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ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Advanced Materials Selection Guide


for Lock, Dam, and Hydroelectric
Plant Components

Construction Engineering
Research Laboratory

Ashok Kumar, L.D. Stephenson, and Paul Willis

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

January 2002

High-Performance Materials and


Systems Research Program

Advanced Materials Selection Guide


for Lock, Dam, and Hydroelectric
Plant Components
by

Ashok Kumar and L.D. Stephenson


U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center
Construction Engineering Research Laboratory
PO Box 9005
Champaign, IL 61826-9005
Paul Willis
U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland
P.O. Box 2870
Portland, OR 97208-2870

Final report
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Prepared for

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers


Washington, DC 20314-1000

Under

HPM&S Work Unit 33238

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7
(TR HPMS-02-1)
January 2002

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Preface
The study described in this report was authorized by Headquarters, U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), as part of the High-Performance Materials and
Systems (HPM&S) Research Program. The work was performed under Work
Unit 33238, Civil Works Advanced Materials Selection Guide, for which
Dr. Ashok Kumar, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center
(ERDC), Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), was the Principal Investigator.
Dr. Tony Liu was the HPM&S Coordinator at the Directorate of Research and
Development; Research Area Manager was Mr. Roy Braden; and Program Monitor was Mr. Andy Wu, HQUSACE. Dr. Mary Ellen Hynes, ERDC Geotechnical
and Structures Laboratory (GSL), was the ERDC Lead Technical Director for
Infrastructure Engineering and Management. Mr. James E. McDonald, ERDC
GSL, was the HPM&S Program Manager.
The work was performed by the Materials and Structures Branch (CF-M) of the
Facilities Division (CF), CERL.
The report was prepared by Dr. L.D.
Stephenson, CERL; and Mr. Paul Willis, Portland District (retired). Mr. Martin
J. Savoie was Chief, CF-M, and Mr. L. Michael Golish was Chief, CF. Dr. Paul
A. Howdyshell was the Technical Director for this work unit, and Dr. Alan W.
Moore was Director of CERL.
At the time of preparation of this report, COL John W. Morris III, EN, was the
Commander and Executive Director of the ERDC, and Dr. James R. Houston
was the Director.

DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such
commercial products. All product names and trademarks cited are the property of their respective owners.
The findings of this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so
designated by other authorized documents.
DESTROY THIS REPORT WHEN IT IS NO LONGER NEEDED. DO NOT RETURN IT TO THE ORIGINATOR.

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Contents
Preface................................................................................................................................................ 2
List of Tables ..................................................................................................................................... 4
1

Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 5
Background......................................................................................................................... 5
Objectives ........................................................................................................................... 7
Approach ............................................................................................................................ 7
Mode of Technology Transfer ............................................................................................. 8
Units of Weight and Measure ............................................................................................. 8

Material Selection Issues for Civil Works Applications........................................................ 9


Composition and Properties ............................................................................................... 9
Stainless Steels ............................................................................................................................. 9
Self-Lubricating Bushings ............................................................................................................ 10

Corrosion and Galling Issues ........................................................................................... 11


Problems Caused by Corrosion................................................................................................... 11
General Corrosion Behavior, Pitting, and Concentration Cell Corrosion...................................... 11
Galvanic Corrosion ...................................................................................................................... 13
Cavitation..................................................................................................................................... 14
Galling ......................................................................................................................................... 14

Lubrication Requirements................................................................................................. 14
Problems With Loss of Lubrication .............................................................................................. 14
Use of Self-Lubricating Bushings Versus Greased Bushings ...................................................... 15

Ductile Iron Versus Gray Iron ........................................................................................... 16


3

Materials Selection Guidance Tables.................................................................................... 18

Summary and Recommendations......................................................................................... 55

References....................................................................................................................................... 56
Appendix A:
SF 298

Materials Properties Tables ............................................................................. 58

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

List of Tables
1. Materials selection guidance for bulkhead and tainter gate components. ................. 20
2. Materials selection guidance for miter gate components. .......................................... 24
3. Materials selection guidance for miter gate machinery. ............................................. 28
4. Materials selection guidance for tainter valve components........................................ 32
5. Materials selection guidance for emergency gate machinery..................................... 34
6. Materials selection guidance for segmental valve machinery. ................................... 36
7. Materials selection guidance for emergency dam (wicket type) components. ........... 37
8. Materials selection guidance for gears. ...................................................................... 38
9. Materials selection guidance for shafts. ..................................................................... 39
10. Materials selection guidance for pins. ...................................................................... 40
11. Materials selection guidance for steel reinforcements for concrete.......................... 40
12. Materials selection guidance for hydroelectric plant components............................ 41
13. Materials selection guidance for piping. ................................................................... 44
14. Materials selection guidance for fisheries. ............................................................... 48
15. Materials selection guidance for traveling fish screens. ........................................... 49
16. Materials selection guidance for miscellaneous components. ................................. 50

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

1 Introduction
Background
Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works projects can often benefit from the application of new generations of advanced engineering materials that are continuously
being brought to market. Two of the more important materials in this regard are
stainless steels and self-lubricating bushing materials. The Corps of Engineers
has previously published technical information about stainless steel performance
in Civil Works applications (Kumar et al. 1989), but self-lubricating materials
were not addressed. This technical report updates available Corps guidance on
selecting high-performance materials, including self-lubricating bushing materials, for locks, dams, and components of hydroelectric plants.
Carbon steels and low-alloy steels have been the primary source for materials
used to construct locks, dams, and hydroelectric plants. To a much lesser extent,
components for such facilities have been fabricated from 400-series martensitic
stainless steels (e.g., Types 410 and 416) and 300-series austenitic stainless
steels (e.g., Types 302, 303, 304, 308, and 316). Although the 300-series stainless
steels normally have excellent corrosion resistance in most freshwater environments (see Appendix Table A-1 in Kamp and Schmitt 1966), their yield strengths
(about 35,000 psi in the annealed condition) are somewhat low for many applications. Furthermore, a number of locks and dams use bolts and nuts fabricated
from the same 300-series stainless steels, and these have a tendency to pit in
waters containing more than about 1000 parts per million (ppm) chloride (including Type 316, which is formulated with a small amount of molybdenum to resist
pitting). They are also subject to oxygen-differential concentration-cell corrosion
under deposits and in crevices. An advantage of the austenitic grades of
stainless steel, however, is that they do not experience chloride-induced, stresscorrosion cracking at temperatures lower than about 150 F (Pecknar and Bernstein 1977). They also exhibit excellent resistance to freshwater erosion corrosion.
The yield strength limitations of the 300-series stainless steels for Civil Works
projects were originally overcome by using heat-treatable, 400-series stainless
steels. Unfortunately, these alloys often do not exhibit the desired corrosion

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

resistance. This is understandable because the metallurgy required to create a


martensitic stainless steel allows only limited amounts of chromium (generally,
an upper limit of about 14%) to be added to these alloys. The martensitic grades
of stainless steel have a tendency to pit (Table A-1), galvanically corrode, crack
due to stress corrosion, and experience concentration-cell corrosion in many fresh
waters. In some cases, heat-treated, 400-series stainless steels have failed due
to hydrogen-induced cracking because the components were only slightly
overprotected by the cathodic protection systems designed to mitigate corrosion.
Traditional stainless steels have certain mechanical property and corrosion behavior limitations for lock, dam, and hydroelectric plant applications. However,
carefully selected and properly specified stainless steels especially some of the
newer alloys can be viably and cost-effectively used. These steels can reduce
maintenance costs and improve the availability of equipment and facilities without significant concern for the various forms of deterioration that have been associated with them (e.g., crevice corrosion, intergranular attack, stress-corrosion
cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, pitting, wear and galling, and galvanic corrosion).
As noted above, another important materials selection issue for Civil Works
structures relates to the lubrication of moving parts in locks, dams, and hydropower facilities. Specialized greases and oils have traditionally been used to lubricate the bearings and bushings used in these facilities. In purely functional
terms this approach has been successful because such grease-lubricated equipment has been in continuous operation for decades. However, these greases and
oils pose significant problems related to lubricant handling, disposal, and water
quality degradation due to contamination by grease leakage. One solution to
such problems is the use of greaseless bushings. These bushings generally employ advanced solid coating materials that self-lubricate the moving parts without any grease or oil. Not all self-lubricating bushings are made of the same materials and designed for the same applications. Therefore, material performance
data are needed to select the proper bushing materials for a specific application.
In order for the Corps of Engineers to realize the maximum life-cycle cost benefit
from advanced materials that are now becoming more readily available on the
market, project-level engineering and operations personnel need specialized
technical guidance on application-specific material selection.

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Objectives
The objectives of this work are to
1. present stainless steel mechanical and material property data, provide an overview of corrosion behavior, and provide general guidelines on using the various
types of stainless steels for locks, dams, and hydroelectric plant applications
2. discuss selected types of self-lubricating bushing materials, including presentation of laboratory data on friction coefficients and wear rates obtained from two
laboratory tests.

Approach
Researchers selected 17 stainless steels that may reduce maintenance costs and
are becoming more available for Civil Works applications. These may be categorized as follows:

eight wrought austenitic alloys Carpenter 18Cr-2Ni-12Mn, Gall-Tough,


NITRONIC 60, and Types 302, 303, 304, 308, and 316
three wrought martensitic alloys Types 410, 416, and 431
three wrought martensitic PH (precipitation-hardening) alloys 17-4PH,
Custom 465, and Custom 450
the wrought semiaustenitic PH alloy 17-7PH
the cast martensitic alloy CA-6NM
the cast austenitic-ferritic alloy CF-8.

In developing the guidelines the researchers drew on their individual technical


knowledge and that of other experts within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
This knowledge base was supplemented with additional information from various engineering guide specifications and as-built drawings.
Guidance on the application of self-lubricating bushings drew significantly on
two previous technical reports which documented the performance of various
self-lubricating bushings. One of these reports (Jones et al. 1999) documented
tests of 12 self-lubricating-bushings (i.e., Devatex I, Delrin AF 100, Fiberglide,
Lubron TF, Karon V, Orkot Ltd TXM-M, TENMAT T814, TENMAT T12, Thordon TRAXL HPSXL, Thordon TRAXL SXL, Deva Metal, and Devatex II) in edge
loading, wet and dry conditions. The other report (Palylyk 1998) focused on the
performance of three brands of self-lubricating bushings (TENMAT T814, Karon
V, and THORDON TRAXL SXL) in the presence of foreign debris.

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Mode of Technology Transfer


It is recommended that the information and guidelines presented in this report
be included in applicable Unified Facilities Guide Specifications (UFGS).

Units of Weight and Measure


U.S. standard units of measure are used throughout this report. A table of conversion factors for Standard International (SI) units is provided below.
SI conversion factors
1 in.

2.54 cm

1 ft

0.305 m

1 sq in.

6.452 cm2

1 lb

0.453 kg

1 psi

6.89 kPa

(C x 1.8) + 32

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

2 Material Selection Issues for Civil Works


Applications
Composition and Properties
Stainless Steels
Corrosion behavior data, nominal composition, and mechanical property data for
the selected stainless steels and their alloys are included in Tables A-1, A-2, and
A-3, respectively (see Appendix A). Additional corrosion-related data are given
in Tables A-4 A-6. Tables A-7 and A-8 provide information on erosion properties and threshold galling stresses, respectively.
Austenitic grades of stainless steel cannot be strengthened by heat treatment;
they can only be strengthened by cold working. Martensitic and the PH grades
of stainless steel can be heat-treated to microstructural conditions that provide a
wide range of mechanical properties.
Generally, the austenitic grades of stainless steel (e.g., NITRONIC 60 and the
300-series) have better overall corrosion resistance than the other alloys identified in Tables A-1 A-3. Typical corrosion resistance, however, depends on heat
treatment. For example, the corrosion resistance of 17-7PH stainless steel in
both Conditions TH1050 and RH950 is superior to that of the heat-treatable,
martensitic alloys. In Condition CH900, the general corrosion resistance of 177PH is comparable to that of Types 302 and 304 (Armco, Inc. 1984b). The corrosion resistance of Condition A 17-4PH stainless steel and the alloy, when heat
treated to its lower (albeit, still relatively high) strength levels, is also comparable to Type 304 in more aqueous environments (Armco, Inc. 1983). Similarly, the
normal corrosion resistance of Custom 450 and Custom 465 are superior to that
of heat-treated Type 410 and similar to that of Type 304 (Carpenter Technology
1971). Carpenter 18Cr-2Ni-12Mn can be used where corrosion resistance approaching that of Type 304 is necessary, but higher strength after cold working
is needed (Carpenter 1999). NITRONIC 60 is unique in that it has better corrosion resistance to chloride-induced pitting attack than Type 316 (i.e., an alloy
specially formulated for pitting resistance to chlorides), and also by outstanding

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ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

resistance to abrasion by suspended solids and to galling, and to cavitation when


exposed to aqueous environments (Armco, Inc. 1984a). Gall-Tough also has high
resistance to galling, see Table A-8, especially when mated with other GallTough components (Carpenter 1999).
Self-Lubricating Bushings
The composition of a self-lubricating bushing for use in lock, dam, and hydropower applications generally consists of a metal structure (such as bronze) with
a bonded coating of solid lubricant. These solid lubricants can be polymers such
as PTFE,* epoxy-based lubricants, or polyurethane-based lubricants. Also, some
manufacturers of self-lubricating bushings have replaced the metal bushing material with other materials such as a fiberglass/epoxy composite. The solid lubricant may be applied as a coating of various thicknesses, or filled into holes
drilled into the metal housing (EM 110-2-1424).
Two reports reviewed for this study provide important data on properties such as
wear rate and coefficient of friction. Table A-9 summarizes data from Jones et
al. 1999 that were developed through laboratory experimentation. Table A-10
provides data on the properties of three selected self-lubricating bushings in the
presence of debris, developed under laboratory conditions and reported in Palylyk 1998.
Qualitative field test results for self-lubricating bushings can be found in a report prepared by the U.S. Army Engineer District Louisville (Schultz 1997).
Corps installations that currently use self-lubricating bushings or bearings include Portland Districts Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Bonneville locks;
Lock No. 10 at St. Paul, MN; Cannelton Lock at Louisville, KY; Dardanelles
Dam at Little Rock, AK; Kentucky Lock Project at Nashville, TN; McNary Lock
and Dam at Walla Walla, WA; and Rock Island Dam at Rock Island, IL (EM
1110-2-1424).

* PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene.

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Corrosion and Galling Issues


Problems Caused by Corrosion
Selecting a material with inadequate corrosion resistance for a particular application can be an expensive mistake. Direct and indirect economic losses that can
result from corrosion include the following:
1. failure of equipment and associated damages (e.g., a tainter gate falls because
hoisting cable bolts break)
2. premature replacement of equipment
3. overdesign requirements to allow for corrosion
4. shutdown of equipment
5. loss of a product (e.g., if a hydraulic piping system develops a corrosion-induced
leak)
6. contamination of a product
7. loss of efficiency (e.g., reduction of heat transfer rates in cooling systems due to
presence of corrosion products).
Some of these indirect losses can cost much more than the difference between a
material that would have performed satisfactorily and one that does not. Therefore, it is important to consider potential indirect losses due to corrosion when
selecting materials.
Corrosion can also constitute a significant safety hazard if stress-corrosion cracking occurs in critical parts of transportation media. In addition to these economic and safety aspects, corrosion is also important in terms of resource conservation; many of the metals and materials used to make conventional steel and
low-alloy steels are diminishing in the United States, and many of these materials are being imported from overseas at ever-increasing cost.
General Corrosion Behavior, Pitting, and Concentration Cell Corrosion
The excellent corrosion resistance of stainless steels depends on the formation
and maintenance of an invisible, passive oxide film on the exposed surfaces.
This allows the stainless steels to sustain potentials that are more noble (electrically positive) than they would otherwise be in the active (corroding) condition.
In the passive condition, stainless steels have electrochemical characteristics
similar to those of a noble metal such as gold. If this passive film is locally destroyed and cannot be readily repaired, pitting attack can be expected to occur in

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certain environments (especially, chloride-containing, aqueous environments).


Similar localized corrosion, in the form of oxygen-differential concentration-cell
corrosion, can occur in crevices and under deposits (i.e., in occluded cells) where
there is insufficient oxygen to maintain the passive film. The absence of oxygen
in occluded cells causes the stainless steel to become electrochemically active
(i.e., become anodic) and exhibit a negative potential relative to that area where
the passive film is still intact. This form of corrosion can be especially deleterious because it is usually facilitated by a large driving voltage between the passive and active regions and an undesirable high cathode-to-anode ratio.
Significant insight into corrosion behavior can be obtained by analyzing data obtained from anodic polarization tests conducted in a laboratory. In general,
stainless steels have very negative primary passivation potentials and small
critical current densities for passivation; normally, they passivate quite readily
in aerated aqueous environments. Once passivated, the alloys will normally corrode at very low rates in accordance with Faradays Law and their passive current densities. If the oxidizing characteristics of the environment are overly
powerful, alloys can be spontaneously polarized to potentials sufficiently noble
that the alloy will be subjected to accelerated corrosion and pitting attack in the
transpassive potential region (i.e., corrode at the high current densities associated with the potentials more noble than the transpassive potential). The desirable anodic polarization characteristics for stainless steels are low values of critical current density for passivation; very negative values for passivation
potential; low values of passive current density; very positive values for
transpassive potential; and large potential differences between passivation potential and transpassive potential.
Values of passivation potential, critical current density for passivation, passive
current density, and transpassive potential for selected stainless steels in deaerated, l N* sulfuric acid are included in Table A- 4 (Segan et al. 1982). Adding
chlorides to the test environment reduces the passive potential regions (i.e., the
values of transpassive potential minus passivation potential) and increases the
magnitudes of critical current density for passivation and passive current density (Segan et al. 1982). Similar adverse phenomena occur, in general, when the
temperature of the environment is increased and/or the pH is lowered. The deleterious effects of high operating temperatures, acidic environments, and the

* 1 N is 1 normal, i.e., 1 mole per liter.

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

presence of chlorides on stainless steels have been verified and explained


through laboratory testing. Additional laboratory testing has also shown that all
of the stainless steels listed in Table A-4 spontaneously passivate in aerated Columbia River water and corrode in the passive potential region at very low uniform corrosion rates (i.e., corrosion rates associated with passive current density
values of 2.8 8.2 x 10-7 ampere/cm2) (Segan et al. 1982).
Galvanic Corrosion
The initial driving voltage for corrosion of adjacent dissimilar metals can be estimated when a galvanic series exists for the environment of concern. In general, larger driving voltages increase the initial rate of attack to the less noble
alloy when dissimilar metals are metallically connected and exposed to a corrosive environment. For example, the galvanic series in Table A-5 (Segan et al.
1982) shows that NITRONIC 60 has a potential of -0.327 volts referenced to a
saturated calomel electrode (SCE), whereas ASTM A 36 steel has a potential of 0.574 volts. If the two alloys were metallically connected and exposed to this environment, NITRONIC 60 (i.e., the alloy with the more positive potential) would
be cathodic to the ASTM A 36 steel, making the A 36 steel the anode in the corrosion cell. The ASTM A 36 steel would experience accelerated galvanic corrosion at an initial driving voltage of 0.247 volts (the potential difference between
the two materials). As a result the NITRONIC 60 would, at least in part, be cathodically protected.
The data in Table A-5 provide insight on the mitigation of galvanic corrosion.
Materials should be selected so those that will be metallically connected will
have similar potentials in the environment where they will be exposed. An alternative approach would be to electrically isolate dissimilar metals from each
other. Galvanic corrosion problems can also be reduced by ensuring that the cathodic area is smaller than the anodic area. Large cathode-to-anode area ratios
must be avoided if galvanic corrosion is to be avoided. Coatings used in conjunction with cathodic protection also have been effective in mitigating galvanic corrosion.
The initial driving voltage for galvanic corrosion will normally decrease with
time because of polarization at the anodes and cathodes. This decrease in the
driving voltage, in turn, reduces the galvanic corrosion current density at the
anodes and lowers their corrosion rates. Table A-6 (Segan et al. 1982) lists the
galvanic corrosion current densities obtained for equal anodic and cathodic areas
of ASTM A 36 steel connected to selected grades of stainless steel. Based on
these data, galvanic corrosion of ASTM A 36 steel is not significantly affected by

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the chemistry or metallurgical condition of the stainless steel involved. The corrosion current densities for the ASTM A 36 steel vary between 1.4 2.5 x 10-5
ampere/cm2.
Cavitation
Tests conducted in accordance with ASTM G 32 have allowed stainless steels
and a low-alloy carbon steel to be ranked according to their cavitation resistance
(Table A-7, Segan et al. 1982). Not unexpectedly, NITRONIC 60 had the best
cavitation resistance of the materials evaluated. Similar cavitation-resistance
results have been obtained for stainless steels exposed to jet-impingement by
river water. The relative cavitation depth damages for NITRONIC 60, 17-4PH,
Type 316, and CA_6NM were reported as being 1.0, 1.9, 3.7, and 6.6, respectively
(Schumacher 1986). These data clearly indicate that cast NITRONIC 60 could
be a viable alternative for CA-6NM where cavitation is a concern.
Galling
When two metal surfaces are rubbed together under heavy pressure, and without lubrication, it is expected that galling (or even seizing) may result. The button and block galling test has been used to evaluate the adhesive wear resistance of various stainless steels under nonlubricated conditions (Schumacher
1977). Specimens were considered galled if deep scoring and heavy surface damage were evident during examination of the surfaces at 10X magnification. The
lightest load that caused galling was used to calculate the threshold galling
stress. Threshold galling stresses for selected stainless steel combinations are
included in Table A-8 (Schumacher 1977). The data in Table 8 establish that
many contacting stainless steel combinations are highly susceptible to galling.
More important, the data show that NITRONIC 60 can be used in contact with
many stainless steels without concern for galling. Galling problems associated
with the use of Type 304 nuts and bolts could very well be eliminated by fabricating one of the components from NITRONIC 60.

Lubrication Requirements
Problems With Loss of Lubrication
Loss of lubrication results in direct contact between two moving metal surfaces.
The resulting friction is the main cause of wear in these parts. This results in

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

material loss and damage that can cause equipment failure. High friction is also
responsible for excessive heat generation and a loss of efficiency.
Lubrication can be divided into three broad categories:
1. hydrodynamic
2. elastohyrodynamic
3. boundary layer.
Hydrodynamic lubrication occurs when a wedge of oil forms between the sliding metal surfaces, reducing friction to very low levels. Hydrodynamic lubrication requires high sliding speeds to create internal pressure to support the load
on the bearing.
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication is used to describe the action of rolling bodies
such as ball bearings. Similar to hydrodynamic lubrication, elastohydrodynamic
lubrication creates high pressure to maintain a thin film of oil between the metal
surfaces. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication also requires fairly high sliding
speeds to maintain the oil film.
When a bearing does not reach high sliding speeds or is subject to frequent starts
and stops, the oil film will not fully develop, resulting in contact between the
metal surfaces. This is called boundary layer lubrication and it is the most
common means of lubrication in lock, dam, and hydropower applications.
Use of Self-Lubricating Bushings Versus Greased Bushings
A greaseless self-lubricating bushing uses a solid lubricant coating on the inner
surface for protection from friction and wear. Solid lubricants are ideal for intermittent loading conditions, as when equipment is idle for long periods of time,
They are also useful for inaccessible locations where monitoring of liquid lubricants would be difficult, and in environmental conditions where contamination
by oils or greases would be a problem, such as submerged in water (EM 1110-21424).
The characteristics of solid lubricants allow self-lubricating bushings to be effective at high loads and low speeds, resistant to deterioration in storage, and stable in corrosive environments where oils or grease may break down. Also, selflubricating bushings do not require lubrication distribution systems. However,
for best performance, it is recommended that self-lubricating bushings be in-

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stalled with seals wherever they may be exposed to water or other contaminants
(Jones et al. 1999).
Self-lubricating bushings do have several disadvantages compared to conventional oils and greases. First, they have poor self-healing properties. A breach
in the solid lubricant film will not heal itself as oils and greases do. Second, the
solid lubricants used in greaseless bushings have poor heat dissipation characteristics because they tend to be insulators with low thermal conductivities. Finally, greaseless bushings tend to have a higher coefficient of friction than hydrodynamically lubricated bushings (EM 1110-2-1424). This last disadvantage is
probably not a significant problem in low-speed applications such as locks and
dams, however, because the lubrication mechanism in greaseless bushings is
likely to be designed as boundary layer lubrication rather than hydrodynamic
lubrication.
In order to ensure that self-lubricating bushings work properly, they must be
mated either to a heated-treated steel shaft or a hard-chrome-plated medium- to
high-strength steel shaft material such as 17-4 PH.

Ductile Iron Versus Gray Iron


When the carbon content of an iron-carbon alloy exceeds about 2%, there is a
tendency for graphite to phase-separate and form a natural composite with the
iron matrix. Both ductile iron and gray iron consist of an iron matrix that incorporates eutectic graphite particles as a separate phase. However, the initial
composition (see Table A-11 in Appendix) and morphology of the graphite in ductile iron differ from graphite in gray iron. Graphite in gray iron forms as chips
or flakes that provide good damping properties, this flake morphology does not
provide good resistance to crack propagation, and the overall toughness or ductility is reduced (ASM Handbook, v.20 1998).
Ductile iron is made by a process called inoculation, in which magnesium compounds are introduced to molten iron before casting. These compounds provide
nucleating sites for graphite by forming intermetallic compounds with the molten iron, and they allow the graphite to form nodules within the iron matrix.
When compared to the graphite morphology of gray iron, the spherical nodules of
graphite in ductile iron provide a greater elongation and tensile strength. Therefore, ductile iron is preferable for many structural applications (see Table A-12)
(ASM Handbook, v.20 1998).

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Disadvantages to using ductile iron include the need for higher-purity raw
materials and a lower mold yield. A high-purity melt must be maintained in
ductile iron casting to ensure the growth of the graphite in a spherical shape. A
lower mold yield than gray iron is caused by the need for risers during ductile
iron casting. Overall, greater control and testing are required to produce highquality ductile iron. Therefore, the production cost for ductile iron components
tends to be greater than components produced from gray iron (Metals Handbook
1998).

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3 Materials Selection Guidance Tables


The materials selection guidance for lock, dam, and hydropower plant components presented in this chapter is based largely on the professional experience of
the following Corps of Engineers personnel and private-sector material selection
experts: Henry Dollinger (Nashville District); Paul Willis (Portland District);
James Bartek (Rock Island District); David Buccini (Pittsburgh District); Thomas Andre (Pittsburgh District); and Dr. James R. Myers (JRM Associates). Mechanical property information was obtained from Carpenter Specialty Steel Data
Sheets. Galvanic potentials for steels in freshwater were determined through
laboratory investigations at ERDC/CERL. Information on self-lubricating bushings was drawn from previous and ongoing ERDC/CERL research on the subject
for Corps of Engineers applications, and also from reports by Powertech, Inc.,
that document the results of laboratory testing. Complete citations for these
sources are provided at References, page 56.
The reader also should note that in selecting an appropriate material for a given
application, the possibility of galvanic corrosion must also be considered. Components should not be coupled together if a significant net driving potential will
result and lead to galvanic corrosion. For more guidance on this topic, the reader
is referred to Chapter 3 under Galvanic Corrosion (pages 13 14). If the galvanic potential of a selected alloy is not given in Table A-5, then the galvanic potential of an alloy in the same family may be used. For example, the galvanic
potential of Type 304 stainless steel may be used as a surrogate for Type 302
stainless steel.
Materials selection for the following applications are addressed in this chapter:
1.

bulkhead and tainter gate components

2.

miter gate components

3.

miter gate machinery

4. tainter-valve components
5. emergency-gate machinery
6. segmental valve machinery
7. emergency dam (wicket type) components

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

8. gears
9. shafts
10. pins
11. steel reinforcements for concrete
12. hydroelectric plant components
13. piping materials and components
14. fisheries
15. traveling fish screens
16. miscellaneous components.
In the materials selection tables, all stainless steel selection recommendations
are identified with a pound sign (#).

19

20

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Table 1. Materials selection guidance for bulkhead and tainter gate components.
Skin Plate

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS
K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 - UNS K02306)
Steel, ASTM A 514 (Grade A - UNS K11856,
Grade B - UNS K11630, Grade C - UNS
K11511, Grade E - UNS K21604, Grade F UNS K11576, Grade H - UNS K11646,
Grade J - UNS K11625, Grade M - UNS
K11683, Grade P - UNS K21650)

Diagonals

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS
K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 - UNS K02306)
Steel, ASTM A 514 (Grade A - UNS K11856,
Grade B - UNS K11630, Grade C - UNS
K11511, Grade E - UNS K21604, Grade F UNS K11576, Grade H - UNS K11646,
Grade J - UNS K11625, Grade M - UNS
K11683, Grade P - UNS K21650) ,

Horizontal Girders

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS
K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 - UNS K02306)

Trunnion Pins

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class E

Trunnion Bushings

Aluminum Bronze Casting, ASTM B 148,


Copper Alloy UNS No. C95400

Trunnion Housings

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27,Grade 65-35


(UNS J03001)

J-Seals

Natural Rubber*
Neoprene*
* Preferably with fluorocarbon inserts for
rubbing-contact areas

Bolts for J-Seals

# Type 304 Stainless Steel, ASTM A 320,


Identification Symbol B8, (UNS S30400)

Nuts for J-Seals

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 194, Grade


Symbol 8S (UNS S21800) (Armco
NITRONIC 60)

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Trunnion Girders

21

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS
K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 - UNS K02306)
Steel-Reinforced Concrete

Trunnion Yokes

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 65-35


(UNS J03001), Steel, ASTM A 722

Steel Tension Rods for Concrete Trunnion Girders

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 240, Type 304


(UNS S30400)

Bottom/Embedded Seals

Babbitt, ASTM B 23

Wire Ropes

# Type 302 Stainless Steel (UNS S30200),


Type 304 Stainless Steel (UNS S30400)

Rope-to-Gate Connections

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 65-35


(UNS J03001)
Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)
Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS
K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 - UNS K02306)
ASTM A 242 Steel (UNS K11510)

Wear Plates (under wire ropes)

Steel, ASTM A 242 (UNS K11510)


Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS
K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 - UNS K02306)

Rope Sockets

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 304


(UNS S41000)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 302
(UNS S30200)

Keeper Plates for J-Seals

# Stainless, Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 410


(UNS S41000)

J-Seal Heaters

Schedule 80 Steel Pipe, ASTM A 53, Type E


or S, Grade A (UNS K02504) & Type E or S,
Grade B (UNS K03005)

Trunnion-Hub Pins

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class H


Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 65-35
(UNS J03001)

Seal Plate on Gate

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 240, Type 304


(UNS S30400)

22

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Gate Arms

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS
K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 - UNS K02306)

Side/Embedded Seal

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 240, Type 304


(UNS S30400)

Bulkhead

Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS


K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 -UNS K02306)

Bulkhead Dogging Lever

ASTM A 711 (UNS G13300, UNS G41400,


UNS G41420, UNS G41450, UNS G41500,
UNS G43400, UNS G47200, UNS G51986,
UNS G61200, UNS G86600, UNS G98400,
UNS G13350)

Bulkhead roller

Steel Casting, ASTM A 148, Grade 105-85,


(UNS J31575)

Bulkhead Collar

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Bulkhead Bolts

Steel, ASTM A 307, Grade A

Bulkhead Bushings

Aluminum Bronze Casting, ASTM B 148,


Copper Alloy UNS No. C95500

Bulkhead Axle

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 291, Class 5 (UNS


K24245)

Bulkhead Lifting Bar

Steel Casting, ASTM A 148, Grade 150-135

Wire Rope Adjusting Bolt

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564,


GradeXM25 (UNS S45000)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Grade
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH
Stainless Steel)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Grade
XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)

Hoist Bolts

# Type 410 Stainless Steel, ASTM A 193,


Identification Symbol B6, (UNS S41000)
# Type 416 Stainless Steel, ASTM A 581

Hoist Nuts

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 194, Grade Symbol 8S (UNS S21800) (Armco NITRONIC 60

Flanged-Spiral Segment

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Safety Grating

Aluminum Alloy Tubing, AA 6060, 6060-T52

Hoist Frame

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Hoist-Chain Bars

23

Steel Forgings, AISI 3140, class C (ASTM A


711, UNS G31400)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564 Grade
XM-25 (UNS S45000)

Hoist-Chain Pins

Steel Forgings, AISI 3140, class C (ASTM A


711, UNS G31400)
Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564 Grade XM25 (UNS S45000)

Link Chain

DIN Standard 22252 Grade 2

Pocketwheel

# Steel Forgings, ASTM A 290, Class K


(UNS K24045)
# Steel Castings, AISI 8620 (ASTM A 29,
UNS G86200)

Position Indicator Hand

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 167 Type 310


(UNS S31000)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 304
(UNS S30400)

Bolts

# Type 410 Stainless Steel, ASTM A 193,


Identification Symbol B6 (UNS S41000)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 581, Type 416,
(UNS S41600)

Nuts

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 194, Grade


Symbol 8S (UNS S21800) (Armco
NITRONIC 60 Stainless Steel)

Shear Pins

Steel Bar, ASTM A 434, Class BB

Shims

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Pinions

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class G

Pinion/Hoist

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 291, Class 5 (UNS


K24245)

24

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Table 2. Materials selection guidance for miter gate components.


Skin Plate

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


Steel, ASTM A 242 (UNS K11510)
Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS
K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 -UNS K02306)

Diagonals

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


Steel, ASTM A 514 (Grade A - UNS K11856,
Grade B - UNS K11630, Grade C - UNS
K11511, Grade E -UNS K21604, Grade F UNS K11576, UNS K11646, Grade J - UNS
K11625, Grade M - UNS K11683, Grade P UNS K21650)

Intercostals

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Diaphragms

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Horizontal Girders

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Gudgeon Pins

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668

Gudgeon Bushings

AMPCO 16 Aluminum Bronze self+


lubricating bushings
+ See Tables A-9 and A-10 for properties.
Self-lubricating bushings should be mated
with a shaft material of heat-treated, or medium- to high-strength steel such as Armco
17-4PH (Jones et al. 1999) (Palylyk 1998).

Gudgeon-Pin Hoods

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Gudgeon Rings

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Gudgeon-Pin Barrels

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Link Pins

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 688

Anchor Bars

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


Steel Forgings, ASTM A 688
Steel Forgings, ASTM A 730 (UNS K01502,
UNS K01502, UNS K02000, UNS K04700,
UNS K05200)

Anchorage Wedge Blocks

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 688

Embedded Anchorages

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Pintle Bushings Sockets

Steel Castings, ASTM A 29,

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Pintles

25

# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 473,


Type 303* (UNS S30300)
# Stainless Steel Castings, ASTM A 743,
Grade CF-8 (UNS J92600); ASTM A 744,
Grade CF-8 (UNS J92600)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564. Type
630 ** (UNS S17400)
* Annealed.
** Brinell Hardness of 390 to 410.

Pintle Socket Grease Lines

# Stainless Steel Pipe, ASTM A 312, Type


304(UNS S30400)
# Stainless Steel Tube, ASTM A 269, Type
316(UNS S31600)
High Pressure Neoprene Hose (with
stainless fittings)

Pintle Shoes

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 70-36


(UNS J03501)
Steel, ASTM A 36 Steel (UNS K02600)

Pintle Base

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 60-30


(UNS J03000)

Pintle Bushings

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type


630* (UNS S17400)
Aluminum Bronze Casting, ASTM B 148,
Copper Alloy UNS No. C95400, Self+
lubricating Bushings
* Brinell Hardness of 270 to 290
+ #See Tables A-9 and A-10 for properties.
Self-lubricating bushings should be mated
with a shaft material of heat-treated, or medium- to high-strength steel such as Armco
17-4PH (Jones et al. 1999) (Palylyk 1998)

Miter Contact Blocks

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type


XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
Steel, ASTM A 36 ** (UNS K02600)
** Preferably with Ceramic/Metal-Filled Epoxy Coating

Filler Between Miter and Quoin Contact Blocks and


End Posts of Miter Gate, and Between Contact Blocks
and Embedded Steel Wall Retainers

Epoxy Filler such as Nordbak Cast Zinc,


ASTM B 6

26

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Reaction Bar

Steel Bar, ASTM A 29, Grade 1020 (UNS


G10200)
Steel Bar, ASTM A 29, Grade 1040 (UNS
G10400)

Quoin Contact Blocks

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 70-40


(UNS J02501)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS
K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65- UNS K02306)
Steel, ASTM A 36 Steel** (K02600)
** Preferably with ceramic/metal-filled epoxy
coating

Quoin Contact Block Retainer

Steel, ASTM A 36 Steel (UNS K02600)

Miter Contact Block Retainer

Steel, ASTM A 36 Steel (UNS K02600)

Gate Seals/J-Seals

Neoprene+
Natural Rubber+
+ Preferably with fluorocarbon inserts for
rubbing-contact areas.

Sill Plates/Nosings

Steel, ASTM A 36 Steel (UNS K02600)


# Type 304 Stainless Steel, ASTM A 240
(UNS S30400)

Mitering Device Guide Rollers

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 80-40


++ (UNS J31575)
++ With provisions for lubrication

Mitering Device Bolts

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668

Mitering Device Bushings

Aluminum Bronze, ASTM B 584, Copper


Alloy UNS No. C93200

Miscellaneous Bushings

Aluminum Bronze, ASTM B 584, Copper


Alloy UNS No. C93200

Bumpers and Fenders

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


Low Friction Butyl Rubber
White Oak
Creosote-Treated Pine

Miscellaneous Bearings

Aluminum Bronze

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Miscellaneous Bolts/Nuts

27

Steel, ASTM A 307 *


Steel, ASTM A 325 * (Type 1, - UNS
K02706, Type 2 - UNS K11900, Type 3,
Composition A - UNS K13643, Type 3,
Composition B - UNS K14358, Type 3,
Composition C - UNS K12033, Type 3,
Composition D - UNS K12059, Type 3,
Composition E - UNS K12254, Type 3,
Composition F - UNS K12238)
* Where bolts/nuts are not to be removed.

Seal Heater Tubes/Pipes

Copper Tube, ASTM B 88, Type K (UNS


C12200)
# Type 304 Stainless Steel Tube, ASTM A
269, Grade TP 304 (UNS S30400)
Steel Pipe, ASTM A 53, Schedule 80, Type
E or S, Grade A (UNS K02504) and Type E
or S, Grade B (UNS K03005)

Culvert Valve Piston Rods

Monel, ASTM B 164, UNS N04400) ASTM


# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 410
(UNS S41000)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
XM-25 (UNS S4500) (Carpenter Custom
450)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 314, Type 416
(UNS S41600)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
ASTM A 108, Type C 1045, or ASTM A 331,
Type CR 4140 (CEGS 15010)

Miter Gate Casting for


Strut-Pin Connection (Machinery)

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148 (UNS J31575)

Miter Gate Pin Connection (Machinery)

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class C

Bolts for Attaching Castings to Gate

Steel, ASTM A 325 (Type 1 - UNS K02706,


Type 2 - UNS K11900, Type 3, Composition
A - UNS K13643, Type 3, Composition B UNS K14358, Type 3, Composition C - UNS
K12033, Type 3, Composition D - UNS
K12059, Type 3, Composition E - UNS
K12254, Type 3, Composition F - UNS
K12238)

Shear Pin Bushing

Steel, ASTM A 663, Grade 45

28

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Table 3. Materials selection guidance for miter gate machinery.


Anchor Bolts

Steel, ASTM A 307

Angles

Steel, ASTM A 36 Steel (UNS K02600)

Base

Steel, ASTM A 36 Steel (UNS K02600)

Stud Bolts

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668

Turned Bolts

Steel, ASTM A 307


Steel, ASTM A 320, Grade L7 (UNS
G41400)

Hold-Down Bolts for Cylinder

Steel, ASTM A 307

Rack Bumper

Rubber, ASTM D 2000

Piston-Rod Bushing

Leaded Tin Bronze, ASTM B 584, Copper


Alloy UNS No. C92300

Snubbing Bushing

Steel Bar, ASTM A 675, Grade 45

Sector Arm

Steel, ASTM A 514, Grade F (UNS K11576)


Steel ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS
K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 - UNS K02306)

Sector Arm Wheel Pin

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class K

Sector Arm Bushings and Washers

Leaded Tin Bronze, ASTM B 584 Copper


Alloy UNS No. C92300

Sector Arm Support Wheel

Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Grade


XM-25(UNS S45000)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)

Cap Screws

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 193, Grade B-8


# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 564 (UNS
S45000)

Sector Base

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Class 7036(UNS J03501)


Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 90-60
(UNS J31575)

Cross Pins

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class D


Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class K

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

29

Cross Pin Steel Bushings

Steel Bar, ASTM A 663, Grade 45

Cylinder Heads

Steel Castings. ASTM A 148, Grade 80-40


(UNS J31575)
Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 60-30
(UNS J03000)

Hydraulic Cylinder Base

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Hydraulic Cylinder

Steel Pipe, ASTM A 106, Grade B * (UNS


K03006)
* With forged flanges

Eyebolt for Sector Pin

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class D

Fitted Bolts

Steel, ASTM 307

Flanged Spacers

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Class 65-35


(UNS J03001)

Strut Follower

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Class 105-85

Gate End Castings

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Class 105-85

Gate End Seal Retainer

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Class 65-35


(UNS J03001)

Gland for Hydraulic Cylinder

Leaded Tin Bronze, ASTM B 854 Copper


Alloy UNS No. C92300

Pistons

Gray Iron Castings, ASTM A 48, Class 40


(UNS F12801) or Class 50* (F13501)
* Used in Nashville District

Gland for Piston Rod

Leaded Tin Bronze, ASTM B 584, Copper


Alloy UNS No. C92300

Key for Hydraulic Cylinder

Steel Bar, ASTM A 576, Grade 1040 (UNS


G10400)

Key for Piston Rod

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class B


Steel Bar, ASTM A 576, Grade 1040 (UNS
G10400)

Spring Steel for Strut

Steel Bar, ASTM A 689 UNS G86500, UNS


G86550, UNS G86600, UNS G92600, UNS
G86370)

Piston Rod Nuts

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class C


Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class B

Wedge Nuts

Steel Castings ASTM A 148, Class 105-85

30

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Sector Base Plate

Steel, ASTM A 36 Steel (UNS K02600)


Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS
K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 - UNS K02306)

Spring Lock Nut

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class C

Sector Gear Pin

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class A


Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class K

Sector Top Plate

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Spacer (Ring)

Aluminum Bronze Casting, ASTM B 148,


Copper Alloy UNS No. C95400

Spanner Bolt (for strut)

Steel bar, ASTM A 663, Grade 45

Spanner Nut (for strut)

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class A


Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class B

Springs

Steel Spring, ASTM A 125

Pinion Shafts

Steel Bar, ASTM A 29, Grade 4340 (UNS


G43400)

Brake Wheel Shafts

Steel Bar, ASTM A 29, Grade 1045 (UNS


G10450

Spring Cartridge

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 80-40


(UNS J31575)

Spring Housing (for strut)

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Class 65-35


(UNS J03001)

Spring Rod

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class C

Strut Pins

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 416


(UNS S41600)
Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class D

Strut Segment Body

Steel Bar, ASTM A 575 and ASTM A 576

Strut Segment Flange

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 181, Class 70(UNS


K03502)

Strut Segment Clevis

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Class 65-35


(UNS J03001)

Studs for Sector Base

# Stainless Steel ASTM A 193, Grade


B6(UNS S41000)

Stud Bolts

Steel, ASTM A 307, Grade A

Hydraulic Cylinder for Piston

Cast Iron, ASTM A 48, Class 50 (UNS


F13501)

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

31

Piston for Hydraulic Cylinder

Bronze, Koppers B-19

Piston Rod for Hydraulic Cylinder

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Grade


XM-25 (UNS S45000)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)

Ring-Spring Mandrell

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class G

Vertical Roller Pins

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 410


(UNS S41000)

Horizontal Roller Pins

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 410


(UNS S41000)

Sector Gear

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 90-60


(UNS J31575)

Selsyn Drive

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 711 (UNS G13300,


UNS G41400, UNS G41420, UNS G41450,
UNS G41500, UNS G43400, UNS G47200,
UNS G51986, UNS G61200, UNS G86600
UNS G98400, UNS G13350)

32

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Table 4. Materials selection guidance for tainter valve components.


Skin Plate

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


# Type 304 Stainless Steel Clad for Downstream Face, ASTM A 264

Structural Members

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Trunnion Pins

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668

Trunnion-Pin Bushings

Aluminum Bronze Casting, ASTM B 148


Copper Alloy UNS No. C95400 (AMPCO 16)

Anchorage Beams

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Seal Bolts

# Type 304 Stainless Steel, ASTM A 320,


Identification Symbol B8, (UNS S30400)

Seal Nuts

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 194, Grade


Symbol 8S (UNS S21800) {Armco
NITRONIC 60)

J-Seals

Neoprene*
Natural Rubber*
* Preferably with fluorocarbon inserts for
rubbing-contact areas

Trunnion Housings

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 80-40
(UNS J31575)

Embedded Bottom Seals

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 240, Type 304


(UNS S30400)

Bottom Seal Plates on Valve

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 240, Type 304


(UNS S30400)

Valve Top Seal

Neoprene
Natural Rubber

Culvert Valve Liner

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 410 **


(UNS S41000)
**For high-lift locks

Culvert Valve Connecting Strut

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 410


(UNS S41000)

Tainter-Valve Activating System Strut Arm

Steel Pipe, ASTM A 53, Schedule 100, Type


E or S, Grade A (UNS K02504) & Type E or
S, Grade B (UNS K03005)

Bell Crank

Steel Pipe, ASTM A 53, Grade B (UNS


K03005)

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Hydraulic Cylinder

33

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668


Fittings for Strut

Arms and Bell Crank

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 65-35


(UNS J03001)

Piston Rods

Monel, AMS 4676, Monel K500 (UNS


N05500)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)

Anchorages

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Bushings

Aluminum Bronze Casting, ASTM B 148


Copper Alloy UNS No. C95400
Leaded Tin Bronze, ASTM B 584 Copper
Alloy UNS No. C93200
Self-lubricating Bushings

+ See Tables A-9 and A-10 for properties.


Self-lubricating bushings should be mated
with a shaft material of heat-treated, or medium- to high-strength steel such as Armco
17-4PH (Jones et al. 1999) (Palylyk 1998)
Pins

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668

34

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Table 5. Materials selection guidance for emergency gate machinery.


Anchor Bolts for Wire Rope

Steel, ASTM A 307, Grade A

Anchor Bolt Assembly

Steel, ASTM A 307, Grade A

Angles

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Axle

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class C

Bearing Block (Roller Bearing)

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Bearing Pedestal

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 80-40


(UNS J31575)

Bearing Stance

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 80-40


(UNS J31575)

Blind Flange (for Bearing Cover)

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Shear Bolt

Steel Bar, ASTM A 663, Grade 75

Roller Support Bracket

Steel Casting, ASTM A 27

Bull Gear

Steel Casting, ASTM A 27, Grade 60-30


(UNS J03000)

Bull Gear Pinion

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 291, Class 4 (UNS


K24245)

Bull Gear Rim

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 290, Class D (UNS


K04500)

Sheave Bushing

Aluminum Bronze Casting, ASTM B 148


Copper Alloy UNS No. C95500

Sheave Block Wheel Bushings

Aluminum Bronze Casting, ASTM B 148


Copper Alloy UNS No. C95500

Carriage Wheel

Steel, ASTM A 36 * (UNS K02600)


* With Type 304 Stainless Steel Rim

Embedded Roller Track

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 240, Type 410


(UNS S41000)

Drum Plates

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Drive Link for Indicator

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 304


(UNS S30400)

Drum Tie Bolt

Steel, ASTM A 307, Grade A

Machinery Base

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Spacer/Spool

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Sheave

35

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 80-40


(UNS J31575)
Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 70-36
(UNS J03501)

Cartridge Wheel

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Rope Separator

# Stainless Steel Castings, ASTM A 743,


Grade CF-8 (UNS S92600) and ASTM A
744, Grade CF-8 (UNS J92600)

Separator Pins

# Stainless Steel Castings, ASTM A 743,


Grade CF-8 (UNS S92600) and ASTM A
744, Grade CF-8 (UNS J92600)

Drum Shaft

Steel, ASTM A 304, Grade 4140 (UNS


G41400)

Carriage Wheel Shaft

Steel Forgings ASTM A 291, Class 5 (UNS


K24245)

Reducer Shaft

Steel Bar, ASTM A 29, Grade 4140 (UNS


G41400)

Roller Assembly Shaft

Aluminum Bronze, ASTM B 150, Copper


Alloy UNS No. C60600

Sleeve Shaft

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class C

Intermediate Gear

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 65-35


(UNS J03001)

Intermediate Gear Rim

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 290, Class G (UNS


K24045)

Bull Gear Shaft, Intermediate Gear Shaft,


Bull Gear Pinion, Intermediate Gear Pinion

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 291, Class 5 (UNS


K24245)

36

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Table 6. Materials selection guidance for segmental valve machinery.


Anchor Bolt Assembly

Steel, ASTM A 307

Angles

Steel, ASTM A 36 Steel (UNS K02600)

Arm for Magnet Mounting


Indicator

Leaded Tin Bronze, ASTM B 584, Copper


Alloy UNS No. C90500

Base

Steel, ASTM A 36 Steel (UNS K02600)

Bearing Bracket

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Class 80-40


(UNS J31575)

Bell Crank Assembly


Pipe

Steel Pipe, ASTM A 53, Schedule 100

Bushing

Aluminum Bronze Casting, ASTM B 148

Forgings

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class C

Turned Bolts

Steel, ASTM A 307


# Type 304 Stainless Steel, ASTM A 320,
Identification Symbol B8, (UNS S30400)

Hold-Down Bolts for Cylinder

Steel, ASTM A 307

Bushings

Leaded Tin Bronze, ASTM B 584, Copper


Alloy UNS No. C90500 or High-Lead Tin
Bronze, ASTM B 584, Copper Alloy UNS No.
C93200

Cylinder Bracket

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class C

Trunnion Bushing

Leaded Tin Bronze, ASTM B 584, Copper


Alloy UNS No. C90500 or High-Lead Tin
Bronze, ASTM B 584, Copper Alloy UNS No.
C93200

Struts and Clevises

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 70-40


(UNS J02501)

Hydraulic Cylinder

Steel Pipe, ASTM A 106, (Grade A - UNS


K02501, Grade B - UNS K03006, Grade C UNS K03501)

Cylinder Heads

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 80-40


(UNS J31575)
Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 60-30
(UNS J03000)

Cylinder Rocker and Base

Steel ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS


K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 - UNS K02306)

Gland for Hydraulic Cylinder

Leaded Tin Bronze, ASTM B 584 Copper


Alloy UNS No. C90500

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

37

Hinged Bearing

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 70-36


(UNS J03501)

Selsyn Keys

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 304


(UNS S30400)

Spindle Nut

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class H

Spring for Strut

Steel Bar, ASTM A 689 (UNS G86500, UNS


G86550, UNS G86600, UNS G92600, UNS
G86370)
AISI 516H Steel

Stop Plates

Leaded Tin Bronze, ASTM B 584, Copper


Alloy UNS No. C90500 or High-Lead Tin
Bronze, ASTM B 584, Copper Alloy UNS No.
C93200

Strut Spindle

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 90-60


(UNS J31575)

Pillow Block at Fulcrum

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 90-60


(UNS J31575)

Pistons

Gray Iron Castings, ASTM A 48, Class 40


(UNS F12801) or Class 50* (UNS F13501)
* Used in Nashville District

Piston Rod Hydraulic Cylinder

Steel Pipe, ASTM A 524 (UNS K02104)

Piston Rod

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type


XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S 17400) (Armco 17-4PH)

Piston Rod Connecting Casting

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 60-30


(UNS J03000)

Piston Rod Eyebar

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 70-36


(UNS J03501)

Table 7. Materials selection guidance for emergency dam (wicket type) components.
Structural Steel

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Link Chain

Ductile Iron

Dogging Device

# Type 304 Stainless Steel

38

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Table 8. Materials selection guidance for gears.


Drum

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 290, Class G (UNS


K24045)

Countershaft

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 290, Class G (UNS


K24045)

Drum Pinion

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 291, Class 6 (UNS


K24245)

Pinion for Reducer

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 291, Class 6 (UNS


K24245)

Intermediate for Emergency Machinery

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 65-35


(UNS J03001)

Bull (Rim)

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 290, Class 1

Intermediate Gear Rim for Emergency Machinery

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 290, Class C (UNS


K04500)

Tainter Gate Dogging Device Assembly

Phosphorus Bronze

Worm Gear for Tainter Gate Dogging Device Assembly

# Type 304 Stainless Steel

Bull/Tainter Gate Machinery

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 105-85


(UNS J31575)

Tainter Gate Machinery Pinion

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class G

Sector Gear for Miter Gate Machinery

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 90-60


(UNS J31575)

Selsyn Drive for Miter Gate Machinery

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 711 (UNS G13300,


UNS G41400, UNS G41420, UNS G41450,
UNS G41500, UNS G43400, UNS G47200,
UNS G51986, UNS G61200, UNS G86600,
UNS G98400, UNS G13350)

Tainter Gate Machinery

Steel Castings, ASTM A 148, Grade 90-60


(UNS J31575)

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

39

Table 9. Materials selection guidance for shafts.


Brake Wheel Shaft

Steel Bar, ASTM A 29, Grade 1045 (UNS


G10450)

Countershaft

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 291, Class 5 (UNS


K24245)
Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class F

Drum for Emergency Gate Assembly

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 711, Grade


4140 (UNS G41400)

Drum for Tainter Gate

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 470, Class 5 (UNS


K42885)

Emergency Gate Machinery


Bull Gear Shaft, Intermediate Gear Shaft,
Bull Gear Pinion, and Intermediate Gear Pinion
Carriage Wheel Shaft

Reducer Shaft

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 291, Class 5 (UNS


K24245)
Steel Forgings, ASTM A 291, Class 3 (UNS
K14507)
Steel Bar, ASTM A 29, Grade 4140 (UNS
G41400)

Miter Gate Machinery


Ring-Spring Mandrell

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class G

Emergency Gate Sleeve Shaft

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 291, Class 4 (UNS


K24245)

Tainter Gate Machinery


Indicator Hand Shaft

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 304


(UNS S30400)

Bull Gear and Drum Shaft

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class C

Emergency Gate Roller Assembly Shaft

Aluminum Bronze, ASTM B 150, Copper


Alloy UNS No. C60600

Torque Shaft for Tainter Gate Machinery

Steel, ASTM A 108

Sheave Shaft for Emergency Machinery

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Class C

40

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Table 10. Materials selection guidance for pins.


Latch Pins for Tainter Gate Bulkheads

# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 473,


Type 431 (UNS S43100)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 276, Type
410 (UNS S41000)

Hinge Pin for Valve Machinery

Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type XM25 (UNS S45000)


# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450) Vertical and Horizontal

Roller Pins for Miter Gate Machinery

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 410


(UNS S41000)

Table 11. Materials selection guidance for steel reinforcements for concrete.
Rods

Steel Bars, ASTM A 322, Grade 5160* (UNS


G51600)

Post-Tension Cables

Seven-Strand Wire, ASTM A 416 Steel

Bars (other than ordinary reinforcement steel)

Steel Bars, ASTM A 29 *


Steel Bars, ASTM A 722 *

Grout (for bars)

Portland cement with shrinkage inhibitor


* Fusion-bonded epoxy coated with seawater service.

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

41

Table 12. Materials selection guidance for hydroelectric plant components.


Note: Referenced materials can be replaced with or equals.
Generator and Turbine Shafts
Francis Turbine Runner
Kaplan Turbine Blades

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668, Grade D

Cast Stainless Steel Castings, ASTM A


487, Grade CA6NM (0.03% max. Carbon)
(UNS J91540)
Fabricated Stainless Steel, ASTM A 176,
Type 405 (UNS S40500)

Francis Turbine Stationary Seals

Aluminum Bronze Casting, ASTM B 148,


Copper Alloy No. UNS C95400 Stainless
Steel

Packing Box Shaft Sleeve

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, (UNS


S21800) (Armco NITRONIC 60)(Plate availability varies)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 693, Type 630
(UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel Castings, ASTM A 743,
Grade CF10SMnN
# ASTM Stainless Steel, ASTM A 194,
Grade Symbol 8S (UNS S21800) (Armco
NITRONIC 60)
# Stainless Steel Castings, ASTM A 747,
Type 630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)

Wicket Gates
Body

Steel Castings, ASTM A 27, Grade 70-40


(UNS J02501)
# Stainless Steel Castings, ASTM A 743,
Grade CA-6NM (0.03% max. Carbon)

Sleeves

# Stainless Steel Castings, ASTM A 743,


Grade CA-6NM (0.03% max. Carbon)
# Stainless Steel Castings, ASTM A 747,
Grade CB7 Cu-1 (UNS S17400) (Armco 174PH)

Interior Grease Pipe

# Stainless Steel Pipe, ASTM A 312, Grade


TP304 Series (UNS S30400)

Wear Plates

# Stainless Steel ASTM A 167, Type 304


(UNS S30400)

42

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Operating Mechanism Link Pins

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type


XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)

Generator Heat Exchanger Tubes

Copper Alloy Tube, ASTM B 111, Copper


Alloy UNS No. C70600

Scroll Case

Steel, ASTM A 516, Grade 60 (UNS


K02100) or Grade 70 (UNS K02700)
Steel, ASTM A 517, Grade F (UNS K11576)

Intake Gates
Hoist Cylinder Piston Rods

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type


XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)
# Stainless Steel Bar ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steels Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom 450)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type 630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)

Hoist Cylinder Pipe

# Stainless Steel Pipe, ASTM A 312, Grade


TP304 (UNS S30400)

Guide Track

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 304


(UNS S30400)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 167, Type 304
(UNS S30400)

Roller Chains

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type


XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH) (Brinell
331 to 401)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom 450)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type 630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Roller Chains, Pins, and Side Bars

43

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type


XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH) (Brinell
255 to 293)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 693, Type XM25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom 450)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 693, Type 630
(UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom 450)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type 630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)

Bearing Tracks

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type


XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 693, Type XM25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom 450)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 693, Type 630
(UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)

Seal Bolts

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 193, Grade B8,


(UNS S30400)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 320, Grade B8,
(UNS S30400) (Low Temperature)

Seal Nuts

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 194, Grade 8S,


8SA (UNS S21800) (Armco NITRONIC 60)

Structure

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Trashracks

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Vertical Barrier Screens

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Piping, Fittings, Valves, & Miscellaneous

See Table 13 on next page

Basket Strainer Bodies

Cast Iron, ASTM A 126, Class B (UNS


F12102)

Basket Strainer Baskets

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 167, Type 304


(UNS S30400)

Dielectric Unions

Malleable Iron, ASME B 16.39

44

Table 13. Materials selection guidance for piping.


All dimensions are in millimeters unless otherwise noted. See page 47 for additional notes.
Group

System

Max
press
kPa

Pipe

Fittings

Valves (see Notes 15 and 17)

Generator cooling(10)

865

Less than 80: seamless copper tubing Type


K

Less than 80:

Less than 80: bronze, solder


joint in copper lines, threaded in
brass

solder joint. ASTM B 88m

Service raw water

80 and larger: ASTM A 53, Type E, Sch. 40


steel

Spiral case drain

Schedule or thickness:
see Note 7

Spiral case fill

sizes through 250 Sch. 40


sizes 300 and larger 10 thick wall.

Draft tube drain

for copper tubing, wrought copper,


solder joint ASME B16.22 or cast brass
solder-joint ASME B16.18
Water hose threads:
ASME B1.20.7
80 and larger:

Gate, globe, angle, and check:


MSS SP-80.

80 and larger in steel lines: gate valves


iron-body, os&y, flanged, MSS SP-70
Globe and angle valves: iron-body
bronze mounted, os&y with renewable
disc and seat ring, 865 kPa steam rating
MSS SP-85

Ball valves: MSS SP-72


Butterfly valves: see Notes 1 & 20.
MSS SP-67

butt welding, steel, black, ASME B16.9


thickness same as pipe. See Note 12

Unwatering and drainage pump


discharge

Lift check: non-slam type, cast iron


body, flanged for 865 kPa service, faced
and drilled in accordance with ASA
requirements, stainless steel trim with
stainless steel helical spring disc shall be
guided with two-point bearing, all wearing parts shall be replaceable.

Flanges: 1040 kPa forged steel, welding, flat


faced when adjacent to cast iron valves

Turbine glands

and fittings see Note 10. MSS SP-44

Water spray fire protection


(upstream of deluge valve)

Cast iron:
flanged ASTM A 126

Ball valves: MSS SP-72 flanged, full


bore

Turbine air supply


B

Potable water

865

Less than 80: same as group a

Same as Group A except 80 and larger pipe is


galvanized. See Note 5

Same as Group A

Less than 80:

Same as Group A

80 and larger: galv. Steel, welded joint


ASTM A 53 Type E Sch. 40 see Note 5
C

Water spray fire protection


(downstream of deluge valve)

1040

Galvanized steel ASTM A 53 Type E


Sch. 40

B16.3 and B16.39 MSS SP-83

80 and larger: welded, see Note 5


80 and larger:
Same as Group A except galvanized. See
Note 5

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

less than 80: threaded

galvanized malleable-iron, threaded, ASME

System

Max
press
kPa

Pipe

Fittings

Valves (see Notes 15 and 17)

Air conditioning circulating


water See Note 8

125

Steel ASTM A 53 Type E

Less than 65:

Same as Group A

Less than 65: galv. Threaded

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Group

Same as Group C, less than 80.

65 and larger: black welded


65 and larger:
Same as Group A, 80 and larger
E

Building and roof drains

Exposed:

Sanitary drains and vents

Seamless steel ASTM A 53, Type E

Water discharges embedded

Exposed:

None

Screwed cast iron drainage, galvanized


ASTM A 888

Buried and embedded:


Hubless cast iron CISPI 301

Buried and embedded:


Same as pipe See Notes 3 & 13

Turbine vacuum breaker and


sump vents

Black steel, welded joint, ASTM A 53 thick


wall See Note 7

Same as Group A, 80 and larger

None

Battery room drains

Exposed: PVC U.S. Dept of Commerce


Std. CS 207.

Same material, schedule, and manufacturer as


pipe

None

Exposed: same as Group A

Gate: iron body, os&y, flanged


MSS SP 70

Sch. 80 or acid-resisting "duriron" or "corrosiron" or equal


Embedded: "duriron" or "corrosiron" or
equal
H

Pressure sewage

700

Exposed: black steel, welded joint, Sch. 80,


ASTM A 53

Ball valves: MSS SP-72

Buried and embedded:


Buried or embedded: ductile iron, ASTM A
377

AWWA C110 and C111

Swing check: iron-body brass


mounted
With renewable body seat ring
865 kPa
Steam rating MSS SP 71

Piezometer

865

Same as Group A, less than 80 see note 18

Same as Group A, less than 80

Angle valve: MSS SP-80


bronze, threaded

Governer & lub oil, circuit


breaker and transformer oil

1040

Seamless copper tubing Type K, ASTM B


88

Same as Group A, less than 80

Globe, angle, and swing check:


MSS SP-80

See Note 9

Oil hose threads: ASME B1.20.7, see Note 14

Transformer oil
Transfer systems

45

System

Max
press
kPa

Pipe

Fittings

Valves (see Notes 15 and 17)

Service air

865

Same as group b. See Note 4

Same as group b

Same as Group A

Brake air

Universal hose coupling: bronze, nfp(a)

Draft tube depression air

t3.20.14

46

Group

Bubbler air lines


O

Governer air

4140

Nitrogen

CO2. See Note 16

Governer air

Hypochlorite solution

Floatwells

7590

Globe valve:

Sch. 80 ASTM A 106 galvanized steel,


threaded

Less than 65: galvanized malleable-iron,

ASTM A 312, Grade TP304, Sch. 40


stainless steel

65 and larger: forged steel 13800 kPa w.o.g.

ASTM A 312, grade tp304, Sch. 40 stainless


steel

ASTM A 403 stainless Type 304 or 316 13800


kPa socket weld

Stainless ball valve, socket weld,


reinforced Teflon seat MSS SP110

PVC. U.S. Dept. of Commerce STD. CS


207. Sch. 80

Same rating and manufacturer as pipe

PVC

Exposed: same as Group B

Exposed: same as Group B

None

Embedded: asbestos cement with neoprene gaskets, ASTM C 248

Embedded: same as pipe

Threaded 4140 kPa w.o.g. Min. ASTM A 105

Bronze, 6900 kPa MSS SP-80

Check valve: bronze, swing 6900 kPa


w.o.g. MSS SP-80

See Note 2

Sleeves

Steel, black. ASTM A 53 Sch. 40

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Notes for Table 13:


1. 865 kPa cast iron flanges with raised face flanges or wafer type valves should be avoided.
2. PVC pipe 15 and larger only is covered under CS 207, smaller sizes should be manufactures standard.
3. Group A copper elbows and all Group E elbows should be long radius or long sweep.
4. Use galvanized steel pipe between compressor and aftercooler (same as Group C) for 65
and under low-pressure air.
5. Welded galvanized pipe should normally be galvanized after fabrication.
6. Full port ball valves are normally available through size 50 when required.
7. Embedded lines open to tailwater or forebay without external provisions for ready shutoff
should be extra-heavy steel (up to 15 wall) from the first valve to a point back in the concrete approximately 1525. Other embedded lines should meet the same requirements
from the first exposed joint back into the concrete at least 460.
8. Once-through air conditioning water should be Group A.
9. For copper oil lines, add separate group with required joints when temperature or pressure exceed soft solder joint rating.
10. For Group A piping 80 and larger, use slip-on welding flanges or pipe and welding neck
flanges or fittings.
11. Use dielectric fittings between ferrous pipe or equipment and copper air and water lines.
12. If specified wall thickness is unavailable, use the next heavier available (60 and larger
butt weld fittings).
13. In drain lines use combination Y and 1/8 bends wherever possible for branches from
horizontal runs.
14. Hose threads should have manufacturers tag showing thread specification.
15. Valve and fitting should normally be same as line size.
16. Refer to National Fire Protection Association requirements for CO2 pipe and fittings.
17. Use rising stem valves unless otherwise indicated with packing and seat materials suitable for service.
18. Piezometer tubing embedded more than 150 may be Type K annealed with bent turns.
19. Piping location terminology
Buried: concealed in soil
Embedded: concealed in concrete
Exposed: accessible
20. Butterfly valves should conform to Sections 5 14, American Water Works Association
(AWWA) Standard C504, modified as appropriate for application. Seats should normally
be Buna-N or equal, be located in the valve body, and field-replaceable.

47

48

ERDC/CERL TR-01-DRAFT

Table 14. Materials selection guidance for fisheries.


Rearing Ponds

Aluminum Alloy, ASTM B 209, Alloy 6061,


Temper T4 (UNS A96061)

Directional Jets

Schedule 40 Aluminum Pipe

Exit Screens

Aluminum Alloy, ASTM B 221, Alloy 6061


(UNS A96061)
Aluminum Alloy, ASTM B 221, Alloy 5086
(UNS A95086)
Aluminum Alloy, ASTM B 221, Alloy 5052,
Anodized (UNS A95052)

Fish-Handling Equipment (Spawning)

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 304


(UNS S30400)

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

49

Table 15. Materials selection guidance for traveling fish screens.


Note: Referenced materials can be replaced with or equals.
Rollers

Alloy Steel, ASTM A 304, Grade 4140H,


Case Hardened (UNS H41400)

Bushings

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type


630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
631 (UNS S17700) (Armco 17-7PH)

Pin Link and Roller Link Plates

Epoxy-Coated C2162H Chain ANSI B29.4

Chain Pins

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276 (UNS


S21800) (Armco NITRONIC 60)

Cotter Pins

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 302


(UNS S30200)

Sprockets

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polymer with


2% Carbon Black (e.g., Holstelen Gur No.
413)

Chair Tracks

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polymer with


2% Carbon Black (e.g., Holstelen Gur No.
413)

Structural Steel

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)

Wire Rope

# Stainless Steel ASTM A 492, Type 300


Series

Bolts

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 193, Grade


B8,(UNS S30400)

Nuts

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 194, Grade 8,


8A (UNS S30400)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 194, Grade 8S,
8SA (UNS S21800) (Armco NITRONIC 60)
where galling is critical

Screen

Polyester Monofilament (PBT)

50

ERDC/CERL TR-01-DRAFT

Table 16. Materials selection guidance for miscellaneous components.


Note: Referenced materials can be replaced with or equals.
R.O. Slide Gate Piston Rods

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668


Steel Bar, ASTM A 108 (Small)
Steel Bar, ASTM A 331 (Large)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705

Superstructure for Power Houses

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS
K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 - UNS K02306)

Slide Gate Discharge Line for


Temperature Control Doors

Cast Iron, ASTM A 48


Aluminum Alloy, ASTM B 209, Alloy 3003,
Temper H14 (UNS A93003)
Aluminum Alloy, ASTM B 221, Alloy 6063,
Temper T5

Heating/Ventilating Louvers

Aluminum Alloy, ASTM B 221, Alloy 6063,


Temper T5
Aluminum Alloy, ASTM B 221, Temper 3003,
Temper H14

Handrailings

Aluminum Tube, ASTM B 210


Aluminum Pipe, ASTM B 241

Floating Mooring Bitts


Posts

Steel Pipe, ASTM A 106, Grade B Schedule


160 (UNS K03006)

Body of Bitts

Steel, ASTM A 36 (UNS K02600)


Filament Reinforced Plastic
*

Grease Lines to Rollers

High Pressure Neoprene Hose


# Stainless Steel Pipe, ASTM A 312, Grade
TP304 (UNS S30400)
* Can be eliminated by using self-lubricating
bushings+

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

51

+ See Tables A-9 and A-10 for properties.


Self-lubricating bushings should be mated
with a shaft material of heat-treated, or medium- to high-strength steel such as Armco
17-4PH (Jones et al. 1999) (Palylyk 1998)
Rollers

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type


XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom 450)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type 630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)

Roller Axles

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type


XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom 450)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type 630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 300
Series
# Stainless Steel ASTM A 314, Type 300
Series

Roller Bushings*

Aluminum Bronze Casting, ASTM B 148,


Copper Alloy UNS No. C95500 (Lubricated)
Bronze Casting, ASTM B 22 Copper Alloy
UNS No. C86300 (Lubricated)
# Stainless Steel Casting, ASTM A 743,
Grade CF-8M (Lubricated) (UNS J92900)
* Material for shaft selection is critical. Can
+
be replaced with self-lubricating bushings
+See Tables A-9 and A-10 for properties.
Self-lubricating bushings should be mated
with a shaft material of heat-treated, or medium- to high-strength steel such as Armco
17-4PH (Jones et al. 1999) (Palylyk 1998)

Floating Bulkheads

Steel ASTM A 36 (vinyl coated) (UNS


K02600)

52

ERDC/CERL TR-01-DRAFT

Water Supply Conduit


Regulating Gate Hoist
Piston Rod for Fish Ladders
Firehose Cabinets

See R.O. Slide Gate Piston Rods


Aluminum Alloy, ASTM B 209, Alloy 5005,
Temper H15 (UNS A95005)
Aluminum Alloy, ASTM B 209, Alloy 6061,
TemperT6 (UNS A96061)

Fish Hauling Trailers Tank Liners

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 167, Type 300


Series or ASTM A 666, Type 300 Series

Drain Line

# Stainless Steel Pipe, ASTM A 312, Grade


TP300 Series (UNS S30453, UNS S30940,
UNS S30909, UNS S30941, UNS S30908,
UNS S31040, UNS S31009, UNS S31041,
UNS S31008, UNS S31653, UNS S31703)

Circulating Water Pipe

# Stainless Steel Pipe, ASTM A 312, Grade


TP300 Series (UNS S30453, UNS S30940,
UNS S30909, UNS S30941, UNS S30908,
UNS S31040, UNS S31009, UNS S31041,
UNS S31008, UNS S31653, UNS S31703)

Waterstops

Natural Rubber
Polyvinyl Chloride

Stainless Steel Wire Rope

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 492, Type 300


Series

Wire Rope Sheaves and Drums

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 167, Type 300


Series
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 240, Type 300
Series **
Steel Castings, ASTM A 148 (UNS J31575)
** For wet locations; carbon steel drums
should be coated with Elastuff 504

Vertical Lift Gates


Wheel Bushings*

Bronze Casting, ASTM B 22, Copper Alloy


UNS No. C86300
* Can be replaced with self-lubricating bush+
ings
+ See Tables A-9 and A-10 for properties.
Self-lubricating bushings should be mated
with a shaft material of heat-treated, or medium- to high-strength steel such as Armco
17-4PH (Jones et al. 1999) (Palylyk 1998)

Axles

Steel Forgings, ASTM A 668

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

53

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 304


(UNS S30400)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A , Type XM25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom 450)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom 450)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type 630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
Cables

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 492, Type 302


# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 492, Type 304

Seal Heater Pipe

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 312, Grade


TP304 (UNS S30400)

Wheels

Steel, ASTM A 572 (Grade 42 - UNS


K02303, Grade 50 - UNS K02304, Grade 60
- UNS K02305, Grade 65 - UNS K02306)
Steel Casting, ASTM A 148 (UNS J31575)

Bolts and Cap Screws

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 320, Type B8


(UNS S30400)

Nuts

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 194, Grade 8S,


8SA (UNS S21800) (Armco NITRONIC 60)

Roller Chain for Roller Gates

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type


XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom
450)
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 564, Type
630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type XM-25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom 450)
# Stainless Steel Forgings, ASTM A 705,
Type 630 (UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 693, Type XM25 (UNS S45000) (Carpenter Custom 450)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 693, Type 630
(UNS S17400) (Armco 17-4PH)

Deep Well Drainage Pump Shafts

# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 276, Type


303
# Stainless Steel Bar, ASTM A 276, Type
416

54

ERDC/CERL TR-01-DRAFT

Sewage Pumps
Impellers

Bronze

Fasteners

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 193, Grade B8


(UNS S30400) (Bolts)
# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 194, Grade 8
(UNS S30400)

Water Pumps
Casings

Steel

Shafts

# Stainless Steel Forging, ASTM A 473,


Type 416 (UNS S41600)

I ntermediate Shafts

Cold Rolled Carbon Steel

Impellers

Bronze
Steel

Bowls

Steel

Suction Bell

Steel

Column

Weld Steel Plate

Nuts and Bolts


Nuts

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 194, Grade B8S


or Austenitic # Stainless Steel (UNS
S21800)

Bolts

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 193, Grade 8S

(UNS S21800) or Austenitic Stainless Steel


Nuts and bolts should be of different steels
to avoid galling and/or have a minimum
hardness difference of 50 points on the
Brinell scale, 3000 kg test load.

Sluice Gates

Cast Iron with Aluminum Bronze Seating


Surfaces

Floating Orifice Gates and Weir Gate

# Stainless Steel, ASTM A 276, Type 410


(UNS S41000)
Isolate stainless steel from structural steel
using Oilon Pv80

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

4 Summary and Recommendations


Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works projects can often benefit from the application of new generations of advanced engineering materials that are continuously
being brought to market. However, in order for the Corps to realize the maximum life-cycle cost benefits while ensuring project reliability and safety, projectlevel engineering and operations personnel need specialized technical guidance
on application-specific material selection. This document provides technical information and application guidance for two key types of materials used in Civil
Works projects stainless steels and bushing materials.
Typical mechanical property data were presented for 17 stainless steels that are
becoming more available for Civil Works applications. While stainless steels are
viable options for many lock, dam, and hydroelectric plant applications, no single
stainless steel available exhibits the desired mechanical and corrosion resistance
properties for all applications. Alloys must be carefully selected and specified for
a particular application, and the components must be properly designed and fabricated. General guidelines for selections of materials for specific components for
locks, dams, and hydroelectric plants have been provided in this report.
Also presented in this document were properties data and related technical information on applications in which self-lubricated bushings may successfully be
used. This information may be used to select the proper self-lubricating bushing
type for a specific application. Regardless of the application, it is recommended
that self-lubricating bushings be (1) sealed from the environment when conditions require it, as is any conventional greased bushing, and (2) installed with a
hard chrome-plated shaft material of heated-treated steel, or medium- to highstrength steel such as 17-4 PH.

55

56

ERDC/CERL TR-01-DRAFT

References
Armco 17-4 PH Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel Wire and Bar. 1983. Armco, Inc.
Armco NITRONIC 60 Stainless Steel. 1984(a). Armco, Inc.
Armco Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels. 1984(b). Armco, Inc.
ASM Handbook, v.20: Materials Selection and Design. 1998. ASM International.
Carpenter Custom 450. 1971. Carpenter Technology Corporation.
Carpenter Stainless Steels. 1999. Carpenter Specialty Alloys.
Department of the Army, Office of the Chief of Engineers. 1966 (August). Design of Spillway
Tainter Gates, Engineer Manual 110-2-2702. Washington, DC.
Jones, J. A., R. A. Palylyk, P. Willis, and R. A. Weber. 1999 (December). Greaseless Bushings for
Hydropower Applications: Program, Testing, and Results, U.S. Army Construction
Engineering Research Laboratory Technical Report 99/104.
Kamp, M. E., and R. J. Schmitt. 1966. Selection and Application of Stainless Steels for Corrosive
Environments, reprint of paper presented at the First University of Florida Symposium
on Methods of Materials Selection, Gainesville, Florida.
Kumar, A, Ali A. Odeh, and James R. Myers. 1989 (December). Mechanical Properties and

Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steels for Locks, Dams, and Hydroelectric Plant
Applications, U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory Technical Report
EM-6.

Lubricants and Hydraulic Fluids. 1999 (February). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Engineer
Manual No. 1110-2-1424.

Metals Handbook, 2nd Edition. 1998. ASM International.


Nickel Alloy Steels Data Book. 1965. The International Nickel Company, Inc.
Palylyk, R. A. 1998 (March). Mechanical Testing of Self Lubricating Bushings in the Presence of
Foreign Debris. Powertech, Surrey, B.C.
Pecknar, D., and I. M. Bernstein. 1977. Handbook of Stainless Steels. McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc.

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

Return on Investment Case Study: Material Selection and Corrosion Analysis. 1980. U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers Information Exchange Bulletin, vol R3, no. 2.
Schultz, R.W. 1997 (August). Olmsted Prototype: Hydraulically Operated Navigable Pass Wicket
Dam, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Louisville District.
Schumacher, W.J. 1986. A New Stainless Alloy for the Hydroelectric Industry, paper presented
at the ASME International Symposium on Hydropower Fluid Machinery, Anaheim,
California.
Schumacher, W.J. 1977. Wear and Galling Can Knock Out Equipment, Chemical Engineering,
Reprint, May 9, 1977.
Segan, E.G., J. Bukowski, H. Uyeda, and A. Kumar. 1982 (March). Wrought Stainless Steel
Fasteners for Civil Works Applications, U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research
Laboratory Technical Report M-306.

Source Book on Stainless Steels. 1971. American Society for Metals.


Stainless Steel Selecting Alloy Data Fabrication. 1987. Carpenter Technology Corporation.
Working Data: Carpenter Stainless and Heat Resisting Steels. 1965. Carpenter Technology
Corporation.

57

58

ERDC/CERL TR-01-DRAFT

Appendix A: Materials Properties Tables


Table A-1. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel and stainless steels.*
General Corrosion
Pit Depth, mils
Rate, mpy**
Maximum
Material
Carbon Steel
1.2
55
Type 410 Stainless
+
27
Type 302 Stainless
0
0
* Based on 8 years of exposure to Mississippi River water at Winfield, MO.
** mpy is mils (thousandths of an inch) per year.
+ Loss was totally due to pitting attack.

Pit Depth, mils


Average
42
16
0

Table A-2. Nominal compositions of stainless steels for lock, dam, and hydroelectric plant applications.*
Alloy
302
303
304
308
316
NITRONIC 60
410
416
431
Alloy
17-4PH
Custom 450

Mn

Si

Fe

Other

0.15

2.00

1.00

0.045

0.030

Bal.

0.15

2.00

1.00

0.20

0.15

Bal.

0.6 Mo (optional)

0.08

2.00

1.00

0.045

0.030

Bal.

0.08

2.00

1.00

0.045

0.030

Bal.

0.08

2.00

1.00

0.045

0.030

Bal.

2.00-3.00 Mo

8.00-9.00

0.10

7.009.00

3.504.50

Bal.

0.08-0.18 N

0.15

1.00

1.00

0.040

0.030

Bal.

0.15

1.25

1.00

0.060

0.15

Bal.

0.60 Mo (optional)

1.25-2.50

0.20

1.00

1.00

0.040

0.030

Bal.

Other

3.00-5.00
0.15-0.45 Nb + Ta
0.50-1.00 Cu
1.25-1.75 Cu
8xC (min) Nb

Cr
17.0019.00
17.0019.00
18.0020.00
19.0021.00
16.0018.00
16.0018.00
11.5013.50
12.0014.00
15.0017.00
Cr
15.0017.50

Ni
8.0010.00
8.0010.00
8.0010.50
10.0012.00
10.0014.00

14.0016.00

Ni

Mn

3.00-5.00

0.07

1.00

5.0010.00

0.05

16.006.50-7.75
0.09
18.00
11.50CA-6NM
3.50-4.50
0.06
14.00
18.008.00CF-8
0.08
21.00
11.00
15.00Gall-Tough
4.00-6.00
18.00
0.15
Carpenter
16.500.50-2.50
0.15
18-2-12
19.00
11.0010.75Custom 465
0.02
12.50
11.25
* Values expressed in weight percent
Maximum value except where otherwise noted
Minimum
17-7PH

Si

Fe

1.00

0.040

0.030

Bal.

1.00

1.00

0.030

0.030

Bal.

1.00

1.00

0.040

0.030

Bal.

0.75-1.50 Al

1.00

1.00

0.040

0.030

Bal.

0.40-1.00 Mo

1.50

2.00

0.040

0.040

Bal.

4.006.00
11.014.00

3.004.00

0.040

0.040

Bal.

Nitrogen 0.08-0.20

1.00

0.060

0.030

Bal.

Nitrogen 0.20-0.45

0.25

0.25

0.015

0.010

Bal.

Ti 1.50-1.80
Mb 0.75-1.25

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

59

Table A-3. Typical mechanical property data for stainless steel.


Impact Strength
UTS
0.2% YS
Hard(room temperature)
Alloy
Form
Condition
(ksi)
(ksi)
% E % RA
ness
(ft-lbs)
UTS=Ultimate Tensile Strength, YS=Yield Strength, E=Elongation, RA=Reduction in Area, Bhn=Brinell Hardness
Number, Rb=Rockwell B Hardness, Rc=Rockwell C Hardness, CD=Cold Drawn, SA=Solution Annealed,
WQ=Water Quenched, AC=Air Cooled, OQ=Oil Quenched.
Bar
Annealed
85
35
60
70
Bhn 150
Izod 110
302
Plate
Annealed
90
35
60
70
Rb 80
Izod 110
Wire
Annealed
90
35
60
70
Rb 83
Izod 110
303
Bar
Annealed
85
35
50
55
Bhn 160
Izod 80
Bar
Annealed
85
35
60
71
Bhn 149
Izod 110
304
Tube
Annealed
85
35
50
71
Rb 80
Izod 110
Plate
Annealed
82
35
60
71
Bhn 145
Izod 110
Bar
Annealed
85
30
55
65
Rb 80
Izod 110
308
Wire1
Annealed
95
60
50
Izod 110
Bar
Annealed
80
30
60
70
Rb 78
Izod 110
316
Tube
Annealed
85
35
60
70
Rb 79
Izod 110
UTS
0.2% YS
HardImpact Strength
Alloy
Form
Condition
(ksi)
(ksi)
% E % RA
ness
(ft-lbs)
Annealed
103
60
64
74
Rb 95
Charpy 240
NITRO
Bar
10% CD
120
91
51
68
Rc 24
NIC 60
40% CD
195
153
20
57
Rc 38
Annealed
75
40
35
68
Rb 82
Izod 85
Bar
OQ + 1 hr/300oF
195
150
15
55
Bhn 390
Izod 35
410
OQ + 1 hr 1100oF
125
100
22
65
Bhn 262
Izod 35
Plate
Annealed
70
35
30
68
Bhn 150
Izod 35
Annealed
75
40
30
60
Rb 82
Izod 20-6
416
Bar
OQ + 1 hr/300oF
195
150
10
40
Rc 41
Izod 20
o
125
100
17
53
Rc 26
Izod 28
OQ + 1 hr 1100 F
Annealed
125
95
20
55
Bhn 260
Izod 50
431
Bar
OQ + 1 hr/300oF
198
149
16
55
Bhn 415
Izod 40
o
140
115
19
57
Bhn 302
Izod 48
OQ + 1 hr 1100 F
17-4PH
Bar
A
147
130
18
59
Rc 34
Charpy 47
H900
200
185
14
50
Rc 44
Charpy 47
H1025
170
165
15
56
Rc 38
Charpy 15
H1075
165
150
16
58
Rc 36
Charpy 40
UTS
0.2% YS
HardImpact Strength
Alloy
Form
Condition
%
E
%
RA
(ksi)
(ksi)
ness
(ft-lbs)
H1100
150
135
17
58
Rc 35
Charpy 45
H1150
145
125
19
60
Rc 33
Charpy 50
SA
141
118
13
50
Rc 28
Charpy 95
Aged at 850oF 2
196
186
14
54
Rc 44
Charpy 20
Custom
Bar
Aged at 900oF 2
195
186
14
55
Rc 42
Charpy 41
450
Aged at 1000oF 2
173
169
17
63
Rc 39
Charpy 51
Aged at 1150oF 2
142
91
23
69
Rc 28
Charpy 97
UTS
0.2% YS
Impact Strength
Alloy
Form
Condition
%E
% RA Hard(ksi)
(ksi)
ness
(ft-lbs)
RH950
185
150
6
10
Rc 41
17-7PH
Bar
TH1050
170
140
6
25
Rc 38
WQ from above
CF-8
Cast
77
37
55
Bhn 140
Charpy 74++
o
1400 F
AC from above
CA120
100
24
60
Bhn 269
Charpy 70
Cast
1750; tempered
6NM
o
at 1100 F
GallBar,
annealed
145
53
59
64
Rb 93
Tough
1 rd
Carp
Bar,
annealed
120
65
65
75
Rb 96
Charpy 240
18-2-12
1 rd
Custom
Bar
Annealed/CT
138
99
20
80
HRC 28
465
1
2
Soft temper; Aging time of 4 hours for all temperatures; ++ Charpy keyhole notch, all other Charpy impact
data is V-notch [data compiled from Carpenter Stainless Steels]

60

ERDC/CERL TR-01-DRAFT

Table A-4. Values for the currents in selected stainless steels.

Stainless
Steel

Condition*

Passivation
Potential,
Volt vs. SCE**

Critical current
density for
passivation,
amp/cm2

Passive Current Density,


amp/cm2

Transpassive
Potential,
Volt vs. SCE

Type 304

Annealed +
10% CW

-0.347

4.28 x 10-4

3.27 x 10-6

+0.89

Type 410

Annealed

-0.376

1.49 x 10-2

5.27 x 10-6

+0.81

-0.256

3.68 x 10

-5

1.92 x 10

-6

+0.92

-5

2.00 x 10

-6

+0.87

Custom 450

SA
o

Custom 450

Aged at 1150

-0.277

2.63 x 10

17-4PH

Condition Ao

-0.269

1.60 x 10-4

2.02 x 10-6

+0.89

-0.312

-5

-6

+0.88

17-4PH

H1150

8.75 x 10

2.53 x 10

-4

-6

NITRONIC 60
Annealed
-0.346
3.63 x 10
1.58 x 10
+0.92
*See Table A-3 for condition abbreviations. All samples are deaerated in sulfuric acid at ambient temperature.
**
Saturated calomel electrode.
Table A-5. Galvanic series for selected alloys.
Alloy

Condition*

Potential, Volt vs. SCE**

Initial Driving Voltage of Alloy


Coupled to A36 Steel, Volt

NITRONIC 60

Annealed

-0.327

0.247

Type 304

Annealed + 10%
CW

-0.328

0.246

Custom 450

SA

-0.330

0.244

-0.362

0.212

Custom 450

Aged at 1150 F

17-4PH

H1150

-0.384

0.190

17-4PH

Condition A

-0.396

0.178

Type 410

Annealed

-0.488

0.086

ASTM A 36
Normalized
-0.574
0.000
* See Table A-3 for condition abbreviations. All samples are 0.5 M sodium chloride solution at ambient temperature.
** Saturated calomel electrode.
Table A-6. Galvanic corrosion current densities for ASTM A 36 steel when coupled to
an equal area of stainless steel.
Stainless Steel

Condition

Galvanic Corrosion Current


Density for A36 Steel,
2
ampere/cm

NITRONIC 60

Annealed

1.4 x 10-5

Type 304

Annealed + 10% CW

2.1 x 10-5

Custom 450

SA

2.0 x 10-5

Custom 450

Aged at 1150oF

1.6 x 10-5

17-4PH

H1150

1.9 x 10-5

17-4PH

Condition A

2.2 x 10-5

Type 410
Annealed
2.5 x 10-5
* See Table A-3 for condition abbreviations. All samples exposed to aerated 0.5M sodium
chloride solution at ambient temperatures.

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

61

Table A-7. Ranking of stainless steels compared to a low-alloy carbon steel.*


Ranking

Stainless Steel

Condition**

NITRONIC 60

Annealed

17-4PH

H1150

Brinell Hardness No.

Erosion Rate, inch/year

201

0.4

388

1.2

Custom 450

Aged at 1150 F

320

1.3

17-4PH

Condition A

321

1.6

Type 304

Annealed +10%
CW

197

1.7

Custom 450

SA

270

1.9

AISI 4130 Steel

Normalized

286

2.5

8
Type 410
Annealed
223
* Based on cavitation resistance according to ASTM G 32 testing.
** See Table A-3 for condition abbreviations.

3.8

Table A-8. Threshold galling stresses for stainless steels.1


Block Material

Button Material and Threshold Galling Stress, ksi


Type
410

Type
416

Type
303

Type
304

Type
316

174PH

NITRONIC 60

Type 4102

50+

Type 416

13

24

42

50+

Type 303

50+

Type 304

24

50+

Type 316

42

38

17-4PH

50+

NITRONIC 60

50+

50+

50+

50+

38

50+

50+

Results in ksi based on "Button and Block" galling tests.


Hardened and stress relieved to Bhn 352.

50+ indicates that no galling occurred at 50,000 psi.


2

Note: Gall-Tough Stainless has shown excellent wear resistance when it is self-mated. In testing it has
not shown visible galling damage at 15 ksi (following ASTM G 83), but has not been tested at higher
stresses (Carpenter Stainless Steels, 1999).

62

ERDC/CERL TR-01-DRAFT

Table A-9. Properties of self-lubricating bushings.


Type

Static

Dynamic

Wear

COF*

COF*

Rate (mils/100hrs)**

Devatex I (edge)

0.049

0.038

0.113

Devatex I (Wet)

0.113

0.094

1.214

Devatex I (Dry)

0.061

0.047

0.017

Delrin AF 100 (Edge)

0.073

0.062

0.216

Delrin AF 100 (Wet)

0.081

0.075

0.047

Delrin AF 100 (Dry)

0.066

0.053

0.552

Fiberglide (edge)

0.064

0.051

-0.156#

Fiberglide (Wet)

0.048

0.039

0.186

Fiberglide (Dry)

0.0089

0.068

-0.161#

Lubron TF (edge)

0.058

0.046

0.146

Lubron TF (wet)

0.059

0.049

0.232

Lubron TF (dry)

0.072

0.059

0.087

Karon V (edge)

0.045

0.034

0.101

Karon V (wet)

0.068

0.06

0.268

Karon V (dry)

0.046

0.036

0.075

Orkot Ltd TXM-M (edge)

0.076

0.058

0.592

Orkot Ltd TXM-M (wet)

0.068

0.06

0.504

Orkot Ltd TXM-M (dry)

0.088

0.061

0.199

Karon V (edge)

0.046

0.040

0.202

Karon V (wet)

0.046

0.042

0.587

Karon V (dry)

0.032

0.026

0.001

Karon F (edge)

0.221

0.052

0.043

Karon F (wet)

0.053

0.049

0.325

Karon F (dry)

0.061

0.053

1.169

Tenmat T814 (edge)

0.081

0.054

0.319

Tenmat T814 (wet)

0.061

0.038

0.023

Tenmat T814 (dry)

0.401

0.038

0.334

Tenmat T12 (wet)

0.276

0.228

0.098

Tenmat T12 (dry)

0.273

0.214

16.562

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

63

Table A-9: Properties of self-lubricating bushings (continued).


Type

Static

Dynamic

Wear

COF*

COF*

Rate (mils/100hrs)**

Thordon TRAXL HPSXL (edge)

0.058

0.047

0.412

Thordon TRAXL HPSXL (wet)

0.076

0.057

0.564

Thordon TRAXL HPSXL (dry)

0.092

0.073

0.013

Thordon TRAXL SXL (edge)

0.131

0.107

0.197

Thordon TRAXL SXL (dry)

0.168

0.103

0.426

Deva Metal (wet)

0.302

0.241

11.167

Deva Metal (dry)

0.256

0.212

44.475

Thordon TRAXL SXL (edge)

0.131

0.107

0.197

Thordon TRAXL SXL (wet)

0.113

0.078

0.826

Thordon TRAXL SXL (dry)

0.168

0.103

0.426

Devatex II (edge)

0.057

0.048

0.189

Devatex II (wet)

0.053

0.047

0.221

Devatex II (dry)

0.067

0.05

0.146

Bronze w/ water (Straight Journal)

0.223

0.19

0.595

Bronze w/ Oil (Taper Journal)

0.185

0.098

0.097

Bronze w/ oil (Straight Journal)

0.16

0.127

0.983

Bronze w/ grease (Taper Journal)

0.161

0.129

1.458

Bronze w/ grease (Straight Journal) 0.161

0.142

0.69

-For reference-

Coefficient of friction calculated from the average of the peak values measured during the 80th-120th
hours of the wear test
**
Slope of the least squares curve fit of test data measured during the 80th-120th hours of the wear
test.

Tested at 8,000 PSI


#Maybe measurement error due to swelling.
[Compiled from Jones et al. 1999]

The test setup consisted of a stainless steel sleeve upon which a radial static load
of 3300 psi and a variable superimposed load of 1000 psi were applied by hydraulic cylinders. The radial load was applied with continuous minor oscillations of
+1 degree at 2 cycles/second interrupted by a major oscillation (+15 degrees at
0.1 cycles/second) every 15 minutes. Two seconds before ending the major oscillation, the variable load was removed and conditions were recorded. Two seconds after the major oscillation, the recorder was again placed on standby.
Therefore, the data was recorded in 4-second intervals. Midway through the 15minute minor oscillation period, the recorder was activated for five seconds to
record the effect of the superimposed variable load. This test was performed in

64

ERDC/CERL TR-01-DRAFT

air, submerged in distilled water, and edge loaded. The edge pressure test was
run in the same manner as the wet and dry tests except a double taper was
ground into the center of the test sleeve to simulate a misaligned shaft.
Table A-10. Properties of self-lubricating bushings in the presence of foreign debris.1
Type

Dry Test

After addition of Wet Slurry3

COF2

COF2

Average Wear Rate(mils/hr)

TENMAT T814

0.05

0.048

0.0023

KARON V

0.05

0.025

0.0052

THORDON SXL

0.0163

Debris made up of 100 gm river sand passed through a 425 u mesh and 25 gm iron oxide.

After 20 hours, Dynamic Coefficient of friction

Slurry created by addition of distilled water to debris.

[data compiled from Palylyk, 1998 (March)]

The dry test applied a radial load of 3,300 psi with a superimposed dynamic load
of 1000 psi to a shaft rotated +1 degree continuously at 2 Hz. Every 15 minutes
the radial dynamic load was paused and the shaft rotated +15 degrees at 0.1 Hz
with only the static radial load applied. The measurements of the static load,
dynamic load to rotate shaft, and wear were recorded during the major swing.
Halfway through the test, the wet slurry was added, and measurements were
carried out in the same fashion as the dry tests. Grooves cut in the bushings allowed the slurry to enter into the friction zone. The tests were run for a minimum of 120 hours.
Table A-11. Typical composition ranges for unalloyed cast irons.
Type

Composition, %
TC*

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

Mo

Cu

Ce

Mg

Gray iron

3.253.50

0.500.90

1.802.30

0.050.45

0.050.20

0.050.10

0.150.40

0.12
max

0.15
max

Malleable

0.252.55

0.350.55

1.401.50

0.040.07

0.050.30

0.030.10

0.030.40

0.03
max

0.050.07

iron
Ductile
iron

3.603.80

0.151.00

1.802.80

0.030.07

0.050.20

0.010.10

0.151.00

0.03
max

0.002
max

0.0050.20**

0.030.06

*TC, total carbon


**Optional
[From Metals Handbook, 2nd Edition, page 314]

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

65

Table A-12. Mechanical properties of ductile and gray iron.


Specification
number

Grade or Class

Hardness
(min), HB

Tensile Strength
(min), MPa

Elongation in
50mm (min), %

ASTM A 48

40

235

293

**

50

262

362

**

60-40-18

414

18*

120-90-02

827

2*

Gray iron
ASTM A 48
Gray iron
ASTM A 536
Ductile iron
ASTM A 536
Ductile iron
*

Determined using a standard specimen taken from a separately cast test block, as set forth in the
applicable specification.
** Elongation at fracture is on the order of 0.6%.
[Compiled from Metals Handbook, 2nd Edition]

Form Approved
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2. REPORT TYPE

01-2002

3. DATES COVERED (From - To)

Final

4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

Advanced Materials Selection Guide for Lock, Dam, and Hydroelectric Plant Components
5b. GRANT NUMBER
5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER
6. AUTHOR(S)

5d. PROJECT NUMBER

Ashok Kumar, L.D. Stephenson, and Paul Willis

CW
5e. TASK NUMBER
5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

33238
7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), Construction Engineering
Research Laboratory (CERL), P.O. Box 9005, Champaign, IL 61826-9005

8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT


NUMBER

ERDC/CERL TR-02-7

U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, P.O. Box 2870, Portland, OR 97208-2870

9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

10. SPONSOR/MONITORS ACRONYM(S)

HQUSACE
ATTN: CECW-EI
7701 Telegraph Road
Alexandria, VA 22315

11. SPONSOR/MONITORS REPORT


NUMBER(S)

TR HPMS-02-1

12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

Copies are available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.
14. ABSTRACT

Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works projects can often benefit from the application of new generations of advanced engineering materials that are continuously being brought to market. However, in order for the Corps to realize the maximum life-cycle cost benefits
while ensuring project reliability and safety, project-level engineering and operations personnel need specialized technical guidance on
application-specific material selection. This document provides technical information and application guidance for two key types of
materials used in Civil Works projects stainless steels and bushing materials.
Typical mechanical property data are presented for 17 stainless steels that are becoming more available for Civil Works applications,
and general material selection guidelines for specific components of locks, dams, and hydroelectric plants are provided. Also presented are properties data and related technical information on applications in which self-lubricated bushings may successfully be used.
Regardless of the application, it is recommended that self-lubricating bushings be (1) sealed from the environment when conditions require it, as is any conventional greased bushing, and (2) installed with a hard chrome-plated shaft material of heated-treated steel, or
medium- to high-strength steel such as 17-4 PH.
15. SUBJECT TERMS

civil works structures


materials selection

life-cycle cost analysis


self-lubricating bushings

16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF:


a. REPORT

Unclassified

b. ABSTRACT

Unclassified

locks and dams


stainless steel

17. LIMITATION
OF ABSTRACT

18. NUMBER
OF PAGES

c. THIS PAGE

Unclassified

SAR

67

19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

Ashok Kumar
19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code)

(217) 352-6511 x6758


Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)
Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18