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Ruiz Sandoval Alexis J.

5IV04

Self-Study Guide
Description: We can use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about
events with a connection to the present.
Function: The present perfect continuous refers to an unspecified time
between 'before now' and 'now'. The speaker is thinking about something that
started but perhaps did not finish in that period of time. He/she is interested in
the process as well as the result, and this process may still be going on, or may
have just finished.
Special features: There are some verbs that can not be used in continuous
tenses.
Examples: She has been studying English since she was 16.
They've been talking for three hours
Exercises: She has been waiting for you all day
She has been cooking since last night
Present perfect simple
Function

We use the Present Perfect


to say that an action
happened at an
unspecified time before
now. The exact time is not
important. You CANNOT
use the Present Perfect
with specific time
expressions.

Forms

Subject + have/Has + past


participle (Positive)
Subject + have/has not +
past participle (Negative)
Have/has + subject + past
participle

Examples

I have been to France.


You havent been to France
ever.
Have you been to France?

D.Used to/Didnt use to.

Present perfect
continous
The present perfect
continuous refers to an
unspecified time between
'before now' and 'now'. The
speaker is thinking about
something that started but
perhaps did not finish in
that period of time. He/she
is interested in the process
as well as the result, and
this process may still be
going on, or may have just
finished.
Subject + have/has been +
present participle (Positive)
Subject + have /has not
been + present participle
(Negative)
Have/has + subject + been
+ present participle
(Question)
She has been studying
English since she was 16.
They havent been talking
for three hours
Has Susan been travelling
recently?

Ruiz Sandoval Alexis J.


5IV04
Description: Use used to + base form to talk about situations or actions that
regularly happened in the past but no longer happen today
Function: "Used to" in English fulfills the function that, in many languages, is
covered by a whole tense! We use "used to" to express something which
happened regularly in the past but doesn't happen anymore. A past routine, a
past habit.
Special Features: Subject + Used to + base form (Positive)
Subjet + didnt + use to + base form (Negative)
Did + subject use to + base form (Questions)
Examples: I used to sit for hours and watch the sea.
Did you use to enjoy playing on the beach?
Exercises: You/Used to/live there
He/didnt use to/live there
Did/you/use to/live there?

Past Perfect
Description: An aspect of the verb that designates an action which has been
completed before another past action. Also known as the past perfective or the
pluperfect.Formed with the auxiliary had and the past participle of a verb, the
past perfect indicates a time further back in the past than the present perfect
or the simple past tense.
Function: The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used
to make it clear that one event happened before another in the past. It does
not matter which event is mentioned first - the tense makes it clear which one
happened first.
Special Features: Subject + had + past participle (Positive)
Subject + had not + past participle (Negative)
Had + subject + past participle (Question)
Examples: James hade aten all the pizza
I hadnt met her before
Had you noticed anithing strange?
Exercise:
Tom Had promised to come and help me revise for the test.
But he hadnt arrrived by nine oclock
Why hadnt he come? Had something happened to him?

March 1st, 2015

Ruiz Sandoval Alexis J.


5IV04

Function

Forms

Examples

March 1st, 2015

Past Perfect
Use the past perfect to
talk about an action
that took place before
another action in the
past. This is why the
past perfect is often
used with the past
simple.
Subject + had + past
participle
Subject had not + past
participle
Had + subject + pas
participle
Jennifer had surprised
of her preset
He hadnt bought that
clothes
Had you worked too
much?

Past simple
Use the past simple
for finished actions
that happened at a
certain moment.

Subject + Past simple


(Positive)
Subject + Didnt +
Past siemple
(Negative)
Did + Subject + Ver to
be (Question)
I got up at seven
oclock
Peter didnt arrive at
his ouse
Did you do your
homework?