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utilising magnetic properties of materials (inductor,

transformers and machines).

All materials show some magnetic effect.

1. Magnetic dipole moment and magnetic field

Consider a current loop, the

circulating current is I and the

enclosed area is A, then magnetic

dipole moment is defined as

m = IAu m

= B

just like a bar of magnet

An orbiting electron in an atom behaves much like a

current loop therefore has a magnetic dipole moment

associated with it orbital magnetic moment, orb.

i.e. spin. The spin of the electron creates a spin magnetic

moment, spin.

Magnetisation M

When a magnetic field B0 is applied to a

material, each atom responses to it, develops or

acquires a net magnetic moment the material is

magnetised. The extents of the magnetisation of

the material is described by magnetic vector M,

defined as the magnetic dipole moment per

unit volume.

1

M=

V

i =1

mi

from the applied field B0 and a contribution from

the magnetisation M

B = B 0 + 0M

The corresponding magnetised field H is defined

as

H=

BM

field intensity and is measured in A/m.

Magnetic permeability

The magnetic permeability at a point of P in a

material is defined as

B

=

H

permeable by magnetic field.

In practice, the relative permeability is often

quoted

B

B

r =

=

=

B0 0 H 0

Magnetic susceptibility

In practice it is often that H is known (related

directly to current), the magnetisation M is related

to H by the equation

M = H

where is the magnetic susceptibility. Since both

r and describe the magnetisation, they are

related

r = (1 + )

In general, magnetic material are classified into four

distinctive groups based on m.

Type

m=r-1

Examples

Diamagnetic

negative, small

Polymers, Si, Cu

Paramagnetic

positive, small

Gases

Ferromagnetic

positive, very

large

positive, very

large

Fe, Co, Ni

Ferrimagnetic

Fe3O4

A magnetic domain is a region of the crystal in which

all the spin magnetic moment are aligned to produce a

magnetic moment in one direction only.

reduces the external field

magnetic domains (or Bloch wall).

sideway domains.

The end domains are called closure domains.

permanent magnetisation in the absence of an applied

field. This is due to the formation of magnetic domains

that effectively cancel each other.

When a magnetic field is applied to a crystal, magnetic

dipole moments experience a torque and are gradually

rotated by the applied field.

Domain A enlarges and domain B shrinks.

and B migrates towards the right, resulting in a net

magnetisation.

This phenomenon is termed as motion of domain

wall. The magnetisation process involves the

motion of Bloch wall in the crystal.

Polycrystalline Materials

The majority of the magnetic materials used in

engineering are polycrystalline. They have a

microstructure that consists of many grains of

various sizes and orientations.

crystal grain will possess domains. The domain

structure in each grain will depend on the size and

shape of the grain and to some extent, on the

magnetisations in neighbouring grains.

Very small grains << 0.1 m may have a single

domain.

Majority of grains have several domains.

Overall, the structure will possess no net

magnetisation.

B = 0 r H

Using Circuital law

NI

H=

d

Flux density is given by

B=

S

d

S

history of the iron.

Features:

Shape is symmetrical about its axes,

B is not single valued function of H,

B tends to lag behind H.

This behaviour is known as hysteresis

When H=0, B=Br called the remanence of the iron.

When B=0, H=Hc, called the coercivity.

B = 0 r H

B

r =

0 H

H

r

the iron is dependent of H

H

Assume applying a very small external magnetic

field (0H) along +x direction.

the domain walls within various grains begin

to move small distances a very small net

magnetisation along the field.

Increase the H the domain wall motions extend

larger distances a larger net magnetisation.

The second step is irreversible! Why?

imperfections, impurities, second phases and so on, which

tend to attract the walls hinder their motions.

Take an imperfection as an example: A domain is stuck

(or pinned) at an imperfection at a given field and cant

move until the field intensity increases sufficiently to

provide the necessary force to overcome the obstacle.

Wall suddenly snaps free and shoots forward to the next

obstacle.

Sudden changes in lattice distortion creates lattice wave

and it also induce eddy current, dissipating energy via

joule heating.

These processes involve energy conversion to heat and

acoustic wave, which are irreversible.

continues to increase in the same format, leading

to enlarge domains favourably oriented

magnetisation and shrink away those with

magnetisation pointing away from the applied

field.

Eventually, domain wall motions leave each

crystal grain with a single domain and

magnetisation in one of the easy directions.

If the applied field is strong enough to align M

along H, the material reaches saturation

magnetisation.

magnetisation in each domain will rotate to align

parallel with nearest easy direction in that grain.

If we apply a magnetising field in the reverse

direction, -x, the magnetisation of the material,

still along +x, will decrease and eventually, at a

sufficient large H, M will be zero the material

has been totally demagnetised.

Further increase in the H will lead to the above

processes but in opposite direction.

The above description is schematically shown in

next overhead.

Power absorbed at t

dB

dB

P = e12i = NA

i = AlH

dt

dt

dB

dW = AlH

dt = AlHdB

dt

Bo

W = HdB

0

Let:

i = current at time t

H = field intensity corresponding to i at time t

B = flux density corresponding to i at time t

Let an infinitely small time dt elapses so that new values become:

i + di =Current at time t + dt

H + dH =Field intensity corresponding to i + di at time t +

dt

B + dB = Flux density corresponding to i + di at time t + dt

Voltage induced in the coil

d

dB

e12 = N

= NA

dt

dt

The material is left magnetized with a residual field OT

Now the question is when the exciting current is decreasing, does

the coil absorb or return the energy back to supply.

In this case dB/dt being ve, the induced voltage reverses its

polarity but direction of i remains same. In other words, current

leaves from the +ve terminal of the induced voltage thereby

returning power back to the supply.

Proceeding in the same fashion as adopted for

increasing current, it can be shown that the area

PMTRP represents amount of energy returned

per unit volume. Obviously energy absorbed

during rising current from 0 to I0 is more than

the energy returned during lowering of current

from I0 to 0.

been lost as heat in the core.

How is the operating point traced out if the exciting current is i =

Imax sin t ?

The nature of the current variation in a complete cycle can be

enumerated as follows:

Let the core had no residual field when the coil is excited by i = Imax sin t

In the interval 0<t</2, B will rise along the path OGP. Operating point at P

corresponds to +Imax or +Hmax.

For the interval /2<t<, operating moves along the path PRT.

At point T, current is zero. However, due to sinusoidal

current, i starts increasing in the ve direction and operating

point moves along TSEQ.

It may be noted that a ve H of value OS is necessary to

bring the residual field to zero at S. OS is called the

coercivity of the material. At the end of the interval

<t<3/2, current reaches Imax or field Hmax.

In the next internal, 3/2<t<2, current changes from

Imax to zero and operating point moves from Q to M along

the path QFM.

After this a new cycle of current variation begins and the

operating point now never enters into the path OGP. The

movement of the operating point can be described by two

paths namely: (i) QFMNKP for increasing current from

Imax to +Imax and (ii) from +Imax to Imax along PRTSEQ.

The operating point traces the perimeter of the closed area QFMNKPRTSEQ.

This area is called the B-H loop of the material.

In the interval 0 t/2 i is +ve and di/dt is

also +ve, moving the operating point from M

to P along the path MNKP. Energy absorbed

during this interval is given by the shaded area

MNKPLTM (i).

In the interval /2t,i is +ve but di/dt is

ve, moving the operating point from P to T

along the path PRT. Energy returned during

this interval is given by the shaded area

PLTRP (ii). Thus during the +ve half cycle of

current variation net amount of energy

absorbed is given by the shaded area

MNKPRTM which is nothing but half the area

of the loop (iii).

Using similar analysis, one can conclude that

the total area enclosed by the B-H loop is the

measure of the hysteresis loss per unit volume

per cycle.

Magnetic materials are often divided into hard &

soft for their applications.

Soft magnetic materials are characterised by having

narrow hysteresis loops, low remanence and small

coercivity.

They are easily magnetised and demagnitised, are

used as conductors of flux in magnetic circuits and

magnetic screen

remanence and high coercive forces.

Such materials are difficult to demagnetise. They are used

for making permanent magnets.

The differences between the two classes can be shown in

hysteresis loops.

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