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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.....................................................................................................................................2
1.

INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................2
1.1.

BACKGROUND..............................................................................................................2

1.2.

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................4

1.3.

STATEMENT....................................................................................................................5

1.4.

AIMS.................................................................................................................................5

1.5.

OBJECTIVES...................................................................................................................5

1.6.

QUESTION.......................................................................................................................6

1.7.

DELIMITATIONS............................................................................................................6

1.8.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS.............................................................................................6

CHAPTER II...................................................................................................................................7
2.

LITERATURE REVIEW.........................................................................................................7
2.1.

THEORETICAL LITERATURE......................................................................................8

SECTION 2.1 Dispatch system............................................................................................8


SECTION 2.2 The application of dispatching systems.........................................................9
SECTION 2.3 Linear programming...................................................................................11
SECTION 2.4 Dynamic program.......................................................................................13
2.2.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK...................................................................................14

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY.............................................................................................15


3.

INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................................15

3.1.

RESEARCH DESIGN....................................................................................................16

3.2.

POPULATION AND SAMPLING.................................................................................16

3.3.

DATA COLLECTION....................................................................................................16

CHAPTER IV DATA PRESENTATION....................................................................................16


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4.

INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................................16

4.1.

DATA PRESENTATION.................................................................................................16

4.2.

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION..........................................................................19

4.2.1.

SIMULATION OF MINING BEHAVIOUR USING LP SOLVER............................20

CHAPTER V.................................................................................................................................21
5.
5.1.

CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................21
RECOMMENDATION...................................................................................................22

BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................................................................................................22

CHAPTER I
1. INTRODUCTION
This is a brief introduction to the chapter I where will intend to present of the topic and integrate
the readers into the field of the productivity.
This chapter is divided into eight parts namely background; introduction; statements; aims and
objectives; research question; delimitation of the research and definition of terms.

1.1.

BACKGROUND

Mining companies carry out their activities either by underground mode or open cast mode. In
open-cast mining the loading activities occur as follows: trucks goes to the front of mine and
then discharge the material in discharge points. These discharge points can be sterile piles, piles
of homogenization. In addition, this ore must meet certain conditions in order to the beneficiation
occurs, i.e., the contents of each control variable should be between the upper and lower limits
established for each one of them.
To provide ore of same quality for the beneficiation process it is needed to mix ore of different
qualities of various parts of the mine or of different mines in order to ensure the uniformity of
ore, which is important from an operational standpoint, since changes are usually accompanied
by an increase in the total cost of operation (Manangement mining operation- subject note).
Open pit mines use two criteria for the allocation of trucks: static and dynamic allocation. In
static allocation, the trucks are secured to a loading point and an unloading point, i.e. its
movement only occurs between these two points for a certain period of time. The dynamic
allocation, each loading and/or unloading, the truck is directed to a specific point, according to
previously established criteria.
Historically, according to Kolonja et al., The open pit mines operated with each truck allocated to
a given loading equipment, but with monitoring and controlling via computer. The strategy used
was to dispatch the trucks to the loading equipment which would contribute more to production
targets in the short term plans.
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Static allocation is still the method most used in mining for not presenting the requirement to use
an automatic allocation. However, this method provides lower productivity due to queues of
trucks and the idleness of the load equipment. This type of allocation is generally applied to
small and medium-sized mines.
The use of dynamic allocation requires the use of a dispatch system.
According Knights and Bonates the term dispatch refers to the dynamic allocation of trucks to
load equipment. This system uses pre-established criteria for its operation. Among these criteria
can cite, among others, maximizing equipment utilization, with the objective to increase
productivity and meet the quality needs of the treatment works.
The activity of transport of material is one of the most important aspects in the operation of open
pit mines (Alarie and Gamache). Moreover, according to Maran and Topuz transport systems in
these mines involve large amounts of capital and resources. The purpose of the transportation
problem is to move the material removed from the mine to the plant so that the cost is
minimized, since that associated cost influences the choice of where removing ore (Gershon).
In mining, allocation of trucks is an important and complex process and an optimal allocation
can result in significant savings. It is recognized that the operation of trucks and loading
equipment contributes significantly to the cost of the operation as a whole.
Therefore, it is necessary a deep study about dispatch which is applied at Vale Company because
an optimal dispatch system can reduce the cost of capital and operation, reducing the required
fleet of trucks and increased production with the use of the same fleet.

1.2.

INTRODUCTION

This topic is relevant because the standards of dispatching trucks are very low. The main
objective of production planning in an open pit mine, is to determine what would be the rhythm
of production on every front, providing the client with a suitable product. This problem is known
in literature as the problem of mixing or blending.
In real cases of the mining industry, it is necessary to consider a number of other issues that are
usually not addressed in the literature together. Separately optimize the problem without
addressing these issues can lead to conflicts that prevent the implementation of solutions. One of
these questions relates to meeting the goals addressed by Chanda and Dagdelen, whether it is
production or quality policy. Meeting the production targets is important, since a higher than
required production can cause problems such as lack of adequate space for storage and additional
handling costs, since a lower output causes a reduction in the rate of use of the equipment of the
mine and beneficiation plant, and contractual penalties for failure to supply the product. Another
aspect of great importance is related to the meeting of the goals, now considering the quality
specifications of the mixture, is connected, in the case of the processing plant, the control of
fluctuations should be minimal, making the process more efficient, or even previously
determined so that the appropriate action to adjust the processing plant are taken.
The work in question has all necessary methodologies for both dispatch policies in order to
improve the standards at Vales company, and this research is divided into five chapters where
the first chapter refers to the introduction where the objectives are exposed, defining the terms
used during the research and other relevant aspects. The second chapter refers to the literature
review which the theories about the dispatch according to their policy will be established and
there will be a brief description about the reality that is being applied. In the third chapter refers
to the methodologies applied for doing this research. The results of what is practiced and the
confrontation of the theory and the reality will be presented in the fourth chapter. Finally the fifth
chapter will give the conclusions and recommendations.

1.3.

STATEMENT

An efficient truck-and shovel system reduces hauling, operating, and maintenance costs, while
meeting production targets and providing a steady and reliable feed of material. (Torkamani
2013).

1.4.

AIMS

To find out if dispatch system is being applied correctly at Vale company.

1.5.

OBJECTIVES

Design a better policy of truck dispatch at Vales Company;


Introduce the use of discrete-event simulation in Vales company to achieve the main goal
of productivity at low cost;
Introduce another standpoint, which would increase the production using the same fleet;

1.6.

QUESTION

Is Vale Company applying the correct procediments of dispatching trucks?

1.7.

DELIMITATIONS

I am not going to do a full research involving all workers of trucks and shovels because there is
not enough resources.

1.8.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Front of Mine - are points of mine where by the ore and sterile are being removed, and loaded by
loading equipment.
Discharge points It is where the ore and sterile are being discharged.
Sterile piles - Are materials that is not used by the process;
Piles of homogenization - when it is carried a quantity of ore higher than the plant can benefit or
when it is necessary to "mix" the ores before starting the processing.
Client Can be either an external customer or internal customer, an internal customer is
beneficiation plant.
VRDC Vale do Rio Doce Company

CHAPTER II
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter will be presented in a succinct way, a literature review of the main techniques
referenced throughout this work. This section will be divided into two main title, the theoretical
literature and a conceptual framework. In theoretical literature will be all about the theories
concerning dispatch and will be shown a brief review of dispatch systems in section (2.1) within
the theories, in section (2.2) will described the application of dispatching systems, section (2.3)
will be about linear programming and at last will be addressed dynamic programming as section
(2.4). In conceptual framework will be presented what is the real concept about the topic and it
will describe the concepts of this two main approaches of dispatch trucks which is Linear
Programming and dynamic programming in a practical manner.

2.1.

THEORETICAL LITERATURE

SECTION 2.1 Dispatch system


The transport system utilizing trucks at large mines is so complex that quantitative results are
difficult to obtain analytically by theory of queues once the simulation is probably the only
practical method for predicting the performance of the transport system under computer control
dispatch (Tu method, and Hucka).
According Munirathinam and Yingling, at large mines is more advisable the representation of
transport systems models of stochastic network rather than models of queues theory.
According Kolonja et al. the dispatching strategies and systems are complex and generally can
be analyzed only by simulation. However, it is common to produce the best dispatch system is
only slightly better than the strategy less effective clearance compared.
According Alarie and Gamache, truck dispatching problems do not occur only in the mineral
industry. They are present in any industry that manages a fleet of vehicles or a group of people,
such as transportation industries, taxi and package delivery. However, applied to mining presents
simplicity than that found in other industries. Among these simplities, these same authors cite
that mines are closed systems, the points of loading and unloading remain the same distance for a
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long period of time, the distances are small compared with the duration of the shift and the
frequency of each demand point is high.
Maran and Topuz claimed that the computer simulation can be used as a way of testing and
assessment of allocation of trucks and problems of dispatch, especially when analytical methods
are not appropriate. Furthermore, Kolonja according et al. and White et al. says that in most
cases, computer simulation is the most applicable and effective method of comparing dispatch
systems.
Turner states that the simulation results refer to improvement in the availability and utilization as
well as the efficiency of the system, and make it possible to analyze a transaction before it has
been installed and configured.
According Srajer et al., the efficient operation of trucks and load equipment in mines depends on
the proper allocation of trucks to load equipment and the discharge points. Because of breakage
of equipment, changes in conditions excavation, truck capacity, characteristics of the mixture,
often the relocation of trucks is required to maintain the operation efficient.
Furthermore, according to Alarie and Gamache, the efficiency of a transport fleet depends on its
size and distance transported. When trucks are not sufficient, the load equipment will have
substantial unproductive periods and when there are many trucks the size of the queue for
loading installations increases. When the fleet is too large, the queue of truck will appear, but as
the system is closed and the demand is known, the events can be provided in a future next to
confiability which can be used to reduce such the queue (Alarie and Gamache).
According Munirathinam and Yingling, in dispatch systems with restricted allocation, allocation
decisions are made in real time optimizing the production rate by minimizing the waiting time.
As systems driven by planning, these formulations consider the allocation of the truck together
with allocating other trucks which will be made in near future. However, operational constraints,
such as the need of the mixture of ore, are embedded in formulation allocation and restrict each
allocation decision. The weaknesses of this type of method are strict obedience operational
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restrictions, which could be relaxed in the short term to increase productivity and no explanation
of the stochastic nature the cycle time of the elements in the allocation model. This author cites
the procedure developed by Hauck, as an example of application of this type of system order.
SECTION 2.2 The application of dispatching systems
Tu and Hucka developed a model to simulate a truck in open pit mine using a computerized
system of dispatch. The developed model can be used to study the impact of the dispatch system
on productivity of trucks and loading equipment, to test dispatching policies that improve the
performance of trucking as a tool to stimulate the production of the transport system and to
reveal bottlenecks. This model can also be used to simulate the static and dynamic allocation
with multiple shipping options. The result obtained from the model system showed that the order
generated savings 2 to 3% of the total fleet of trucks.
Pinto and Merschmann proposed a model that considers the problem of mixing and allocation of
charging equipment, ration sterile/ore minimum and dynamic allocation trucks. This model is not
linear, so there is no guarantee that the solution obtained is optimal.
White et al. propose a model that minimizes the number of trucks needed through related
restrictions related on the continuity of use of material through the points of load and unloading
and production capacities of the load points.
White et al. propose a model that minimizes the number of trucks needed through related
restrictions related on the continuity of use of material through the points of load and unloading
and production capacities of the load points.
Turner reports a virtual mine operation managed in real time by a system of dispatch system.
This simulation was performed in order to determine combinations of truck / loading equipment
suitable for the proposed operation the mine.
Nogueira developed a model for simulating the truck / equipment system load in order to assess
the best combination of cargo truck / equipment to determine the capacity of the mine and
analyze the impact of admission one more load equipment in mine production Cau of VRDC
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(Vale do Rio Doce company). This study found that the truck dispatching in mines open pits
mines tends to increase production and smooth the irregularities in the queues within the system.
Pereira studied the effect of dynamic dispatch in productivity, comparing with the conventional
method of using fixed allocation order. This study was done in Conceio mine at VRDC, before
the introduction of dispatch system.
Costa et al. proposed a model of linear goal programming applied to the problem of mining
production, with the aim of determining the rate of extraction of each front considering
allocating loading and transport equipment in order to provide adequate ore to the plant. In this
work, it was used a static allocation of trucks and can concluded that it is possible to achieve the
required goals and optimize transport and loading operations, with a slight reduction in
productivity.
Costa et al. presented a model of linear goal programming with the goal of increasing the
productivity of transport facilities. The allocation of these equipment to the fronts, this case is
made dynamically at the end of the cycle of charge and discharge. The model of linear goal
programming was used in this work to be considered more appropriate to the reality of mining,
because it's goal is to make the solution great, be as close as possible to the goal production and
quality.
Hauck (quoted by Munirathinam and Yingling) used dynamic programming to develop a
procedure for order in real time in the open pit. The goal was to maximize total production by
minimizing the lost productive time stops due to the load equipment. This model includes several
restrictions operational restrictions such as the mixture of ore processing capacity of the plant
and state of the ore stockpiles. He showed that globally optimal decisions can be resolved
quickly with dynamic programming when the problems are small scale.

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SECTION 2.3 Linear programming


Linear programming comprises programming models where the variables are continuous and all
expressions have a linear behavior.
A linear programming model reduces to a real set of equations or mathematical expressions,
where every decision taken is associated with a decision variable system. A numerical function
of the decision variables, objective function, expresses the measure sought. This function can be
the type to maximize or minimize. Resource limitations, requirements or conditions are
expressed by means of equations and inequalities, restrictions on the values of the variables.
After the formulation of the model, this should be reduced to the standard form with the intention
of obtaining the optimal solution. The equations (2.1) to (2.4) show a linear programming model
in standard form. Equation (2.1) represents the objective function to be minimized. The
equations (2.2), (2.3) and (2.4) are the restrictions of the linear programming problem. The nonnegativity constraint is expressed in (2.4) and ensures that the decision variable not present any
negative value.
n

min c i x i=Z x

(2.1)

i=1

s . a. : a ij x i=b j

j m

i=1

(2.2)
j m

b j 0
(2.3)

i n

xi 0
(2.4)
Where:
i

= activity to be realized
ci

= cost of the activity i


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= restriction
bj

= the available quantity of resource j

aij

= the quantity of resource j in activity i

xi

= level of the operation of activity i (decision variable)

= number of activities

= number of resource

With the model in standard form, we use algorithms to yield numerical solutions for these
models. According to Wagner, there are different methods for solving linear programming
problems, but the Simplex algorithm is the most widespread. This method is a matrix procedure
that seeks the optimal solution of the model at the vertices of the polytope formed by the feasible
solutions of the problem.
An integer programming problem is a linear programming problem with additional constraint
that the values of all the input variables are integers (Bronson). When at least one of these input
variables admits values that do not are integers this problem is called mixed integer
programming. For the resolution of this problem are usually applied algorithms based on Branchand-bound or branching and limit.
Costa states that most of the real problems of integer programming is combinatorial complexity
and, therefore, can only be solved efficiently by an accurate technique such as branch-andbound, if they are small.

SECTION 2.4 Dynamic program


The dynamic programming is applied to problems where decisions are made in stages, i.e. is
used, according to Bronson, to optimize multistage decision processes. Furthermore, it is
employed usually in smaller scale problems (Wagner).
According to Bertsekas, a key aspect of this type of problem is that decisions can not be seen in
isolation, it is necessary to balance the desire for low cost at present and prevent the possibility
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of high cost in the future. Thus, at each stage a decision is selected since it minimizes the cost in
the current stage, and take the best expected cost in future stages.
Dynamic programming is based on the principle of optimality of Bellman. This principle says:
An optimal policy has the property whereby, despite the decisions taken to assume a particular
state at a certain stage, the remaining decisions from this state must be an optimal policy. Thus,
we start from the last stage of a process of n stages and determine the best policy to leave that
state and complete the process, assuming that all stages have been completed earlier. Moves,
then, throughout the process, the last for the first stage. At each (n) stage determines the best
policy to leave each state (u) and complete the process, assuming all previous stages have been
completed and using the results already obtained for the next stage (Bronson).
Factors relating to the last (n) stage, are computed directly and others are obtained recursively,
i.e., as the base of the stage immediately later.
Mutmansky states that when a decision-making problem can be formulated with a series of
individual decisions are interrelated, then the problem can be solved by dynamic programming.

2.2.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The productive process of ore extraction can be resumed in two main phase: extraction and
processing. The extraction phase, involves basically, in extracting the ore beneath the earth. Then
this ore is transported by trucks, sometimes by conveyors which takes it to the processing plant.
The processing phase consist in crushers, sieving and gridding, chemical treatments within others
process linked to ore separation based in phisico-chemical characteristic.
Generally, mines are divided into various mining fronts. Each front, normally has a different
content of ore. The ore leaving the mine, with the target to treatment plant, is called Run of Mine
(ROM). Of course, the content of the Run of Mine (ROM) ore is the result of combination of the

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levels of the various fronts that make up, i.e. the content of the ROM ore and the weighted
average of the levels of the mine fronts that provide ore for this ROM.
For example, if the ROM is being formed from the extraction of two fronts, the ore content of a
particular variable of the front is 20% and other front is 24%, and their fronts and contribute 60%
and 40%, respectively, of the ore from the ROM, the contents of the ore R.O.M., will be 21.6%,
as calculated below:
Content R .O . M. =

(0,2 0,6+0,24 0,4)


=0,216=21,6
(0,6+0,4)

The content of each variable R.O.M. must be between the lower and upper limits stipulated by
the processing plant for that variable. To ensure service quality of this specification, trucks are
sent to fronts more or less content according to the time of need ROM
This policy of dispatching trucks for mining fronts due to the guarantee of that level of mix is
called quality policy. Its aim, is to ensure that the contents of the ROM variables are within the
limits and also reduce the variance of each variable of feeding the ROM.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY


3. INTRODUCTION
In this chapter it will be presented the population of the production area, the sampling and
methodologies which helped to gather data at Vales company.
3.1.

RESEARCH DESIGN

In order to study the present problem, it was necessary to select the ideal people to study with in
which for its selection observed the rule of sampling so that this study becomes a representative,
thus the collection of data was by observation and questionnaire. The questioner was directed to
the managers and the drivers were observed in two shifts of 26th October.
3.2.

POPULATION AND SAMPLING

At a production section there was a population of 70 workers, 20 shovels drivers, 50 trucks


drivers and 7 productions manager in both shifts. According to the sampling rules, it will be
choose 10% of all areas shovels drivers, trucks drivers and managers section.
SEX
M
70

NATIONALITY
N
68

F
2

EDUCATION
LEVEL
PR SE TE
13 50
7

AGE
21-24
26

26-29
29

WORK EXPERIENCE
+30
15

1-3
38

4-7
30

+8
2

POPULATION
Shift
N
D
30
30
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3.3.

DATA COLLECTION

The selected method is observation and observation the reasons of choosing those method is that:
Observation will help discovering the obstacles, which makes the selected dispatch being or not
being able to meet the productivity rhythm, and questionnaire will help discovering the reasons
of choosing the current dispatch, so with these two ways it will be possible to propose a good
way approach of dispatch which will meet the middle term of obstacles found by the drivers and
the obstacles found by the manager.
CHAPTER IV DATA PRESENTATION
4. INTRODUCTION
In this chapter will be presented the data and further analysis
4.1.

DATA PRESENTATION
PREAMBLE

I am Bic de Sousa, student of Mining Engineering at ISPT and I am carrying out a research to
find out if Vale Company is following the correct procedures for dispatching trucks in order to
increase productivity. The research in question is for the partial fulfilment of the degree
requirement of the course which I am doing. I am collecting this information just for academic
purpose. All information is to be treated as confidential.
QUESTIONNAIRE
Answer the following questions with X to the best answer, and with clarity to the questions
where there is no limitation.
1. Does the applied dispatch meet the goals of productivity at Vale?
[ ] Yes
[ ] No
[X] Sometimes
2. What are the inconvenient that makes this dispatch not being able to meet the goals in
terms of productivity?
- Drivers shortages

3. What are the mechanism that Vale adopts to reverse this inconvenient?
- Awareness of their shortages and their impacts to our production
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4. What are the ways in which Vale adopts to explain the impacts of the drivers in a dispatch
method?
- We create an ideal forum in which we talk to them
5. Are the number of fleet trucks enough for increasing the productivity of Vale?
[X] Yes
[ ] No
[ ] Sometimes
6. What are the lessons learnt in previous dispatch?
We have learnt that in order to dispatch model works it is needed that all workers have to
be trained and become a part of the company.
7. Does the productions manager use time cycle to dynamise the unproductive times?
[X] Yes
[ ] No
[ ] Sometimes
8. Does the unexpectedness of failures of trucks, shovels, and crushers and repairing
processes are scheduled in the present model of dispatch?
[X] Yes

[ ] No

[ ] Sometimes

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OBSERVATION SHEET
TONNAGE OF THE AVAILABLE MATERIAL IN EACH FRONT
Mining areas
Shovel 1
Shovel 2
Available material in front of
111,000
130,000
each shovel (ton)
Table 1. Available material in front of each shovel in mining area.
LOADING TIME FOR TRUCKS (seconds)
Types of trucks
Shovel 1
Shovel 2
Truck A
250
Truck B
300
Truck C
373
Truck D
232
Table 2. Loading time for trucks (seconds)

250
300
277
315

UNLOADING TIME FOR TRUCKS (seconds)


Type of truck
Crusher
Waste dump 1
Waste dump 2
Truck A
120
105
90
Truck B
145
122
110
Truck C
133
118
123
Truck D
155
125
135
Table 3. Unloading time for trucks (seconds)
NUMBER AND CAPACITY OF TRUCKS
Type of truck
Number of each truck
Capacity of each truck
Truck A
8
200
Truck B
16
250
Table 4. Number and capacity of trucks

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4.2.

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Thus, from the observation sheet clearly it can be seen that there are limited amount of material
in front of each shovel in these two mining areas at the beginning of the shift. However, there is
no restriction for capacity of crusher and waste dumps in this case.
Concerning to the table of loading and unloading time, there is no possibility of mobility
between two unloading areas or two loading areas. Also, trucks from the two mining areas which
are located in the ore area are only allowed to travel to the crusher and the loaded truck from the
waste area can travel either to the waste dump #1 or waste dump #2.
4.2.1. SIMULATION OF MINING BEHAVIOUR USING LP SOLVER
For a shift of 12 hours is presented in the following tables. The tonnage of extracted ore and
waste is presented in Table 4.9. According to this table, the tonnage of the ore extracted and
transported to the crusher is 74,400 tons per shift using the 8 trucks type A and 16 trucks type B
during the 12 hours shift. Also, the tonnage of the waste is 34,400 ton per shift which is about 32
percent of the total extracted material.
Amount of extracted material (ton)
LP Optimal result
Ore
74,400
Waste
34,400
Table 5: Tonnage of extracted ore and waste per shift
The LP model also determines the number of trips between mining areas and dumping sites. In
the following tables, first, the numbers of empty trucks that have been sent from the unloading
areas to the mining areas and then, the number of full trucks from mining areas to the dumping
sites will be presented. Table 4.10 shows the number of empty trucks form each of the unloading
areas to the mining areas for type A trucks.
Truck Type A Empty
To
Shovel 1
From
Waste dump 1
Waste dump 2
Crusher

1
1
0

Shovel 2
12
0
0

Total number
172
0
0
20

Total number
0
12
172
Table 6: Number of empty trucks type A in the LP solution
As it can be seen in this table, the total number of trips of truck type A is 172 in one shift.
According to this table no empty truck has been sent to shovels 1 and no full truck of type A has
been sent to the waste dump #2.
Table 7 presents similar information for type B trucks.
Truck Type A Empty
To
Shovel 1
From
Waste dump 1
Waste dump 2
Crusher

0
2
58

Shovel 2

Total number

0
0
77

0
0
135

Total number

58
77
135
Table 7: Number of empty trucks of type B in the LP solution
According to the above table, the total number of trips for truck type B is 135 in one shift.

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CHAPTER V
5. CONCLUSION
From the relation of the trends observed on the questionnaire and the observation sheet, it is
concluded that the Vales managers dont have a clear politics of dispatching trucks because it
would be recommended to use the LP solver which maximize the number of trucks that is sent to
the ore areas while considering the blending constrains as explained in simulation above.

5.1.

RECOMMENDATION

Use LP Solver;
A sensitivity study of input parameter to understand how the system reacts to the different
scenarios;
A time study with probability analysis to determine the cycle time more accurately.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Alarie S. and Gamache M., 2002. "Overview of Solution Strategies Used in Truck
Dispatching Systems for Open Pit Mines", International Journal of Surface Mining,
Reclamation and Environment 16, 59-76.
2. Chanda, and Dagdelen, K. et. al., 1995. "Optimal blending of mine production using goal
programming and interactive graphics systems". International Journal of Surface Mining.
Reclamation and Environment 9. 203-208.
3. Gershon, M., 1982. "A linear programming approach to mine scheduling optimization",
Proceedings of the 17th Application of computers and operations research in the mineral
industry, 483-493.
4. Kolonja, B., Kalasky, D. R. and Mutmansky, J. M., 1993. "Optimization of dispatching
criteria for open pit truck haulage system design using multiple comparisons with the best
and common random numbers". Proceedings of the 1993 Winter Simulation Conference.
393-401.
5. Knights, P. F. Bonates, and. J. L., 1999. "Applications of discrete mine simulation
modeling in South America", International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and
Environment 13, 69-72.
6. Maran, J. e Topuz, E., 1988."Simulation of truck haulage systems in surface mines".
International Journal of Surface Mining 2. 43-49.

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