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ERSKINE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

AN EXEGETICAL PAPER
ON JOHN 6:30-40

SB 16
ADVANCED GREEK EXEGESIS

PROFESSOR:
DR. JIMMY AGAN

SUBMITTED BY:
ABNER MENDOZA

DUE WEST, SC

DECEMBER 11, 2002


INTRODUCTION
The text before us, as in many other instances, is Jesus
response to somebody. In this case, his response to a group of Jews,
who, having witnessed more than enough, demand from Jesus a sign
according to their interpretations. Jesus refutes them by calling
himself greater than manna and its related meanings. Jesus is
bringing greater blessings than they are considering, namely, the life
of eternity, but only to those chosen by God and (therefore) believe in
him. He calls this the will of God and his mission. Although those who
have eternal life will die, he will resurrect them in the Day of the
Lord.

PRELIMINARIES
The text is John 6:30-40. The Gospel of John is driven by an
urgency to disclose Jesus as the certified Messiah, (John 20:31) so the
readers may believe in Him and have eternal life. It is placed in the
first of the two main parts of John: the Book of Signs, which is
characterized by Jesus interaction with the Jewish festivities, placing
himself as the fulfillment of their significance. Moreover, 6:30-40 is
part of the Bread of Life discourse, and as such, to be understood,
cannot be separated neither from the feeding of the five thousand, nor

from the rest of the discourse. John 6:31-59 is paralleled by 8:13-59


and 10:22-39. The three discourses have the same structure. Each one
begins with the request for a sign although Jesus has given enough
proof. People have seen but do not believe. Then, a reason for unbelief
is given, and finally, this is followed by a description of those who
believe and their assurance of life.1
Chapter six opens with the feeding of the five thousand (1-15). It
follows the account of Jesus walking on water 2 (6:16-21) and after
this, the Bread of Life speech (6:22-71). Although the feeding is the
only miracle recorded on the four Gospels, the Bread of Life discourse
is found only in John, expounding and interpreting the sign Jesus has
just performed, and which, as a sign, is key for the overall purpose of
John.
The portion I have chosen, starts with the request for a sign
from Jesus (6:30), then covering Jesus answer until he stops (6:40),
without trespassing into the next unit which I identify starting with
the peoples grumbling and asking a new question (6:41). While
remembering the context, I consider 6:30-40 can be dealt in a proper
manner. The text:

(30)

Therefore they told him; Then, What sign do you

perform, so we may see and we may believe you? What will you
1

Urban C. Von Whalde, Literary Structure and Theological Argument in three


discourses with the Jews in the Fourth Gospel, Journal of Biblical Literature 103
(December, 1984): 575.
2
There is a sense in which this account breaks the thematic line of verses 15/22.

do?

(31)

Our fathers ate the manna in the desert, as it is written;

Bread from heaven he gave them to eat.


(32)

Because of this Jesus told them; Amen, Amen I am telling

you, Moses has not given you the bread from heaven, but my
Father is giving you the real bread from heaven;

(33)

for the bread

from God is he who is descending from heaven and is giving life


to the world.

(34)

They said to him; Lord, give us always this

bread.
(35)

Jesus said to them; I am the bread that gives life; who

comes to me will never be hungry and who is believing in me will


never ever be thirsty.
are not believing.

36)

Yet, I told you that you have seen and you

(37)

Everyone whom the Father gives me will

come to me, and the one who comes to me I do not throw out,
(38)

because I have come down from heaven not in order to do my

will, but the will of the one who sent me.

(39)

And this is the will of

the one who sent me, that all whom he has given me I may not
lose from them, but I will raise them to life in the last day.

(40)

For

this is the will of my Father, that whomever is seeing the son and
is believing in him may have eternal life, and I will raise him to
life in the last day.3
These are some key exegetical items related to this text: the
significance of the manna motif, why do the people use it, and where
does the quotation come from. Another issue is the significance of
Jesus answer to their request, whether he is minimizing Moses, or
simply expanding over the topic. There is also the meaning of breadhunger language and its relationship to belief in Jesus. The
significance of Jesus statements about those given to him needs to be
3

Translated from: Aland, Kurt and others, eds., The Greek New Testament, 4th ed.
(Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft: Stuttgart, 1993).

addressed, as well as the meaning of losing and raising in the last


day. Life and the last day are two related themes that are key to
this text and to the whole gospel. While not all issues will be dealt in
the same extent, our attempt will be to deal with them as it is
necessary to make sense of the text and bring to the light of our day.

Through this humble effort, I will try to establish that the


request made to Jesus comes from defective understanding about the
manna miracle and about the nature of the Messiah. That Jesus
answer is a contrasting reinterpretation of the manna motif, where he
proclaims himself as greater than the manna and its implications.
That the use of hunger-thirst-bread language symbolizes believing in
Jesus in order to partake of the life of eternity. That Jesus politely
labels the unbeliever as not chosen of the Father while affirming
that being appointed results in belief in him. Also, that not losing but
raising in the Last Day, implies Jesus preservation of those who
believe in him. And finally, that the life envisioned in this passage is
both now and not yet, the now starting with belief in Jesus, the not
yet, kept for the Day of the Lord.

TREATMENT
The next day after the feeding of the five thousand, part of the
crowd which witnessed the miracle, comes into Capernaum seeking
Jesus (6:22-24). They find him in the synagogue and ask him when he
got there (6:25, 59). Instead of answering, Jesus rebukes them for
seeking him only to give them bread, and tells them to look for eternal
food (6:26-27). The group asks Jesus what works they are supposed to
do, but he tells them the one work God wants them to do is to believe
in the one God sent (6:28-29).
(6:30)

Therefore they told him; Then, What sign do you


perform, so we may see and we may believe you? What will you
do? (31)Our fathers ate the manna in the desert, as it is written;
Bread from heaven he gave them to eat. 4
In asking for a the group is not requesting only a miracle,
but a miraculous event pointing to a greater significance. They want
to see a display of power, but a display of power with higher
implications.5 The group wants a sign in order to see and therefore 6
believe Jesus as having the authority he claims to have. At this point
is not used in the sense of complete trust,7 but in the sense
4

Unless otherwise noted all the quotations from John 6:30-40 will be from the
translation in page 2.
5
Johannes P. Louw and Eugene A. Nida, ed., Greek-English Lexicon of the New
Testament Based on Semantic Domains, 2nd ed. vol 1, Introduction & Domains (USA:
United Bible Societies), 33.477/443.
6
Barclay M.Newman and Eugene A. Nida, A Translators handbook on the Gospel of
John (USA: United Bible Societies, 1980), 195.
7
Johannes P. Louw and Eugene A. Nida, ed., Greek-English Lexicon of the New
Testament Based on Semantic Domains, 2nd ed. vol.1, Introduction & Domains (USA:
United Bible Societies), 31.35; 31.85; 35.40/370, 376, 379, 464. Also Barclay

of simply taking Jesus as a reliable source of information. The request


emphasizes he is supposed to do something. Interestingly the group
appeals to the fact their ancestors ate manna in the wilderness, as it
has been recorded.
There are a few options either in the Hebrew text or the LXX
that are suggested to be the source of this quotation: Ex.16: 4, 15;
Neh. 9:15; Ps. 78(77):24, and its often suggested that this is a free
quotation from memory or that its a combination of two or more OT
texts.8 It is also proposed this a midrashic comment on the Old
Testament, an exegetical paraphrase very common in Jewish biblical
interpretation, connecting the OT text to a commentary of the
Haggadah.9 Of the four possible sources, Ps. 78(77):24 seems to be
the closer with respect to wording, even though it reads
instead of (Jn.6:31).10

M.Newman and Eugene A. Nida, A Translators handbook on the Gospel of John


(USA: United Bible Societies, 1980), 195.
8
Martinus J.J Menken, The Provenance and Meaning of the Old Testament
Quotation in John 6:31, Novum Testamentum 30 (January, 1988): 39. Also, D.A.
Carson, The Gospel According to John (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing
Company, 1991), 286.
9
Peder Borgen, Bread from Heaven: An Exegetical Study of the Concept of Mann in
the Gospel of John and the writings of Philo (Netherlands: Novum Testamentum),
61. Gary M. Burge, Interpreting the Gospel of John (Grand Rapids: Baker Books,
1992), 21. Craig L. Blomberg, Jesus and the Gospels (Nashville: Broadman &
Holman), 159.
10
The texts read: Ex.16:4: Ex.16:15:
Ps.77(MT 78):24:

II Esd. 19:15 (MT Neh. 9:15):


according to Alfred Rahlfs,
Septuaginta (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1979). Carson also considers Ps.
78:24 the source of the quotation, D. A. Carson, The Gospel According to John
(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991), 286.

Menken

attributes

this

change

to

Johannine

redaction, 11

however, I think we cant be sure about it. It could be that indeed John
was drawing from the midrashic Homiletical tradition to point what
the group meant, or that the group itself was drawing from such
exegetical commentary in their assertion. Whoever said it first, in
light of Jesus correction (6:32), the interpretative paraphrase was
being used to convey something that Jesus did not find right. The
group considered Moses as the central character in the giving of the
manna.12 In no place of the OT, Moses is considered to be the
performer of the manna miracle,13 therefore, if such idea was in the
mind of the group, they would be quoting something which reflected
the same thought.
The first premise is warranted, for there is extensive written
witness from 3rd Century on, testifying that from earlier times, in some
Jewish circles there was a belief in Moses as the performer of the
manna miracle. This, as part of a tendency to centralize Jewish
religion around Moses, even to the point of deify him. If this is so,
then its a corroboration of Ps. 78(77):24 as the more probable source
of the paraphrase of this verse, for this OT text is the one which lends

11

Martinus J.J Menken, The Provenance and Meaning of the Old Testament
Quotation in John 6:31, Novum Testamentum 30 (January, 1988): 44-45.
12
Barclay M.Newman and Eugene A. Nida, A Translators handbook on the Gospel
of John (USA: United Bible Societies, 1980), 196.
13
Martinus J.J Menken, The Provenance and Meaning of the Old Testament
Quotation in John 6:31, Novum Testamentum 30 (January, 1988): 46

itself more to be reinterpreted shifting the subject from God to


Moses.14
There was also the belief that the latter redeemer would call
down manna from heaven just as the first redeemer did. 15 There is
also evidence the miraculous provision of manna was used by rabbis
to describe the rich gifts of God in the messianic age (the Age to
come) and that in some Jewish circles, in the end of time, a limitless
and abundant provision of manna, was expected.16
Having this as background, and remembering the previous
suspicions of the crowd about Jesus (14-15) being the promised
Moses-like prophet, I consider that Jesus works and authoritative
teaching has made this people curious and thinking they have a right
to demand signs greater than those of Moses.17 Ironically, even though
by his miracles of healing and the miraculous feeding (6:2,14) Jesus
has attested his identity, the crowd wants Jesus to perform one more
sign in order to believe his words. The sign they imply is the sign of
the last redeemer, making manna fall from heaven, identifying him
with the promised Messiah (Deut.18:14-18; 34:10).
14

Martinus J.J Menken, The Provenance and Meaning of the Old Testament
Quotation in John 6:31, Novum Testamentum 30 (January, 1988): 56.
15
Ibid., 46, 47, 48-49, 53-54. D. A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Grand
Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991), 286. Leon Morris, The Gospel
According to John (USA: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971), 361, 363. Rudolf
Schnackenburg, The Gospel According to John, vol. 2 (New York: Seabury Press,
1980), 42.
16
Cleon L. Rogers Jr. and Cleon L. Rogers III, The New Linguistic and Exegetical
key to the Greek New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House,
1998), 197. In reference to John 6:31.
17
D.A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing
Company, 1991), 285.

(32)

Because of this Jesus told them; Amen, Amen I am


telling you, Moses has not given you the bread from heaven, but
my Father is giving you the real bread from heaven; (33)for the
bread from God is he who is descending from heaven and is
giving life to the world.
Although Jesus is ushering and fulfilling the beginning of the
Messianic Age, he is the one who establishes how to do it. Using a
typical Jewish method of Scripture interpretation, Jesus proceeds to
correct their views.18 On the one hand, he affirms that Moses (until
this point; ) has not given them the bread from heaven. Carson
suggests that giving could be a use of the historical present,
stressing that in the wilderness it was God and not Moses who
performed the miracle.19 At the same time, Jesus has a fourfold
rebuttal so the group may switch emphasis and expectations. The
person they should focus is not Moses, but the Father. The event is not
to be approached as past but

as present. They should not seeking

mere bread, but real () bread.20 He identifies such real bread,


not as manna but as himself, not something which descended, but
someone who is descending, giving life not only to the Jewish people
but to the world. Different to the manna of the wilderness, this bread

18

Barclay M.Newman and Eugene A. Nida, A Translators handbook on the Gospel


of John (USA: United Bible Societies, 1980), 196.
19
D.A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing
Company, 1991), 286.
20
Barclay M.Newman and Eugene A. Nida, A Translators handbook on the Gospel
of John (USA: United Bible Societies, 1980), 196. See also Rudolf Schnackenburg,
The Gospel According to John, vol. 2 (New York: Seabury Press, 1980), 42.

10

gives the life of eternity21 to those who eat from it (6:49-51). We can
safely speak of life in this way because the near context warrants it,
and

because in John whether it is accompanied by the adjective

or not, life usually refers to the life of eternity.22

Bread is a very interesting motif. Some Jewish authorities used


bread as a metaphor for the Torah, and for a concept related to the
Torah, namely, Wisdom.23 If this usage is operative here, then the idea
may be that the manna and Torah provided by God through Moses are
not the real thing, although both pointed in the right direction. 24 Jesus
is therefore, greater than these good, but limited blessings. Bread
of/from God is synonymous with the bread from heaven just as the
interchangeable use of Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven. 25
Jesus has come down to do the will of the father (4:34), and coming
down is repeated seven times in this chapter 6 (33, 38, 41, 42, 50,
51, 58),26 emphasizing Jesus mission.
(34)

They said to him; Lord, give us always this bread.

The

response of the group to Jesus words betrays their misunderstanding

in reference to suggests not merely life without end, but a quality if


life without end. The Life of Eternity may be a better way to render See
Louw & Nida: 23:88.
22
Leon Morris, The Cross in the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans
Publishing Co., 1999), 165.
23
Peder Borgen, Bread from Heaven: An Exegetical Study of the Concept of Mann
in the Gospel of John and the writings of Philo (Netherlands: Novum Testamentum),
148-158.
24
D.A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing
Company, 1991), 286.
25
Ibid., 287.
26
Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John (USA: Eerdmans Publishing Company,
1971), 368.
21

11

and probably confirms what we have mentioned earlier, that they held
a traditional expectation concerning an endless provision of manna in
the coming Age. The group still believes the bread Jesus speaks about
is something to eat.

27

(35)

Jesus said to them; I am the bread that gives life; who comes

to me will never be hungry and who is believing in me will never ever


be thirsty. Jesus emphatically, identifies himself () with the bread
form God described in the prior verses, proclaims himself () as the
one a person is to come in order to never experience hunger/thirst,
affirms the impossibility () of experiencing hunger/thirst ever, and
restates the characteristic nature and effects of the bread he offers.

While some I-am sayings without any predicate are clear


identifications of Jesus with the divine name, not all I-am sayings
convey that thought.28 This is the first of seven predicated I-am
sayings describing Jesus mission and identity. 29 Coming to him is
parallel to believe in him in the same way that hunger and thirst are
parallel to each other.30 Jesus says the same thing twice, using
different words, being emphatic but without repeating himself. It is a

27

D.A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing
Company, 1991), 288. Rudolf Schnackenburg,The Gospel According to John, vol. 2
(New York: Seabury Press, 1980), 43.
28
Gary M. Burge, Interpreting the Gospel of John (Grand Rapids: Baker Books,
1992), 156.
29
Jimmy Agan, Lecture Notes on The Gospels and Acts, 2002 ed., 62.
30
Barclay M.Newman and Eugene A. Nida, A Translators handbook on the Gospel
of John (USA: United Bible Societies, 1980), 198.

12

characteristic of Johns style of writing to use different terms to name


the same thing.31
While the crowd assumes the bread Jesus is offering, is good but
has to be eaten again and again, Jesus restates that His bread does
not need to be consumed eternally, but just once, satisfying forever.
Being the case that coming-believing in Jesus is the way to eat of
this bread, and such bread is eternal life (6:33), then, not having
hunger-thirst is a negative way to state a positive truth: Those who
believe in Jesus will not experience the lack of nourishment, they will
not die, because they will be experiencing the life of eternity forever.
The miracle and the discourse are given against the proximity of the
Passover (6:4). Jesus contrasts himself with the manna, and proclaims
himself to be greater than the manna in the Exodus liberation. He
alone will sustain life, so they will never die.
John uses OT imagery which presupposes the theological
symbolism of Jewish festival (Tabernacles, ch. 7; Hanukkah 10:2239).32 Against this background of Jewish festivities celebrating Gods
past deeds of redemption and anticipating Gods future deliverance,
the seven predicated I-ams in the book of signs, convey that Jesus is
the embodiment of such festivals.33

31

Gary M. Burge, Interpreting the Gospel of John (Grand Rapids: Baker Books,
1992), 156-157.
32
Ibid., 20-21.
33
Jimmy Agan, Lecture Notes on The Gospels and Acts, 2002 ed., 65.

13

(36)

Yet, I told you that you have seen and you are not believing.

(37)

Everyone whom the Father gives me will come to me, and the one

who comes to me I do not throw out.

In light of what he has

mentioned about believing in him in order to enjoy true life, Jesus


confronts the group by asserting they are not fulfilling the condition
necessary to benefit from the real bread. Jesus asserts he has already
pointed to them they have seen.34 Some manuscripts include after
seen, yet, its very improbable its part of the text. If is not part of
the text, then this refers to the signs they have witnessed. 35 The
perfect state of seen contrasts with the present aspect of
believing. Up to this point the group has been a witness of Jesus
powerful signs, yet, they remain in unwarranted unbelief. The only
previous mention of that nature is that one of 6:26.

Whatever the

place of the mention, 36 and 37a show parallelism. As we have


noticed, coming-believing are handled as synonymous. They have
seen, but they are not believing. However, the one appointed by the
father, will believe in Jesus. There is cause-effect relationship :
everyone given to Jesus by the Father, will surely believe in him.
Those who have seen and those who are given appear in
contrast. Jesus may be stressing that seeing does not guarantee
The tradition about is very antique, that is why the UBS editors
included it in the text, although through a rating C they are pretty sure this me
does not belong. Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New
Testament 2d ed. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2000), 182.
35
Barclay M.Newman and Eugene A. Nida, A Translators handbook on the Gospel
of John (USA: United Bible Societies, 1980), 199.
34

14

believing, yet, being given (appointed) by the father guarantees belief


in Jesus. It also may be that Jesus is rejecting their unhealthy requests
for signs in order to believe (John 4:48). It is also possible that Jesus is
reinforcing his teaching that only those whom the father has chosen
will come to him (John 8:47; 10:26). It is hard to erase from this text.
the teaching that human belief in Jesus, is preceded by the election of
God. Divine sovereignty in salvation is a recurring theme in John, of
which he is not embarrassed to speak (6:65; 17:1, 6, 9, 24). 36
Moreover, Jesus expands, the one who comes (believes) in him, he will
not cast or throw out (). This implies not merely that Jesus will
not reject those who believe in him, but that he will not cast out those
who are already in. This may be a litotes, a figure of speech in which
something is affirmed by negating the contrary. 37 He will keep them
and preserve them.
(38)

because I have come down from heaven not in order to


do my will, but the will of the one who sent me. (39)And this is the
will of the one who sent me, that all whom he has given me I
may not lose from them, but I will raise them to life in the last
day.
To lose and to throw out appear to be the same thing in Jesus
mind. The meaning for that fits the context better is to lose

36

D .A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing
Company, 1991), 291. Craig L. Blomberg, Jesus and the Gospels (Nashville:
Broadman & Holman), 165.
37
D .A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing
Company, 1991), 290.

15

something which one already possesses.38 The reason why Jesus will
not throw those believing in him, its because they are already his.
They have been given (appointed) to him by the father, they are his
possession and its not the will of the father that the Son lose his
given possession. Whatever the implication of being lost, it will not
happen to these people, they will remain Jesus property forever (see
John 10:28; 17:12; 18:9). Losing could be understood in the context of
the shepherd-flock analogy (10:29), as both, not casting anyone from
the band of believers and not leading anyone astray.39 Yet, Jesus not
only will not lose such believers, but also as part of the will of the
father, he will make them alive in the Last Day.

The reason why John is not embarrassed to have spoken about


Divine Election previously, is because he does not consider that such
election destroys the genuineness of human responsibility and
action.40 A syntactical warning has to be given, whoever does this or
that language does not imply any particular characteristics in a
subject. Phrases like this (3:5, 15, 16), are enunciated principles
which describe a real cause and a real effect, but do not imply any

38

Johannes P. Louw and Eugene A. Nida, ed., Greek-English Lexicon of the New
Testament Based on Semantic Domains, 2d ed. vol. 1, Introduction & Domains (USA:
United Bible Societies, 1989) 20.31; 57.67 & 57.68.
39
Schnackenburg,The Gospel According to John, vol. 2 (New York: Seabury Press,
1980), 47.
40
D .A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing
Company, 1991), 291. Craig L. Blomberg, Jesus and the Gospels (Nashville:
Broadman & Holman), 165.

16

particular about the subject who fulfills the condition (Contra


Sloyan41).
However, the action an individual is to do in order to get life, is
a real action with a real effect. If a person (however that person got
there) fulfills that condition, that person gets the life of eternity. The
condition is described as seeing and believing. Since can mean
not only physical vision but also understanding and recognition, 42
those who, seeing Jesus, recognize him () for who he is and trust
() him, those will be raised to life by him.
Especially in the case of believing, I consider the use of the
present an intended device and not a mere accident (see 1:12; 3:15,
16, 18, 36; 4:21; 5:24, 38; 6:29&+). Among other grammatical options
to

write

in

relation

to

belief/disbelief

in

Jesus,

John

intentionally chooses the present aspect. This is not a peripherical


topic for John, for he uses a relatively small vocabulary, in which
repetition becomes an index of the things important to him, and
is repeated ninety eight times.43 But that is not surprising,

when we remember peoples belief in Jesus is his very purpose.

41

Gerard S. Sloyan, Interpretation: John (Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1973), 70.
Johannes P. Louw and Eugene A. Nida, ed., Greek-English Lexicon of the New
Testament Based on Semantic Domains, 2d ed. vol. 1, Introduction & Domains (USA:
United Bible Societies, 1989), 32.11/381.
43
D.A. Carson and others, An Introduction to the New Testament (Grand Rapids:
Zondervan Publishing House, 1992), 176.
42

17

Although in John, the life of eternity is seen as a present


experience,

nevertheless

it

also

retains

the

characteristic

eschatological character that pervades the Synoptics (Mk. 10:17, 23,


30; Mat.25:46; Lk.10:25).44 In this Johannine portion, verse 40
provides the balancing futuristic emphasis. Even though life is not
equal to the Kingdom of God, the life of the Kingdom is an implication
of it, and as the kingdom from which this life is part, life is at the
same time now and not yet.45 The life of eternity has been brought by
the Messiah, the inaugurator of the Kingdom. Life, therefore, can be
enjoyed right now, though not yet as complete as one day will be.
People get this Kingdom Life by placing their faith in Jesus, however,
people still will die, but will be made alive again in the Last Day. Since
they have received eternal life, they die, but cannot remain dead. The
Last Day46 is a reference to the Day of the Lord (6:44, 54; 11:24;
12:48),

the

consummation

of

the

Kingdom

of

God

and

its

implications.47

SUMMARY

44

George E. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans


Publishing Co, 1974), 256-257. Craig L. Blomberg, Jesus and the Gospels (Nashville:
Broadman & Holman), 164.
45
George E. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans
Publishing Co, 1974), 257-259.
46
In the New Testament, it occurs only in John.
47
George E. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans
Publishing Co, 1974), 257-259.

18

The Jewish groups requested a sign that betrayed only part of


the truth. Jesus corrects such views, while at the same time, affirms
himself as a greater blessing than the manna and whatever
implications the manna has. He is the life of eternity which is gotten
by believing in him. He is true nourishment that sustains life forever
Moreover, he contrasts the unbelief of this Jewish group, against the
belief of those who are his.
He assures that he will preserve the believers, for the will of the
father is that he may preserve his possession. The life that he brings is
both now and not yet, it starts through belief in Jesus, but it will be
consummated in the Day of the Lord.
Just as Jesus is the true bread giving life go the world, he is the
true light of the world (8:12; 9:5), the door of the sheep (10:7, 9), the
good shepherd (10:11, 14), the resurrection and the life (11:25), the
way, the truth and the life (14:6) and the true vine (15:1, 5). He is the
fulfillment of what Jewish festivities stood for: the celebration of Gods
past and future redemptive activities. All longing and expectation
finds its fulfillment in Jesus who satisfies every need by giving us
Kingdom Life, a life we can enjoy now, and well enjoy perfectly in the
consummation of the Age to Come.
As a fallen humanity, we do not even know what we want, yet,
Jesus gives us what we need, even if we do not know what is that we
need. Living in a day so full of emptiness Jesus provides us with

19

meaningful and everlasting life. Surrounded by uncertainty, Jesus


provides us hope knowing that once we have tasted the life of eternity,
although we may die, well live. In the light of the present aspect of
our life, we are to live steadfastly, advancing the kingdom, in light of
the hope of Consummation, we are to rest assure that, no one can
take from us our source of life, who is our Lord Jesus himself (Col.
4:3).

APPENDIX A
INTRODUCTION

TO THE

The Gospel was written by

GOSPEL

OF JOHN

one of the apostles, a Jews from

Palestine called the Beloved disciple. It was written c. 80s and 90s
(possibly 60s)48 so the readers might believe in Jesus as the Son of
God (20:30-31).. At the heart of the Gospel is the pervasive purpose of
disclosing the identity of Jesus.49
48

Craig L. Blomberg, Jesus and the Gospels (Nashville: Broadman & Holman), 169170.
49
D.A. Carson and others, An Introduction to the New Testament (Grand Rapids:
Zondervan Publishing House, 1992), 135.

20

Although John does not contain precise literary parallels with


the Synoptics, nevertheless abounds in conceptual parallels expands
and deepens our understanding of any Gospel account. 50 Included in
this is the fact that John does not quote the OT as for example,
Matthew, but rather John abounds in OT imagery that is appealing to
a Jewish audience.51
There has been a tendency in the research about John arguing
for the spiritual and theological value of the Gospel while denying its
historic reliability. However, everyday more scholars get convinced of
Johns own merits as a trustworthy account. This New approach to the
Gospel of John is a very healthy one and gives us solid ground in order
to approach this Gospel with confidence. 52 Given the fact that there is
a Synoptic focus on the Kingdom of God many may be tempted to
minimize the value of John for supposedly not being in line with this
theme. However, although Kingdom language is not as common in
John as in the Gospels. Conceptually, it is present conceptually,
implied in the Life motif that is characteristic of John.53
The Gospel of John is written just as the other Gospels, as a
watershed in redemptive history.

John testifies that the Word who

gives life to the world, has become flesh (1:4,14). The God of glory has
50

Ibid., 174-175
Gary M. Burge, Interpreting the Gospel of John (Grand Rapids: Baker Books,
1992), 20.
52
Ibid., 25-29.
53
Jimmy Agan, Lecture Notes on The Gospels and Acts, 2002 ed., 8. See George E.
Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co,
1974), 257-259.
51

21

dwelt among us (1:14), fulfilling the Messianic expectations and


bringing the Age to Come into the present, while reserving its full
consummation to the Day of the Lord. Johns witness testifies that
Jesus is the promised Messiah, certified with all the credentials. The
right thing to do is to believe in him, since he has proved he is the
essence and the fulfillment of the religious festivities of the Jewish
people and more (20:30-31).

APPENDIX B
AN OUTLINE

I.

OF JOHN

Introduction (1:1-51)

22

a. Prologue (1:1-18)
b. Johns testimony
II.

The Book of Signs and their Significance (2:1-11:57)


a. Jesus and Jewish institutions (2:1-4:54)
1. Jesus, the provider of New Wine (2:1-11)
2. Jesus, the cleaner of a New Temple (2:12-25)
3. Jesus, Nicodemus & the Baptist: the giver of New
Birth (3:1-36)
4. Jesus & the Samaritan woman (also the Officials
son): New approach to Worship God.
b. Jesus and Jewish festivals (5:1-10:21)
1. Jesus and the Sabbath (5:1-47)
2. Jesus and the Passover (6:1-71)
3. Jesus and the feast of Tabernacles (7:1-9:41)
4. Jesus and Hanukkah (10:1-42)
c. Jesus as life and resurrection (11:1-12:50)
1. Lazarus (11:1-57)
2. Anointing in Bethany (12:1-11)
3. Closing the Book of Signs, opening the Book of
Glory (12:20-50)

III.

The Book of Glory (13:1-20:31)


a. The Passover meal (13:1-30)
b. Farewell discourse (13:31-17:26)
c. Suffering and death (18:1-19:37)
d. Resurrection (20:1-29)
e. Purpose of the Gospel (20:30-31)

IV.

Epilogue (21:1-25)54
APPENDIX C

54

This Outline was made up from the outlines provided by Blomberg, Burge and
Agan. Craig L. Blomberg, Jesus and the Gospels (Nashville: Broadman and Holman
Publishers, 1997), 161. Gary M. Burge, Interpreting the Gospel of John (Grand
Rapids: Baker Books, 1992), 76-80. Jimmy Agan, Lecture Notes on The Gospels and
Acts, 2002 ed., 62.

23

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS
(30)

Therefore they told him; Then, What sign 55 do

you perform, so we may see and [as a result]


believe you? What will you do?56

we may

(31)

Our fathers ate the

manna in the desert, as it is written; Bread from heaven


he gave57 them to eat.
(32)

Because of this Jesus told them; Amen, Amen I

am telling you, Moses has not given58 you the bread from
heaven, but my Father is giving you the real bread from
heaven;

(33)

for the bread from59 God is he who is

descending from heaven and is giving life to the world.


(34)

They said to him; Lord,60 give us always this bread.

in Louw & Nida: 1) An event which is regarded as having some special


meaning; 2) As an event with special meaning was inevitably an unusual or even
miraculous type of occurrence, and then in a number or occurrences may be
rendered miracle (Jn. 2:23). 3) For the Gospel of John, however, a sign is not
simply a miraculous event but something which points to a reality with even greater
significance.
56
This an Aorist Subjunctive Active but apparently they can be used to express
future non-indicative action.
57
Some manuscripts have instead of .
58
Some manuscripts have instead of .
59
Genitive of Source (W, 728 ).
60
As a mere polite title.
55

24

(35)

Jesus said to them; I am the bread that gives

life61; who comes62 to me63 will never be hungry64 and who


is believing in me will never ever be thirsty.65

(36)

Yet, I told you that you have seen66 and you are

not believing.

(37)

Everyone whom67 the Father gives68 me

will come69 to me,70 and the one who comes to me I do not


throw out,71

(38)

because I have come down from 72 heaven

not so I would do73 my will, but the will of the one having
sent me.74

(39)

And this is the will of the one having sent

61

Genitive of Product (W, 728).


Rogers & Rogers considers this coming in the sense of coming in belief.
63
In some manuscripts it appears in the non-emphatic form.
64
See note 2.
65
Some manuscripts have this verb in the subjunctive instead of the future. Such
second reading would fit since the previous parallel phrase is in the subjunctive and
not in the future.
66
Though most modern translations include the word me, the UBS editors gave it
a rating C, but included it because of the antiquity of its use. For Rogers & Rogers
this perfect emphasizes the completion of the action with the resultant conduct, yet,
without the appropriate response emphasized by the following present.
67
The original wording is a Neuter singular; However, to replace a Masculine plural
with a Neuter singular is an stylistic device common in the Gospel of John (Newman
and Nida; Handbook for the translation of John).
68
Rogers & Rogers The Present is used here where the Son awaits.
69
R & R: Specific future expressing certainty in the future.
70
Some manuscripts have the non-emphatic form.
71
The original wording is . It looks that such term can be used in different
manners, Here:
72
Some manuscripts have instead of
73
Subjunctive + expressing purpose; Some manuscripts have (future)
instead of subjunctive), however it seems that the subjunctive is a morel likely
option for the clause.
74
Some manuscripts include the word after sent me.
62

25

me,75 that76 all whom77 he has given me78 I may not lose
from them, but I will raise79 them to life [in]80 the last day.
(40)

For this is the will of my Father, that 81 whoever is

seeing the son and is believing in him may have eternal


life, and I will raise82 him to life [in]83 the last day.

APPENDIX D
SOME KEY WORDS

STUDIED IN

LOUW

AND

NIDA

: 1) An event which is regarded as having some special


meaning; 2) As an event with special meaning was inevitably an
unusual or even miraculous type of occurrence, and then in a number
or occurrences may be rendered "miracle" (Jn. 2:23). 3) For the
Gospel of John, however, a sign is not simply a miraculous event but
something which points to a reality with even greater significance. (L
& N: 33.477; 443).
: a) To believe something to be true and, hence, worthy of
being trusted -to believe, to think to be true, to regard as
trustworthy. Pisteuo has an added component of trustworthiness that
other words do not have. This does not mean that there is a 100% of
Same thing that in last verse, some manuscripts include after sent me.
Subjunctive + clause here expresses the content of the Fathers will. R & R:
here it indicates the final resurrection as the beginning of the anticipated kingdom.
77
See note 5.
78
According to Morris in Rogers & Rogers, this perfect expresses the gift as
completed in the will o the Father.
79
Another Aorist Subjunctive Active.
80
is not present in all manuscripts, probably not part of the original writing.
81
Subjunctive + , expressing the content of the will. Also a purposive clause. R &
R: Not as future, but as already present divine power before the resurrection.
82
This could be both an Aorist Subjunctive Active or a future Indicative Active;
Volitive Future, a promise. However it its Subjunctive, then its parallel to and
part of the content of the Fathers will.
83
See note 26.
75
76

26

certainty in that which is believed but that simply there is a


component of confidence and trustworthiness which is the focal point
in this sub domain (L & N: 31.35; 370). b) To believe to the extent of
complete trust and reliance to believe in, to have confidence in, to
have faith in, to trust, faith, trust. (L & N:31.85; 376). c) To believe in
the good news about Jesus Christ and to become a follower to be a
believer, to be a Christian, Christian faith. (L & N:31.102; 379). d) To
entrust someone to the care of someone, -to entrust to, to put into the
case of. (L & N:35.50; 464). Pisteuo in the sense of believing
information (use 1) differs from Pisteuo/pistis in the sense of trust, to
rely on. (use 2) and also from the becoming a Christian sense (use
3).
: a) Any kind of food or nourishment (L & N:5.1;48-49). b) A
relatively small and generally round loaf of bread (considerably
smaller than the present-day typical loaves of bread and thus more lie
rolls or buns) loaf of bread. (L & N: 5.8; 50).
: a) Pertaining to be real and not imaginary real, really,
true, truly. (L & N: 70:3; 667). b) Pertaining to being in accordance
with historical fact true, truth. (L & N: 72.1; 673). c) Pertaining to
being truthful and honest truthful, honest, a person of integrity. (L
& N: 88:39; 747).
: Apparently when speaking of eternal life, it implies not merely
life without end, but a quality of life without end.
: a) The universe as an ordered structure cosmos, universe.
(Ac. 17:24) (L & N: 1.1; 1) b) The surface of the earth as the dwelling
place of mankind, in contrast with the heavens and the world below
earth, world. (Mt. 4:8) (L & N: 1.39; 10). c) The system of practices
and standards associated with secular society (that is, without
reference to any demands or requirements of God) world system,
worlds standards, world. (L & N:41.38; 508). d) (a figurative
extension of meaning of kosmos cosmos, universe,) People associated
with a world system and estranged from God people of the world. (I
Cor. 6:2). (L & N: 9:23; 107).
e) adorning; f) adornment; g)
tremendous amount.

: a) To be in a state of hunger, without any implications of


particular contributing circumstances to be hungry, to have hunger.
(L & N: 23:29; 253). b) A figurative extension of both and
. To have a strong desire to attain some goal, with the
27

implication of an existing goal, with the implication of an existing lack


to desire strongly. (L & N: 25:17; 291).
: a) The state resulting from not having drunk anything for a
period of time to be thirsty, thirst. (L & N; 23:39: 254). b) 25:17.
: a) To move toward and to arrive and to arrive at a point to
come to, to reach, to arrive. (L & N: 15.84; 193). b) To be in place, as
the result of having arrived to be here, to be there. (L & N: 85.10;
725). c) To have come or to be present, with respect to some temporal
reference point to happen, to have happened. (L & N:13.112; 161).
: a) To throw out of an area or object- to throw out, to
jettison (from a boat). (L & N:15.220; 209). b) To cause to go out or
leave, often, but not always, involving force to send away, to drive
out, to expel. (L & N: 15.44; 188). c) To send out or away from,
presumably for some purpose to send, to send out, to send forth. (L
& N: 15:68; 191). d) To lead or bring out of a structure or area to
lead out, to bring forth. (L & N: 15.74; 204).
: a) To give an object, usually implying value to give, giving.
(L & N: 57.71; 566). b) to cause to happen, used particularly in
relationship to physical events to make, to cause, to give, to
produce. (L & N: 13.128; 163). c) To grant someone the opportunity
or occasion to do something to grant, to allow. (L & N: 13.142; 164).
d) To put or place an object, with the implication of some type of
transfer of location or possession to put. (L&N: 85.33; 727). e) To
assign a person to a task as a particular benefit to others to appoint,
to assign (on behalf of). (L&N: 37.98; 483). f) Pay; g) Deposit; h)
Cause.
: a) destroy (L&N:20.31). b) fail to get (L&N:57.67). c) To lose
something which one already possesses to lose. (L&N:57.68; 566).
a) cause to stand up to cause to stand, to raise up. (L&N:
17.7; 216). b) To cause someone to live again after having once died
to raise to life, to make live again. (L&N:23.94;263).
a) To observe something with continuity and attention, often
with the implication that what is observed is something unusual to
observe, to be a spectator of, look at. (L&N: 24.14; 279). b) To come
to understand as the result of perception to understand as the result
of perception to understand, to perceive, to see, to recognize.
(L&N:32.11;381). c)
(a figurative extension of the meaning of
/); To experience an event or state, normally in negative
28

expressions indicating what one will not experience to experience,


to undergo. (L&N:90.79; 809).

APPENDIX E
PERSONAL PARAPHRASE

John 6:30-40

Therefore they told him: So, What sign do you do,


so we may see it, and having proof, we may believe
your words? What are you going to do? See, our
ancestors ate the manna in the desert, as it is
recorded: Bread from heaven Moses gave them to
eat.
Because of this Jesus answered them: Truly I am
telling you the right interpretation, Moses has not
provided for you the bread from heaven, but it is my
Father who right now is giving you the true bread
from heaven; because the bread from God is the one
who is descending from heaven and is giving life to
humankind.
Then, they told him: Sir, give us this bread all the
time.
Jesus replied: I am the bread which produces the
life of eternity; the one who comes to me, and to me
only, will in no way be hungry, and the one who is
believing in me will never ever be thirsty.
But, as I have told you before, you have seen the
signs and yet, you are not believing. Let me tell you
why. Only that one whom the father gives me will
believe in me, and that one I will keep with me,
because I have descended from heaven to do his will,
not mine. And he wants me to keep the ones he has
given me and make them alive in the Day of
Judgment. And I tell you again that my father wants
that everyone who sees the son and believes in him
29

to have eternal life, and I will make him alive in the


Day of Judgment.

APPENDIX F
SERMON OUTLINE

Title: We may know what we want, but God knows what we need
Introduction: The Beauty and the Beast.

I.

Jesus, the fulfillment of our expectations.


a) Asking God what we want
b) Receiving what we need

II.

Jesus, the fulfillment of our longing.


a) The life he provides does not perish
b) The life he provides is supreme in quality and quantity

III.

Jesus, the preserver of our life


a) If we are believers, then we know its because the Fathers
will
b) If we are believers, Jesus will keep us and preserve us
c) If we are believers, although we die, well live

30

Conclusion:
Believing in Jesus implies many other things we may not even
imagine. To place in him the faith he commands to, in our minds may
not look as the greatest thing to do. Yet, he knows that once we are in,
well understand and enjoy the Life he gives and we long for.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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The Greek New Testament, 4th ed.

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Borgen, Peder. Bread from Heaven: An Exegetical Study of the
Concept of Mann in the Gospel of John

and the writings of Philo.

Netherlands: Novum Testamentum, 1965.


Blomberg, Craig L. Jesus and the Gospels. Nashville: Broadman &
Holman, 1997.
Burge, Gary M. Interpreting the Gospel of John. Grand Rapids: Baker
Books, 1992.
Carson, D.A. and others, An Introduction to the New Testament.
Grand Rapids: Zondervan

Publishing House, 1992.

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Carson, D.A. The Gospel According to John. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans


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1991.

Ladd, George E. A Theology of the New Testament. Grand Rapids:


Eerdmans Publishing

Co., 1974.

Louw, Johannes P. and Eugene A. Nida. Greek-English Lexicon of the


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Semantic

Domains,

2nd

ed.

Introduction & Domains. USA: United Bible Societies,

vol.

1,

1989.

Menken, Martinus J.J. The Provenance and Meaning of the Old


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John 6:31. Novum Testamentum 30

(January, 1988): 39-56.


Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New
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Morris, Leon. The Cross in the New Testament. Grand Rapids:
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________. The Gospel According to John. USA: Eerdmans Publishing
Company, 1971.
Newman, Barclay M. and Eugene A. Nida. A Translators handbook on
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United Bible Societies, 1980.

Rahlfs, Alfred. ed., Septuaginta. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft,


1979.

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Rogers, Cleon L. Jr. and Cleon L. Rogers III. The New Linguistic and
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Schnackenburg, Rudolf. The Gospel According to John, vol. 2. New
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33