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Special Features

1. Practice of Separation of Power. The

Executive, the Legislature and the
Judiciary are three distinguished
branches of Government. The
government work loads are divided
equally among these three branches of
the government. One branch may not
interfere with the functions of the other
branches. In Parliamentary
Government. the members of Executive
are also the members of the Legislature,
but, in Presidential Government, the
President and his executives are
independent or isolated from The
Legislature. The President cannot
interfere with or coerce the Legislature.
Although, the President cannot dissolve
the legislative assembly, the Legislature
has the power to cease the tenure of the
President by impeachment if the
President has committed a serious
crime. According to the provision of the
Constitution, the Chief Executive
cannot be asked to appear before
another authority. Example of clear
separation of power among the
Executive and the Judiciary could be
seen in Watergate Scandal in the United
States of America, the U.S President
Richard M. Nixon refused to cooperate
with the investigation and testify
against the case. He is apprehended of
his testimony will be equal to interfere
of his function as U.S President alone,
and he is the Executive who is
protected by law from having to give in
to another authority.
2. There is a Single Executive System, as

Special Features
1. Practices of Fusion of Power. The
members of the Legislature are also the
members of the Executive (Cabinet).
The electorates elect only their
representative in the Legislature. The
members of the Legislature then chose
an Executive among themselves, The
Head Executive will choose his
members of Cabinet among the
members of the Legislature and then
assign them to various government
departments and agencies. The Prime
Minister and his cabinet members are
responsible and answerable to the
parliament. As the members of the
Legislature, they are responsible for
enacting law in the country, and as the
members of the Executive, they are
responsible for enforcing the law,
implementing policy in the government
agencies and also providing services to
the people.
2. Dual executive system. There are the
Head of State and the Head of
Government. The Head of State who is
usually a monarch: King. Queen.
Emperor or Sultan. And the Head of
Government usually the Prime Minister
and the cabinet members. The Head of
State is a nominal executive, his role is
nominal and customary as he does not
exercises the real power to govern the
country and he acts oil advice of the
real executive and the cabinet
members. While the Head of
Government is the real executive who
exercises the real power in the

the Head of Government is also the

Head of State, known as the President.
All the executive power is vested in one
person and his executive members.
3. The Head of Government is elected
directly by the electorate or the
people, not by the legislature, and he
serve for a fixed term. In USA, for
example, the President is elected for a
fixed term of four years, he can serves
for maximum of two terms. As the
Chief Executive is directly elected by
the people, so he is directly responsible
for the people. After the Chief
Executive was elected, the people have
to follow his policy and governance,
whether they like it or not. And after
the term of his office, the people can
vote him out if they wish.
4. The President appoints his own
cabinet officers or ministers or heads
of government, and they are
accountable to him only, not to the
Manner of Assumption of Office

3. Dominant Party System. The patty

who won the majority seats in the
parliament during general election
forms the ruling government. The
voters elect only the member of
Legislature to represent them in the
parliament. The leader or the head of
the winning party chooses his own
cabinet members among the Legislature
who were elected by the people.
4. The chief executive does note elected
directly by the people or electorate. the
people only vote for legislative
representatives, and the legislative
menthe's selected the Chief Executive
from among themselves or by the
appointment of the chief of state.

Term of Office

Term of Office

Constitution Removal from Office

Constitution Removal from Office

Advantages and Disadvantages

1. Since the President is directly elected
by the people, he has a strong claim to
democratic legitimacy.
2. Direct election by the people gives him
the resolve to govern independently and
to disregard pressures from vested
3. The Presidents fixed term of office
makes for stability and strength to push
even unpopular but necessary

Manner of Assumption of Office

Advantages and Disadvantages

1. The parliamentary form is more suited
for countries with deep ideological or
religious cleavages or numerous
political parties or sectoral factions
2. Parliamentary democracy provides
opportunity for the people to make a
clear choice of political alternatives.
3. The parliamentary form makes for
stability in mature democracies as
executive power depends on legislative

programs of government and to

accelerate economic development.
4. The presidential system accords with
personalistic culture of the Filipinos

majorities constituted after

parliamentary election.

Other Feature

1. The political development of the
country has not yet reached that level of
maturity where political parties have
been strengthened around clear-cut
national alternatives and ideologies.
2. In the parliamentary form, the
representatives of the people are
sometime weakened as against the
cabinet, which can threaten to make
issues matters of confidence. This
can lead to paralyzation of
governmental functions.
3. Since the parliamentary form is based
on compromises and horse-trading,
collective responsibility leads to a weak
Other Feature

Example of Nation State

Example of Nation State

1. The presidential system concentrates
too much power in the hands of one
man, and sets the stage for personalistic
2. This personalistic culture impinges
adversely on the quality of other
political leaders.
3. A strongman rule undermines political
programs and weakens political parties
based on ideology.
4. The President is under the strongest
temptation to usurp powers of the other
main departments of government.