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LabG Report 1

*In this Report, I begin presenting the main ideas told to

us by Howard Budd about the main hardware
components relevant for the DAQ at the MINERvA

Antonio ZB, Feb 19 to 27

What we saw at LabG

We were presented the FEBs, the daisy-chain connections, the

button on the FEB to reset them if any problem arises, we were told
about the CRIM (which supplies timing) and also about the CRATE
controller & the CROC (More details will be presented below in this
Some relevant numbers: At the Test-Beam: ~45 FEBs and ~500 in
the MINERvA Detector. A chain consists of ~6-11 FEBs. There is 1
CRATE for the Test-Beam and 2 for the MINERvA-Detector.
We saw the inner part of a PMT, the 64 clean-fibbers which transmit
light to a specific part inside the PMT which converts this into electriccharge (a high voltage there, according to Howard ~O(100 volts)).
Here there is a phototube which acts as an amplifier based on the
photoelectric effect.
The Charge is stored by the TripT-chips. The digitalization of this
charge is performed at the FEBs.
We were explained by Gianina about the most common damages
these fibbers can experience and how we can detect it by seeing the
reflection of light from the damaged part.

The nearline has basic information coming from the

We will be able to Reset or Change a FBE is there is
any problem (most of the time the problem resides in 1
single FEB). It's relevant for us to be able to detect a
failure among the FEBs in usage. But we cannot
replace PMTs, there is specific personnel designed to
perform this work.
Then Howard presented us a program, a file he used
and told us that in the case at hand (when the FEBs
were not connected to any PMT), we can monitor each
FEB and obtain a fixed value of RHV of ~ 25'000. This
is important because that's the value present when a
FEB is not detecting any FEB would be useful
to detect which FEB is not working when a problem

Gerald wrote down the name of some files used by

Howard in his PC:, 1.CROCE.hwcf <----File which can
be set ON or OFF, it was chosen OFF---> not put (this
WR HV TARGET 48200 (usually for test).

0.5 CROCE ----> FE (1,2,3,4)

UOT PMT (changes voltage)

RHV Actual----->25058 right now (this is the
important-to-consider level of reference when no
PMT is connected to a FEB, as was commented

The MINERA Data Acquisition System and

Infrastructure (Read-out Electronics)

This document discusses the MINERA data acquisition

system (DAQ)in two steps:
First, the custom electronics are described, followed by a
description of the DAQ software and computing architecture.
The initial specifications for the DAQ readout system asked
for a readout rate of 100 kB/s with a duty factor defined by
one 10 microsecond beam spill every 2.2 seconds .
Fortunately, those specifications were surpassed as our
initial estimate for required data throughput was low by about
a factor of five.

The DAQ, Slow-Controls (SC) & Near-Online monitoring

("nearline") are built around MINERvA-Specific Readout
Minerva uses plastic-scintillator as its fundamental
detector technology.
Light is delivered via Wavelength-Shifting_Fiber (WLS) to
Hamamatsu R7600 64-channel (hay 64 hilos de plastico
transparentes) multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs).
A small number of single-anode PMTs are also mounted
for a "Veto-Wall" detector that sits in front of the main
Minerva Detector.




Each PMT is read out by a Front-End-Board (FEB)

mounting 6 Application-Specific Integrated Circuit
(ASIC) chips (TriP-t chips) that digitize & store Charge
(Q) using pipeline ADCs.
Input charges from the PMT anodes are divided into
high, medium, and low gain channels using a capacitive
divider to increase the dynamic range.
--->The high gain is 1.25 fC/ADC, the
medium is 4 fC/ADC, and the low is 15.6 fC/ADC.

The FEBs generate the high voltage for most of the

PMTs using an on-board Cockroft-Walton (CW)

The control circuitry resides on the FEB while the CW chain

itself resides on the base (on the PMT board), with
appropiate taps for each dynode.
A small number of the PMTs are single-anode & use
resistor-base technology for voltage control.These PMTs are
used to read out the Veto Wall and employ a separate
voltage control system discussed below.
All FEB operations are controlled by a Spartan 3E FieldProgrammable Gate Array (FPGA) chip.
-->The FPGAs decode timing signals received over the
unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, sequence the Trip-t
chips a& decode & respond appropriately to communication
frames received over the data link.

-->The FPGA also controls the CW and other aspects of

FEB operation.

CRATE controller Interface talks to PC & CRATE, the CRIM

controls Time & Gates, CROCE reads & controls the readout
faster than the CROCs (~20xfaster ) because there is no traffic
between PC & CROCE. At the FTBF there are 3 CROCEs.
For data collection, the boards are daisy-chained together (into
chains) using standard UTP ethernet networking cables with a
custom protocol and Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS).
Of the four pairs in the cable, one is dedicated to timing,
including clock and encoded signals, one is dedicated for data,
one is used to indicate the sync-lock status of the data
(SERDES) and one for a test pulse.


Today we saw how to install a PMT, 1st connecting the 8 DDKs (Japanese)
connectors at the back of the PMT. Those connectors were cleaned with
100% Ethanol.
We were told about the importance of the Period, how the CW provides HV
We installed an FEB to the other side of the PMT. This device is going to
stored Charge within its TripTs (to then be digitized).
One of the FEBs was not working properly (only 1 green light appeared
when even if we reseted again many times).
Howard filled within his computer (in the Elog) a form in which he specified
the FEB that was failing & specified the new-one (the codes). To check---->Form fill FEB SWAP (Min-data TEst Beam). Run 384, Subrun 4.
We have to be careful about numerations of Chains & Channels: CHAIN IN
THE CROCE (1-4) & IN THE SOFTWARE (0-3) (CHAIN). "Be careful about
this numeration of CHAINS & CHANNELS": Channel=Chain +1

*Procedures for testing PMT, no cross talk

*Load File Power on configuration----->ON (to take data),
OFF (cable on PMT).

*WR HV Enable (0 off HV, 1 on HV).

*WR HV Target (value of HV).

One shoot (300) current table {Dispatcher acquisitor


FLASH Return to Service instructions.

Flash Reset Firmware 91----->Now is running.

FEB not properly plug-in----> 25'000 overshoot the voltage.

What Howard told me on 02/25

We need to fill 3 Forms in order to specify we replaced a FEB:

1)Electronic Form--->He already filled in within the Elog.
3)Another Electronic-Form (for the TB & MD)

Exist a Calibration for each FEB.

DocDB (4086-v54)--->Document of mounted PMTs.

When there is a replacement in a FEB || PMT--->That File has to be

The software is labeled in terms of CRATE, CROC, CHAIN, FEB (I
will show this in a picture).
The CW on the board of the PMT supplies:
*HV (High-Voltage)
*Mechanism to get signal out of the tube.
It also eliminates the us of HV in all the detector, All Voltage<50V

The problem right now seems to be in the PMT, perhaps it's a light
leak, the PMT we are analyzing has low Period.
Cross-Talk failures: The PMT is bad, we need some SPARES?
If there is a problem during the DAQ the order to find the problem
is the following: 1)Run-Control, 2)Use a Script to Reset, 3)SlowControl.
OBS: SC may work, but not necessarily the DAQ.
If you can Download the Configuration-File---->DAQ is going to

HV ON---->To take Data before you Start a Run.

HV OFF--->If you are checking the Detector.

Howard's Guess about the current problem: No Light-Leak, the

PMT itself is be confirmed on 02/26.

Especificacin de los FEBs


We were analyzing a PMT, we were worry about any possible lightleak. So we took measurements in 2 scenarios: i)The PMT
completely covered (no light inside) & ii)The PMT uncovered (so
light entered) in order to see any difference, which would indicate
there is a light leak.
We shouldn't damage the PMTs by providing high Voltage (higher
than 800V) to them.

ADC-counts: Analog-to-Digital converter.

OBS: Dran current only occurs if there is HV (High-Voltage).

CW--->it generates little current whilst providing HV, this works only
for neutrino-Experiments, the Gain is a function of the Voltage on
the PMT.
In a Phototube, we have 2 important parameters:
i)Quantum_Efficiency & ii)Gain.

Quant-Efficiency----->measures the probability to convert 1 photon

into an electron, is a property of the material, not on the Voltage (the
glass painted at the end of the 64 transparent cables). It is ~ 13%.
GAIN----->Measures the amount of Charge we get from a photon.
It's proportional to the Voltage.
So--------> The relevant factor (which we expect to be High) is the
product GAINxQuant-Effic. This because we need enough LIGHT to
measure CHARGE.
OBS: Each CROCE has 4 CHAINs (Set of FEBs Daysi-chained) as
a maximum.
The Slow-Control (SC) tells you what is Found. Download the
DATA, it provides the parameters for doing it & you need it to Start a
RUN). If you want to take Data, you should use HV-ON, otherwise
use HV-OFF (like in the present case).
We performed a PEDESTAL to analyze the PMT connected to the
4th FEB.

Another important Document to Read----->Doc DB 9269 v-3:

Procedures for Testing PMTs. (Attached to the BLOG).
At the page 3 of that Document---->Important Commands (the
order is important) to write in a Terminal.
In the Run-Control: HV-OFF, Run-Mode=One Shot, CurrentState (HW config)=No download config-file.
A DST (Root-file) was generated.
Each Trip-T chip has 16 channels,There is a pedestal for each
of these. At different pedestals, we test different Hardware.
You expect groups of 16, for 1 Trip-T the situation is slightly
We test for Cross-Talk. At the End the problem was not a
Light-Leak but the Low-Period. The System decides the period
for each FEB?


There was no difference in the pixel-pattern when there is or

not LIGHT. So there is no Light-Leak, the problem is in the
PMT itsel.

Where the Results are stored?

ssh -X , setup.....,----->make a root file.

H1:Tarp (no tarp)----->Not light-leak, ---->Inclusion: PMT drain

OBS: One cable at the 4th FEB was lose and at the beginning it
didn't permit us perform the Howard is fixing it:

Friday 27---->We are doing the PMT-analysis by


Step by Step instructions for testing a PMT:

(1)In this case we removed the old PMT, and connected a new one to
the FEB-03(the other FEB-4 has a loose cable).
Obs: PMTs shouldn't be exposed to room-light (to much UV may
damage it because of the high-freq of this radiation).
2)Once the PMT is connected and all FEB are connected to the
power-supply, we Log-in into the tbonline: username: tbonline,
password: axial2009.

*We open a Terminal and go to: source slowcontrol

*Click FE 3 (HV Actual is 40).

*Download the Configuration-File

*WR HV Pulse Width: If it is 30, we have not downloaded the configfile,

Once we do this it changes to 25.

*WR HV Enable(1)=1 (To enable the HV)

(check the parameter at FE:3)

*Write All FEBs (Obs: The period is controlled manually).

*Actions--->Start monitoring All HVs.

*Period Auto: makes sense only if connected to a PMT.

*Actions---->Stop all monitor.

*Open up >

*One-Shot <----- Config<----- Request control.

*Run = 388 (this is a default value, don't change it!).

(You want to analyze the run).


*Set-up the online (commands in a terminal to analyze the RUN):


--->cd PMT_Labf/

--->./ -r 388(the run number) -s 1(the # of subrun)

--->The DST has been create, then we use Root:

--->root -l file_just created.

--->Analyze board 3 (photo)


Create a File---->log file

Obs:The CW is draining for 2 reasons:

1)Light -leak

2)The PMT can be draining current.

*Show the Pedestal-figure

*Create a File of what we did.