Grids And Coordinates

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Grids And Coordinates

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 27

Grids

and

Coordinates

Contents

1. Rectangular Coordinates

2. Polar Coordinates

Y Axis

Rectangular Coordinates

Origin 0,0

In a 2 dimensional plane

coordinate system as

shown, the point P can

be perfectly described by

the coordinates x and y

x

the elevation

avoid negative

coordinates

X Axis

Coordinate Calculations

By convention, the Y axis is assumed to be local grid North

And X values are often called Eastings, Y values Northings

dx

Q

x1

Y Axis

dy

If dx = x1-x, and if dy = y1-y

x

P

y

Origin 0,0

X Axis

And tan-1 (dx/dy) is the angle

between grid north and P to Q.

y1

E

Coordinate Calculations

It can be seen that the calculations are

simple and the numbers are meaningful

The bigger the X value, the further to

the right, (or East), the point is.

The bigger the Y value, the further

upwards, (or North), the point is.

The bigger the Z value, the higher the

point is.

Rectangular Coordinate

Advantages

A point whose coordinates are

known can be set out from any other

point whose coordinates are known

providing that the two points are

intervisible.

Advantages

The method is particularly suitable for

use with a theodolite and tape over

short distances on level surfaces, or a

Total Station over longer distances and

uneven surfaces.

Total Station

A surveying instrument which measures

angles in the horizontal and vertical

planes, and also measures distances by

infra-red or laser beam.

Angles and distances are measured

electronically and can be recorded in

digital format.

A Total Station has

internal software for

converting observations

to rectangular

coordinates and vice

versa.

There is also an internal

data recording facility.

10

Disadvantages

Refraction, earth curvature, and residual

instrument errors limit the accuracy of

elevations obtained.

However, if as often happens, the setting

out is limited to X and Y, as on a new

concrete slab, then levels are not taken

anyway.

11

Construction Grids

It is common practice on construction sites for

the coordinate grid to be parallel with a major

part of the structure.

In this case it is unlikely that local grid north

points toward the North Pole.

Pole

In Addition;

Multiple grids are not uncommon on

construction sites

12

9.000

9.000

9.000

9.000

9.000

.0

R4

5. 00 0

5. 99 9

3. 00 0

8.575

3. 00 0

3. 00 0

GRID

FF

3. 00 0

GRID

GG

GRID

HH

GRID

JJ

10

GRID

11

GRID

KK

GRID

10

GRID

9

4.207

3. 00 0

GRID

8

5.444

3. 00 0

3. 00 0

GRID

AA

GRID

BB

GRID

CC

GRID

DD

GRID

EE

3. 00 0

10.615

4. 59 9

2. 44 3

3. 00 0

GRID C (Y=110.800)

R12.000

R5.500

15.59

1

8.575

GRID B1 (Y=119.375)

00

7.000

8.265

GRID

LL

13

Some construction sites e.g.

motorways, mines and quarries, rail

networks, and features of large extent,

do not use local grids, but instead use

the Ordnance Survey National Grid.

This is a grid system which covers the

whole of the UK.

14

The origin, (X=0,Y=0) lies off the South

West coast of Cornwall and the grid

extends 700 km. East and 1300 km North

15

0 km East

700 km East

0 km East

L

Q

V

A

F

M N O P

R S T U

W X Y Z

B C D E

G H J K

L M

Q R

V W

A B

F G

L M N O P L M

Q R S T U

V W X Y Z

A B C D E

F G H J K

Q R

V W

A B

F G

S

R S T

T

Q R

L M N O P L M

Greenwich

0 km North

Q

U

V W X Y Z V W

0 km North

700 km East

1300 km North

1300 km North

16

200km North

100km North

600km East

72725m

500km East

44321m

This is square TQ

The coordinates of the

house corner are: TQ44321,72725 or

544321,172725

(to the nearest metre)

17

Do you find the lettering system

confusing?

To use the lettering system with

National Grid Coordinates you must

have a key map showing the squares

with their labels

18

0 km East

Because of the

substantial earth

curvature over the UK,

National Grid

Coordinates require

corrections to be applied

to convert map

distances to ground

distances. This

correction is known as

the Local Scale Factor.

700 km East

1300 km North

0 km North

19

Easting

Scale Factor

Easting

400

0.99960

400

390

0.99960

410

380

0.99961

420

370

0.99961

430

360

0.99963

440

350

0.99965

450

340

0.99965

460

330

0.99966

470

320

0.99968

480

310

0.99970

490

300

0.99972

500

20

Local Grids

A theodolite measures angles in the vertical plane

from a plumb line determined inside the theodolite by

a pendulum device called a Compensator

Therefore angles in the vertical plane are absolute

values

They are always measured from zero at the Zenith

Therefore 180 points to the centre of the earth

It follows that 90 and 270 are horizontal

21

Local Grids

Unfortunately there is no easy way of

aligning the horizontal circle of a

theodolite with the National Grid North

This is why Local Grid North is usually

aligned with the main features of the

structure to be built and often bears no

relationship to true North

22

Local Grids

The angle between grid North and any line is

known as the Whole Circle Bearing, and is the

angle used on site for setting out.

This means of course that the theodolite used

for setting out the bearings must be aligned with

the Local Grid North.

Local North is usually calculated from the

rectangular coordinates of two setting out points

or survey stations on or near the site.

23

Angles/Bearings

If the coordinates and orientation of A are

known the the coordinates of B can be

determined, ( and vice versa)

N

0

33

340

350

10

20

30

0

32

290

280

270

260

0

23

190

200

31

0

250

180

30

0

0

24

170

80

160

290

22

0

70

280

13

0

60

13

0

0

23

12

0

0

24

110

250

100

260

90

270

12

0

50

110

40

21

0

30

0

15

20

0

32

0

14

10

100

90

350

80

340

e

c

n

a

t

s

i

dd

e

r

u

s

a

Me

0

0

0

0

8

7

=

B

00

0

WC

0

58

2

=

B

WC

70

N

0

33

60

30

0

50

31

0

40

then the orientation of A and B can be

determined

22

0

0

14

0

15

160

170

180

190

200

21

0

24

Polar Coordinates

The whole circle bearing and horizontal

distance are known as Polar

Coordinates, and are obviously relative

to the position of the theodolite, whereas

rectangular coordinates are absolutes

within the grid system.

system

25

THE END

Slide 6

For example, it is not necessary to set up on the tangent point of a highway

curve to set out the curve.

Slide 10

It is a comparatively easy procedure, (and highly recommended), to check the

adjustment of a Total Station every day

Slide 12

The grid covering the largest area is the main sports hall / swimming pool.

The bottom right grid is the consulting rooms block.

The egg shaped grid is the restaurant. It is aligned with the main grid but

dimensioned from the consulting grid.

Slide 15

The 500 km squares are labelled H J N O S T

The 100 km squares are labelled A through Z excluding I

Thus the bottom left hand, (South West), square is labelled SV

And the bottom right hand, (South East), square is labelled TW

Greenwich is in square TQ

Slide 16

Eastings or X values are always quoted before Northings or Y values

Slide 17

If you use the numeric system such a map is not necessary, but map retailers

might not understand you

Slide 19

The remainder of the Local Scale Factors are listed below.

Easting

Scale Factor

Easting

290

0.99975

510

280

0.99978

520

270

0.99981

530

260

0.99984

540

250

0.99988

550

240

0.99992

560

230

0.99996

570

220

210

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

Magnetic compasses are not accurate enough

Gyroscopes are too expensive

The Ordnance Survey can supply Nat

1.00000

1.00004

1.00014

1.00020

1.00025

1.00031

1.00037

1.00043

1.00050

580

590

610

620

630

640

650

660

670

Slide 21

Magnetic compasses are not accurate enough

Gyroscopes are too expensive

The Ordnance Survey can supply National Grid Coordinates of points local to

most construction projects but

Most people adopt the attitude Why pay for something we can manage

without

Slide 23

XB = XA + (Distance X Sin (WCB))

YB = YA + (Distance X Cos (WCB))

Correct Surveying terminology is Whole Circle Bearing, or Azimuth.

Navigation terminology is Heading.

Bearing is often used but should be avoided due to confusion with

Quadrant Bearing, (Points of the compass).

Install 2 pegs A and B.

Set the theodolite at A and align zero on the circle with North.

The theodolite horizontal circle reading is 78 degrees = WCB.

Move the theodolite to B, sight A and set the horizontal circle to 258

degrees.

Zero on the circle is now aligned with North, and all circle readings are now

WCBs.

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