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Set No. 1

R10

## IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, December - 2013

INSTRUMENTATION
(Open Elective)
Time : 3 hours

Max. Marks: 75

All Questions carry equal marks
*****
1 a) Explain briefly the each stage of the measuring system with a neat block
diagram.
[10]
b) Discuss the following static characteristics
(i) Sensitivity
(ii) Reproducibility
(iii) Drift
[5]

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## 2 a) Explain the following processes as applied to pulse code modulation

(i) Quantization process
(ii) Encoding process.
b) In a pulse code modulation system, a 5 bit encoder is used. Suppose each level
represents 1 V, what is the range of encoder? Find out the quantization error on
account of PCM if a voltage of 27.39 V is involved.

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## 3 a) Describe the different criteria for selection of transducers for a particular

application.
b) The output of an LVDT is connected to a 5 V voltmeter through an amplifier
whose amplification factor is 250. An output of 2 mV appears across the
terminals of LVDT when the core moves through a distance of 0.5 mm.
Calculate the sensitivity of the LVDT and that of the whole set up. The
millivoltmeter scale has 100 divisions. The scale can be read to 1/5 of a
division. Calculate the resolution of the instrument in mm.

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[8]

[7]

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4 a) How are DVMs classified? What are the two basic DVM circuits used for
measuring voltages.
[10]
b) What are the advantages of successive approximation type DVM over other [5]
types of DVM.
5 a) How is magnitude and phase measured on a CRO for two different waves?
b) An electrostatically deflected cathode ray tube has plane parallel deflecting
plates which are 2.5 cm long and 0.5 cm apart and the distance from their
centre to the screen is 20 cm. The electron beam is accelerated by a potential
difference of 2500 V and is projected centrally between the plates. Calculate
the deflecting voltage required to cause the beam to strike a deflecting voltage
and find the corresponding deflection of the screen?

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Set No. 1

R10

## 6 a) State the engineering applications of wave analyzers?

[5]
b) Describe the circuits and working of wave analyzers used for audio frequency
and megahertz ranges?
[10]
7 a) Describe the construction and working of LVDT accelerometer with a neat
sketch.
b) An LVDT is used in an accelerometer to measure seismic mass displacement.
The LVDT and signal conditioning outputs are 0.31mv/mm with a 20mm
core displacement. The spring constant is 240N/m and the core mass is 0.05kg.
Find (i) relation between acceleration in m/s2 and the output voltage.
(ii) natural frequency and (iii) maximum acceleration measurable.

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## 8 a) Explain the measurement of pressure using piezo-electric transducer.

b) Explain the measurement of vaccume using pirani gauge.

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Set No. 2

R10

## IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, December - 2013

INSTRUMENTATION
(Open Elective)
Time : 3 hours

Max. Marks: 75

All Questions carry equal marks
*****
1 a) Enumerate the dynamic characteristics in a measurement system.
b) Discuss the types of systematic errors with suitable examples.

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## 2 a) Describe the following signals with suitable plots:

(i). Continuous time periodic signals
(ii). Aperiodic signals.
b) Explain about the pulse duration and pulse frequency modulation.

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[8]
[7]

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## 3 a) Explain the constructional features of (i) synchro-transmitter and (ii) synchro

receiver. Explain how the above pair can be used as an error detector in a
servomechanism.
[12]
b) A parallel plate capacitive transducer uses plates of area 500 mm2which are
separated by a distance 0.2 mm. Calculate the value of capacitance when the
dielectric is air having a permittivity of 8.8510-12 F/m. Calculate the change in
capacitance if a linear displacement reduces the distance between the plates to
0.18 mm.
[3]

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## 4 a) Explain the operating principle of a Ramp type DVM.

b) List the general requirements of a digital voltmeter.

[8]
[7]

## 5 a) Describe about the vertical amplifier used in a CRO?

b) Find the frequency of the vertical plates if the frequency applied to horizontal
plate is 50 Hz for the patterns shown.

[7]

[8]

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Set No. 2

R10

## Code No: R41026

6 a) Describe the basic circuit of a spectrum analyzer. Explain how the spectra of
the following is displayed
(i)
Continuous wave signals
(ii)
Amplitude modulated signals
b) Explain the term total harmonic distortion? Describe the harmonic distortion
Analyzers with neat sketch?

[6]
[9]

7 a) Explain with a neat sketch the measurement of angular velocity using toothed
this method.
b) Explain the construction and working of strain gauge.

[8]
[7]

## 8 a) Explain the working of a oscillation transducer in the measurement of pressure.

b) Explain the principle of thermo couple vacuum gauge.

[8]
[7]

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Set No. 3

R10

## IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, December - 2013

INSTRUMENTATION
(Open Elective)
Time : 3 hours

Max. Marks: 75

All Questions carry equal marks
*****
1 a) Distinguish between systematic and random errors in a measurement.
b) List out the sources of errors in measuring instruments.
2 a) Describe the following modulation processes
(i) Pulse amplitude modulation.
(ii) Pulse frequency modulation.
b) Explain briefly the types of test signals used for determination of dynamic
characteristics.

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## 3 a) Explain the operation of a thermocouple for the measurement of temperature?

b) Enumerate the applications of LVDT?
c) A resistance, wire strain gauge with a gauge factor of 2 is bonbed to a steel
structural member subjected to a stress of 100MN/m2. The modulus of
elasticity of steel is 200 GN/m2. Calculate the percentage change in the value
of the gauge resistance due to the applied stress.

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4 a) With a neat block diagram explain the microprocessor based ramp type digital
voltmeter.
b) What are the operating and performance characteristics of a digital voltmeters.

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5 a) An electrically deflected CRT has a final anode voltage of 2000V and parallel
deflecting plates 1.5cm long and 5mm apart. If the screen is 50cm from the
centre of deflecting plates. Find (a) beam speed (b) the deflection sensitivity of
the tube and (c) the deflection factor of the tube.
b) The deflection sensitivity of an oscilloscope is 35 V/cm. If the distance from
the deflection plates to the CRT screen is 16 cm, the length of the deflection
plates is 2.5 cm, and the distance between the deflection plates is 1.2 cm. What
is the acceleration anode voltage?

## 6 a) Discuss the applications of a spectrum analyzer?

b) Explain with a neat diagram the working of a vector impedance meter.
7 a) Derive the expression for gauge sensitivity of strain gauge.
b) Explain the construction, working of a drag cup type tachogenerator.
8 a) Describe the different electrical methods for measurement of liquid level.
b) State the advantages of ultrasonic flow meter.
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[6]

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Set No. 4

R10

## IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, December - 2013

INSTRUMENTATION
(Open Elective)
Time : 3 hours

Max. Marks: 75

All Questions carry equal marks
*****
1 a) Explain the errors in measurements by giving suitable examples. how they
are usually minimized.
b) Explain statistical analysis of random errors.

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## 2 a) Explain the techniques of pulse-time modulation and pulse code modulation

b) Discuss with the help of a daigram the periodic, aperiodic signals & modulated
signal.

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[10]
[5]
[8]
[7]

## 3 a) Describe the different modes of operation of piezo electric transducer?

b) What are thermistors? Draw their resistivity versus temperature characteristics?
c) A strain gauge having a gauge factor of 4 is used for testing a machine. If the
gauge resistance is 100 , and the strain is 2010-6. How much will the
resistance of strain gauge change?

[8]
[4]

## 4 a) Explain the basic circuit of a digital frequency meter.

b) Explain, with the help of a neat circuit diagram, the working of a dual slope
DVM.

[7]

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## 5 a) How much voltage is required across two deflection plates separated by 1 cm

to deflect an electron beam if the effective length of the deflection plates is 2
cm and the accelerating potential is 1000V?
b) Calculate the ratio of vertical to horizontal frequencies for an oscilloscope
which displays the following Lissajous figures shown.

[3]

[8]

[7]

[8]

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Set No. 4

R10

## 6 a) Explain the principle of Q meter with the help of circuit diagram?

b) The self capacitance of a coil is measured by using the Q meter. The first
measurement is at f1=1 MHz and C1=500 pf. The second measurement is at
f2=2MHz and C2=110pf. Find the distributed capacitance. Also calculate the
value of L.
7 a) Explain the principle of measurement of torque using magnetostrictive
transducer.
b) A mild steel shaft is used to connect a motor drive to a constant load torque. A
foil strain gauge having a resistance of 120 and a gauge factor 2 is mounted on
a shaft with its active axis at angle of 45 degrees to the axis of the shaft. The
shear modules of steel is 80GN/m2, the shaft radius is 15mm and the change in
strain gauge resistance due to the load 0.24 . Find the load torque.

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[8]

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[7]

## 8 a) Describe the working of an electromagnetic type flow meter. List its

[10]
b) The emitted radiant energy from a piece of metal is measured and the
temperature is found to be 10650C assuming a surface emissivity of 0.82. It
was later found out that the true emissivity is 0.75. Calculate the error in
temperature measurement.
[5]

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