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www.elsevier.com/locate/flowmeasinst

annealing: Application to real two-phase gasoil flow imaging

C. Ortiz-Alemn, R. Martin

Instituto Mexicano del Petrleo, Eje Central L Crdenas 152, Mxico, DF, 07730, Mexico

Received 15 October 2004; received in revised form 28 January 2005; accepted 14 February 2005

Abstract

In this work we apply a highly optimized simulated annealing (SA) inversion method to the reconstruction of permittivity images from real

two-phase gasoil flow electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) data. We test the SA inversion method using several flow regimes generated

by varying gas and oil flow rates in a test loop facility. The SA-based permittivity inversions have some advantages over other reconstruction

approaches based on linear least-squares inversion: they can find good solutions starting with poor initial models, can easily implement

complex a priori information, and do not introduce smoothing effects in the final permittivity distribution model. A major disadvantage

comes from the fact that SA is computationally very intensive and leads to relatively slow reconstructions when calculation of the forward

problem is not very fast. In this work we employ a linearized and numerically improved forward model based on the use of a sensitivity

matrix. We find this novel approach to be faster and more accurate than traditional linear methods.

2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Capacitance tomography; Simulated annealing; Image reconstruction; Finite volume method; Sensitivity matrix; Gasoil flows

1. Introduction

Tomography methods are mainly employed for obtaining

estimated images of a cross section of an object. A

number of new tomography methods aimed at industrial

processes have emerged, collectively known as process

tomography [1]. The main goal of process tomography

methods, which started to develop in the mid-1980s, is to

produce an image of the phase or component distribution

in an industrial process using only external sensors and

without causing any perturbation to it. Examples of suitable

processes are those occurring in mixing or stirring vessels,

fluidized bed reactors, separator tanks, or a pipeline carrying

multiphase flow.

There is a whole range of principles and techniques

that can be exploited in process tomography, including

electrical methods based on impedance measurement,

ultrasound, magnetic resonance, optical methods and

Corresponding author.

0955-5986/$ - see front matter 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2005.02.014

Generally speaking, ionizing radiation methods produce

images with the highest definition, but are relatively

slow to achieve. On the other hand, electrical methods

yield low-resolution images but are much faster, robust

and relatively inexpensive. In particular with regard to

electrical impedance tomography, or electrical tomography

for short, there has been a very noticeable progress in the

last few years. This type of tomography has two main

modalities: capacitance and resistance tomography. In a

capacitance tomography system [25], normally used with

mixtures where the continuous phase is non-conducting, the

sensor employed is made of a circular array of electrodes

distributed around the cross-section to be examined, and

the capacitance between all the different electrode-pair

combinations is measured. With the help of a computer and a

suitable image reconstruction algorithm, this information is

used to create a map showing the variation of the dielectric

constant (or relative permittivity) inside the sensor area,

thus providing an indication of the physical distribution of

the various components of the mixture. In this particular

158

case, the electrodes can be located on the outside of a nonconducting pipe, in order to simplify sensor construction

and avoid direct contact with the process fluids (Fig. 1). A

second external grounded metallic pipe serves as an electric

screen and to provide mechanical resistance.

In principle, ECT has important applications in multiphase flow measurement, particularly gasoil two-phase

flow, which often occurs in many oil wells. Additionally,

ECT has potential applications to imaging, monitoring and

controlling numerous industrial multiphase processes.

The value of the mutual capacitances is a complex nonlinear function of the conductor system geometry, and of

the spatial distribution of the dielectric constant or relative

permittivity of the dielectric medium. In the case of the ECT

sensor, the geometry of the electrodes, that of the pipe, and

the value of the dielectric constant of the latter, are all fixed.

Therefore, it can be said that the mutual capacitances are

a function only of the spatial distribution of the dielectric

constant inside the sensor, (x, y). The use of the cylindrical

end guards (Fig. 1) and the assumption that the phase (and

thus the permittivity) distribution does not change too much

in the axial direction, allows the sensor to be represented by

a two-dimensional (2-D) model [6].

The problem of calculating the mutual capacitances

corresponding to a specific permittivity distribution inside

the sensor is referred to as the forward problem. The problem

of estimating what is the spatial permittivity distribution

inside the sensor that corresponds to a specific set of mutual

capacitance values is referred to as the inverse problem,

and is the problem that image reconstruction methods must

address and solve.

However, so far the main limiting factor to the practical

application of ECT has been the lack of fidelity or

accuracy of the images obtained using the available image

reconstruction methods [7]. Simple direct methods like

linear back-projection (LBP) yield relatively poor images

that only provide a qualitative indication of the component

distribution inside the sensor. On the other hand, more

sophisticated methods, based on iterative local optimization

techniques, generally require one or more regularization

parameters whose optimal value depends precisely on the

(unknown) image to be reconstructed, apart from the fact

that the regularization employed has the effect of smoothing

these methods generally produce distorted images, because

the regularization has a smoothing effect on the obtained

permittivity. If the regularization is too strong the smoothing

effect will occur, and if it is too weak the method can become

unstable and/or not converge to the desired solution. Most of

these problems are related to the fact that local optimization

algorithms, during their search, explore only a relatively

small sector of the solution domain, restricted to the vicinity

of the initial guess. The most used methods in this category

are least-squares linear inversion and techniques that utilize

the gradient of the objective function, like the steepestdescent and the conjugate-gradient methods. In general,

local search methods exploit the scarce information derived

from the comparison of a small number of models, thus

avoiding an extensive search in the whole model space [8].

Thus, better and more accurate image reconstruction

methods are still being developed in the context of this

application.

On the other hand, global optimization methods, like

SA, explore the whole solution domain during the inversion

process. They carry out an extensive scan within the model

space. In this way, despite the existence of partial solutions

to the problem, there is a greater possibility that the final

solution corresponds to the best fit between the observed and

the synthetic data. This type of method, contrary to local

techniques, does not require the information provided by

the derivatives of the objective function. Global optimization

algorithms use stochastic criteria in order to simultaneously

explore all the solution space in search of the optimal model.

The best known of global methods is Monte Carlo, which

performs a purely random and unbiased search. In other

words, when generating each new model, it does not take

advantage of the information obtained from the previously

evaluated models [9]. The unguided randomness is the most

characteristic feature of this method, which distinguishes

it from the rest of the global methods. Among the global

optimization techniques, there are also the methods using

SA and genetic algorithms (GA). Both were conceived as

analogies of optimization systems occurring in nature. GA

emulates the mechanisms of biological evolution while SA

is based on thermodynamics. Both methods are inherently

non-linear and, therefore, lend themselves naturally to

their application in capacitance tomography, a non-linear

problem.

2. Inversion by simulated annealing (SA)

The SA method is an analogy to the thermodynamic

process of crystallization. A mineral fluid that cools slowly

until it reaches a low energy state, gives rise to the formation

of well defined crystals. If, on the contrary, the substance

leaves its thermal equilibrium state with a sudden or partial

cooling, the resulting crystal will have many defects, or

the substance may even form a glass, characterized by

its meta-stable molecular disorder. This concept is used in

159

useful models or configurations.

The atoms of each molecular configuration are equivalent

to the model parameters in the inverse problem (i.e., the

permittivity of the various image pixels). The system energy

for such configuration is related to the energy function

associated with the set of parameters involved in the model.

A least squares solution can be achieved by minimising this

energy function which is defined as the difference between

the observed and synthetic data:

m

E=

k=1

m

(1)

(ckobs )2

k=1

capacitances, ckobs are the measured capacitances and ckcalc

are the ones calculated by solving the forward problem for a

given permittivity distribution .

The method of SA has three basic components [10]: an

energy (or cost, or misfit) function, an order function (the

Metropolis criterion), and a set of parameters that control

the temperature for each model parameter. The process

consists of three nested cycles (Fig. 2). The external cycle

(3) regulates the system temperature. Every time a cycle

is completed, the temperature for each parameter decreases

as its initial temperature To is multiplied by a constant

factor RT . Usually, RT is slightly lower than 1 to allow a

slow and gradual cooling process. The intermediate cycle

(2) generates a set of constants K i associated with each

parameter. The said constants determine the change that

each parameter may experience. In the inner cycle (1),

the parameter values are perturbed by multiplying each

parameter by the product of its corresponding K i times a

randomly chosen number (Rand) between 1 and 1. The

synthetic response of the current model is calculated and

the change E in the energy function associated with the

new parameter configuration is evaluated. This shift causes

a change E in the systems total energy. If E is less than

or equal to zero, the change in the parameter is accepted

and the resulting configuration is considered as the new

current configuration. When there is an increase in the

system energy (E is greater than zero), the probability

P of acceptance or rejection for the parameter change is

determined, according to the Metropolis criterion [11], as

P(E) = eE/T

(2)

the stochastic process.

In order to decide whether or not a change that produces

an increase in the system energy is accepted, a random

number between zero and one is generated, which is then

compared with the value of the probability corresponding to

E. If the said random number is greater, the parameter shift

is not accepted and the configuration that existed before the

shift is maintained. Repeating this procedure continuously,

The external cycle (3) regulates the system temperature T (after every

cycle is completed) by decreasing T for each parameter by a factor RT .

The intermediate cycle (2) provides a set of constants K i associated with

each parameter. This set of constants determines the change applied to

each parameter. The inner cycle (1) perturbs the current parameters by

multiplying them by their related K i constants and random constants lying

between 1 and 1. Then, as being discussed in the text, the Metropolis

criterion accepts or rejects the new parameters according to a probability

function P.

equilibrium (at a fixed temperature T ) is simulated. In order

to reach the systems base state, that is to say, the state

of lowest energy and highest order, the temperature for

each parameter must be reduced very slowly, simulating a

quasi-static process. This means that, during the cooling,

the system must experience a series of states infinitesimally

separated from the state of thermal equilibrium.

The three cycles are repeated, while the temperature

of the process decreases progressively. As the temperature

diminishes, the parameter variations are smaller and smaller.

In this way, the search in the solutions domain tends to

confine itself towards the models associated with the global

minimum of the energy function.

3. Linearized forward problem solution

In order to get a fast linearized version of the

forward problem, we made use of a recently introduced

approach [13]. A sensitivity matrix is computed as

Cik Ci(emp)

Ci(full) Ci(emp)

k = 1, . . . , p

Sik =

for i = 1, . . . , m and

(3)

capacitances (n being the number of electrodes around

the sensor), k is the pixel number (from 1 to p), Cik

is the capacitance measured with electrode pair i when

the area of pixel k is full of a high-permittivity material

while the rest of the sensor is full of a low-permittivity

material, whereas Ci(full) and Ci(emp) are the capacitances

160

for electrode pair i when the sensor is full of high- and lowpermittivity material, respectively. These sensitivity maps

were calculated by solving numerically the associated partial

differential equation with the finite volume method (FVM).

Having determined the sensitivity maps, they can be used

for obtaining ECT synthetic data, from any permittivity

distribution inside the sensor. For this purpose, the measured

capacitance data must be normalized according to:

ci =

Ci Ci(emp)

Ci(full) Ci(emp)

for i = 1, . . . , m

(4)

and Ci is the actual capacitance measured with that electrode

pair.

In this way, the linear forward problem in ECT can be

written in matrix form as:

S = c,

(5)

is a vector of normalized model permittivity, and S is

the normalized sensitivity matrix. Normalization of model

permittivity and the sensitivity matrix was performed by

using the next expressions:

i i(emp)

for i = 1, . . . , p

(6)

i =

i(full) i(emp)

Sik

sik = p

for i = 1, . . . , m and k = 1, . . . , p. (7)

Sik

new old

c1

c1

s1i

.. ..

..

. = . + i . .

new

cm

old

cm

(9)

smi

time consumption is comparable to linear inversion methods

like projected Landweber.

4. Experimental set-up

k=1

image using SA, it is necessary to solve the forward

problem repeatedly for quite similar successive permittivity

distributions, while the method converges towards the

global solution. Since the solution corresponding to the

said successive permittivity distributions changes relatively

little, it is possible to accelerate the whole process by

taking into account the solution corresponding to the

previous permittivity configuration. Because this previous

guess will be quite close to the next solution, the

number of floating-point operations can be dramatically

reduced by removing the entire redundant matrix by vector

multiplications involved in the computation of the forward

problem described by Eq. (5). To illustrate this numerical

improvement of the method, let us consider the case when

parameter i is being perturbed:

c1

s11 s1i s1 p

..

..

.

s21 s2i s2 p

i + i = .

(8)

..

.

.

..

. . . ..

.

..

.

sm1 smi smp

cm

p

where i is the change that parameter i may experience

in the inner cycle of the SA method. Therefore, computation

of a new set of ECT synthetic data can be made by adding

a correction factor to the previously computed ECT data

The sets of electrical capacitance tomography measurements used in this study were collected in a 3 in. gasoil twophase test loop. We used a 12-electrode pressure-resistant

capacitance tomography sensor. By varying the oil and gas

flow rates, different flow regimes were observed. For a detailed description of these experiments and the pressureresistant sensor, the reader is referred to Gamio et al. [13]. In

Fig. 3 a sketch of the experiment is presented and hereafter

we summarize the experimental set-up.

The test loop uses nitrogen gas, Exxol D80 oil and tap

water. In this work we only used air at atmospheric pressure

and oil as flow components. Oil and water pumps with

reference flow meters for gas, oil and water are connected

to a three-phase separator. A Coriolis-type meter measures

simultaneously oil and water flow rates whereas differentialpressure meters determine the gas flow rate. Two million

cubic feet/day of gas can be supplied with 3500 barrels/day

(bpd) of oil and 2500 bpd of water.

In the case of study modeled here, air and oil were

injected through the sensor at different pressures up to

7 barg and at a temperature around 20 C. The velocities

of each phase were varied through a pressurized nitrogen

gas/valve system. Maximum operating pressure ratings up

to 12 bar and safety design pressures up to 16 bar are

considered. Operating and design temperatures up to 40 C

and 0100 C are used. The sensor is connected the separator

and can be deviated to a 15 m-slug generator.

161

5. Results

In a previous work [12], we followed the advice of

Yang and Peng [6] to test nonlinear methods for both

forward modelling (FVM) and reconstruction of electrical

permittivity images by means of global inversion methods

(VFSA). In that previous work we focused our attention on

the inversion of measured ECT data as well as synthetic

cases with varying degrees of complexity for the SA method.

For comparisons between image reconstruction of synthetic

and measured ECT data by the SA method and by other

linear approaches, the reader is referred to Martin and OrtizAlemn [14].

In this work, we tested a number of flow regimes

generated by modifying oil and gas flow rates. We used

as a reference a fast qualitative image reconstruction

by the LBP method and a view through a transparent

window section installed in the test loop. Stratified flows

can be directly seen through the transparent window but

other patterns involving significant gas flows cannot be

observed properly in the inner core of the sensor because

the oil phase is reflected by the sensor walls and the

window. That is, in some way, another justification to the

employment of a more reliable approach like the simulated

annealing reconstruction method presented here. Image

reconstructions by the LBP method are properly discussed

by Gamio et al. [13].

In this paper we apply the SA method and we make use

of a linear approximation to the forward problem by means

of a numerically improved sensitivity matrix approach. We

use a sensitivity matrix computed for a set of 1693 elements

or pixels. The ECT system we used allows a data acquisition

rate of one hundred frames per second. We used a Pentium 4

PC, and we got a visualization rate of around 20 images per

second by using the one-step LBP method. The SA method

leads to relatively slow image reconstructions as it requires

thousands of forward problem computations. In this study

we employed around one million iterations for all image

reconstructions (see Figs. 46). The speed of computation

for these SA inversions was around 20 s per image, quite

similar to iterative linear methods like projected Landweber.

Ten different flow patterns were generated and sets of

measurements, during around 30 s, were collected for each

pattern. We inverted the whole data set as a single process,

in order to reduce the numerical burden by considering the

solution for one image reconstruction as an initial guess for

the next one.

In Fig. 4 we summarize the whole set of test cases

and their corresponding reconstructed images. We have

chosen a representative image for each one of the ten flow

patterns simulated during the experiment. The first snapshot

(a) corresponds to an initial stratified flow slightly rotated

to the right by 15 , because of a wrong orientation of

the sensor at the beginning of the experiment. The second

snapshot (b) shows an intermittent flow thickening towards

the centre of the pipe when the liquid flow rate has been

Fig. 4. Image reconstruction for ten two-phase gasoil test flows from

ECT data. The estimated images were achieved after around 1 million

iterations of the SA method. Dark grey and white represent low (air) and

high permittivity (oil) components, respectively. (a) Stratified flow, (b)

intermittent flow, (c)(e) stratified/wavy flows, (f)(h) annular flows, (i)(j)

fully thin annular flows.

represent low and high permittivity materials, respectively. Sequence goes

from top to bottom and from left to right, and delay time between frames is

50 ms.

gas flow rate was maintained low (close to zero). Then the

speed of the gas flow is increased from 2.6 to 17 m/s while

the liquid flow rate is maintained low (speeds between 0.06

and 1.4 m/s). Wavy stratified (c)(e), annular (f)(h) and

fully thin annular flows (i)(j) are then obtained. Essentially

five flow patterns were reconstructed: stratified, intermittent,

wavy stratified, annular and extremely thin annular (almost

empty) flows. These patterns correspond to the typical flow

regimes reported in the literature [15] for the liquid and gas

velocities reported previously in this paragraph.

One of the most complex patterns we found was a

stratified-intermittent flow (the compressor had been turned

on). As can be seen in Figs. 5 and 6, large oscillations of

the flow are observed in the first snapshots, forming semiannular patterns close to the sensor wall. The liquid flow

162

some loss of image accuracy).

Acknowledgements

We thank J.C. Gamio and W.Q. Yang for their fruitful

discussions on linear inversion algorithms applied to

capacitance tomography. The advice of M. Sen has also

been very helpful for the implementation of the simulated

annealing algorithm. This contribution was supported by

project IMP/D.002613(IPOA).

References

white represent low and high permittivity materials, respectively. Sequence

goes from top to bottom and from left to right, and delay time between

frames is 50 ms.

rate has been increased maintaining the gas flow rate low. An

intermittent flow pattern is then observed, with an alternant

occurrence of slugs and stratified flows.

It is interesting to notice that the gasoil interfaces

are much better defined and sharper than the highly

smooth interfaces obtained using local linear approaches

and the LBP method. Visualizations using LBP are limited

because half of the image contours are not specifically

interfaces; however they give a regular indication of the flow

composition [16].

6. Conclusions

This hybrid method (linear forward problem and

nonlinear inverse modelling) does not require a good starting

model and has been found to be successful in inversion of

permittivity images from real dynamic ECT data. In this

paper, the method has been validated by using real ECT

data for two-phase gasoil flows. The SA method produced

satisfactory image reconstructions for all the studied cases.

We found the SA method to be a powerful tool for

routine interpretation of ECT data in two-phase gasoil flow

imaging.

The SA inversion of gasoil two-phase flows ECT data

with linear forward modelling provided us very promising

results, as we preserved the level of accuracy previously

reported for static physical models [12] and we were able to

overcome one of the drawbacks of the method: its relatively

high computation time. We found this method to be as fast

as iterative-linear methods such as projected Landweber. In

this work we spent around 20 s of CPU time for each image

reconstruction (after one million iterations). So, SA is not a

real-time operation method, but it can operate properly even

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Systems Design and Analysis, 1922 July, Manchester, UK.

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