and how frequent is it taught? Its class population?
40 minutes everyday, ranges from 21 to 51 pupils per class in the elementary

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2-4. What is the objective of home economics?


For the reason that home economics has been integrated with three other subjects, it is called MAKABAYAN collectively, it is
just safe to say that we have to get the context of its objective in a holistic approach, therefore its objective is: Makabayan will be a
laboratory of life or a practice environment for holistic learning to develop a healthy personal and national self identity. This requires
an adequate understanding of Philippine history and our politico-economic system, local cultures, crafts, arts, music and games.
The primary goal is to prepare the students to be better equipped in facing the hard changes of life by letting them practice
what they learn in their home economics subject. Theories are learned but practice makes perfect. Home economics is a liberated
subject in a way that it makes the students act freely within the bounds of doing things right.
2-5 . What are the instructional materials and methodologies used?
The instructional materials: Flat Materials, TV & Video, Computers, Reading Materials, LCD and use of OHP.
Methods in Teaching Home Economics: Discussion/Lecture Method, Group Work, Demonstrations, Field Trips, Laboratory
Work / Hands-on-Training.
2-6 . How does home economics contribute to the well-being of the students? Of the family? Of the society?
The field of home economics involves a comprehensive, multi-faceted study of daily life in its broadest and deepest sense
that it prepares the students to be better equipped to face the fast changing world being homemakers in the future whose
knowledge and skills transcend in every family and society.
3. Tables and Graphs:

The following tables and graphs show the consolidated data gathered through floating of questionnaires in 34 schools in the
Philippines. The software SPSS and Ms Excel were used.
3-1. Age Group of teacher-respondents
The graphs show the trend of the teacher-respondents age group in the elementary level. It is notably clear that an equal
percentage is evident in the 40-49 and 50-59 age groups. (Graph 1)

Graph 1
Age group of teacher respondents

3-2.Years of Experience and Student Population


The graph shows that about 40% of the teachers have over 30 years of experience. (Graph 2)
On the other hand the other graph shows the student population per class; it is from 21-51 students. 50% of the teachers reply that
they teach over 40 students. (Graph 3)

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Mendoza, M.A. and Ikezaki, K. Home Economics Education in the Elementary Level in the Philippines

Graph 2
Years of expreriences

Graph 3
Popuration per Class

3-3. Characteristic of Time


In the Philippines, the subject is good for 40 minutes. The respondents were asked to react on these specific time frames for
home economics. There is a change in the time allotment for the subject in the Philippines. Home Economics is one of the
subjects forming the MAKABAYAN, thus, the teaching of the subject has been affected. Several teachers would divide the days
in the week among themselves in relation to their subject. The scheduling affected home economics greatly. If before it is taught
everyday, at present, with the inception of MAKABAYAN, the number of days is now dependent on the agreed schedule by all the
subject teachers involved.

Next is the graph showing the reaction of the teachers regarding the time allotted for home economics?

Graph 4
Characteristic of Time
In this category, the time allotment for the subject per class hour is, the 40 minutes per class hour and 61.8% of the
respondents said it is too short. (Graph 4)
3-4. Facilities Used
The table below shows how many of the teacher-respondents have the facilities such as kitchen, sewing room, computer
room and industrial arts room in their schools to facilitate the laboratory works. About 77 - 85 % of the teacher replied that they
have kitchen and industrial arts room in their schools. (Table 1)
Table 1 Facilities

3-5. Room Size, Utensils and Tools


The following tables show how satisfied the teacher-respondents are in terms of the room size, equipment (ranges, ovens,
etc), utensils (pots, pans, etc.) and sanitation for the kitchen room, room size and number of sewing machines for the sewing room.
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Bulletin of Tokyo Gakugei University, Educational Sciences, Vol. 57 (2006)

The teachers are not satisfied with the room size, equipment, utensils and sanitation for the kitchen. But they are fairly
satisfied with the number of sewing machines for the sewing room. (Table 2)
Table 2 Room Size, Utensils and Tools

3-6. Instructional Materials


The following tables show how often the teacher-respondents use specific instructional materials like OHP, TV, Video, and
Flat Materials in teaching the subject. The choices for each category are No Answer, Not Use, Sometimes Use and Always Use.
85.3% of the teachers always use Flat Materials. From the result of the data consolidated as depicted on the tables below, it is
clear that employing the use of the aforementioned materials depended on the availability of those in the schools. (Table 3)

Table 3 Instructional Materials

3-7. Topics
The table on this category shows how the teachers find some of the topics in terms of importance contribute to the well-being
of the students. The subjects are: Home Management, Caring for the Sick, Cooking, Sewing, Safety in the Home, and Food
Preservation. Almost all of the teachers think that it is very important for students to study these topics. (Table 4)

Table 4 Topics

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Mendoza, M.A. and Ikezaki, K. Home Economics Education in the Elementary Level in the Philippines

3-8. Teachers Point of View


On this category, teachers opinions on the following ideas were asked:
Legend: (a)Home economics is imperative for both genders to learn,(b)Industrial arts must be learned by both male and
female students, (c)The entrepreneurship skills of the students must be honed in this subject, (d)Home economics
help students to have a better perspective of home life, (e)Home economics education lets the students appreciate
the value of being a homemaker and (f)Entrepreneur regardless of gender and the school should support the
department by providing all the things needed for effective teaching-learning of the subject.

The teachers evaluated the ideas and answered those according to what they think in terms of the weight of impact home
economics education has basing from the ideas that affect the students the most. The teacher-respondents have almost the same
wavelength in terms of the following ideas given on how home economics influence the students life that will better prepare them
for the future, and that is by starting them early through home economics education. Table 5
Table 5 Teachers Opinions

CONCLUSION

Basing from the data gathered, the following conclusions are derived
1. Home Economics is offered to the elementary level from the 4th to 6th grades and is called Home Economics and
Livelihood Education (HELE). It is aimed at the best interest of the students in terms of gaining enough knowledge, skills
and value formation while undertaking the works at home that the students must give importance to. For this reason, the
subject allows ample time in training the students during the laboratory works after discussing the different theories which
in turn will give the students enough experience to deal with the different trades of everyday life.
2. The school gives an important notice to the key role of the family to effect changes in the home, education and society.
3. In the Philippines, the entrepreneurial skills of the students are honed to prepare the students in the future.
4. Teachers offer almost the same objective and philosophy by providing the students the knowledge and technical knowhow in a wide range of practical work to better pass on the learning of the subject.
References

1 Home Economics, http//www.ellonacademy.org.uk/sgradeguide/subjects/he.htm


2 Home Economics, http://www.pucpr.edu/catalogo/englisheducation/homeeconomics.htm
3 Philippine Educational System, http://www.philembassy-china.org/country/edcuation.html
4 Philippine Educational System, http://www.philembassy-china.org/country/edcuation.html
5 Nutrition, www.ncphil.com/html/integrate.htm
6 Nutrition, www.ncphil.com/html/integrate.htm
7 Nutrition, www.ncphil.com/html/integrate.htm
The Executive Summary, The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum
Department of Education Guidelines on the Revised Basic Education Curriculum
357