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HSC Biology Topic 2

BLUEPRINT of LIFE
What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of:
1. EVOLUTION OF LIFE
2. MENDELIAN GENETICS
3. CHROMOSOMES & DNA STRUCTURE
4. MOLECULAR GENETICS & MUTATION
5. REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES &
GENETIC DIVERSITY

but first, an introduction...
Evolution

Chromosomes & DNA

In earlier topics you were introduced to the
concept of Biological Evolution, and the
mechanism of “Natural Selection”. Now you will
study in more detail the evidence for evolution
and Theory of Evolution.

You will next move on to study things that
Darwin & Mendel would have been delighted to
have known... the cellular and molecular basis of
Genetics and Evolution. You will see the link
between
inheritance,
cell
division,
chromosomes and the basis of it all... the DNA
molecule and the Genetic Code.

Chromosomes

Part of a DNA
molecule

Genetics

In

The science of inheritance was discovered
about 150 years ago by a monk living in an
obscure monastery in central Europe. In this
topic you will study the simple patterns of
inheritance that he discovered.

section

on

Genetics

you will learn how the DNA
acts to control all the
characteristics of each organism
(the “phenotype”) and how Mutations can occur
to alter the code and produce new
characteristics for evolution to work on.

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
experimented with garden
peas for 12 years to work out
how parents pass on their
characteristics to offspring.

In the final section you will look briefly at where
modern Biology is heading into Reproductive
Technologies and Genetic Engineering.
(This controversial area can be studied more
thoroughly in one of the later Option topics)

You will study his results and
the reasons for his success
as an experimenter.
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the

Molecular

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CONCEPT DIAGRAM (“Mind Map”) OF TOPIC
Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and
remember the concepts and important facts. As you proceed through the topic,
come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the whole.
At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this “Mind Map” to practise on.
The THEORY
of EVOLUTION
The
EVIDENCE
for Evolution

Dominant-R
Recessive
inheritance.
Monohybrid crosses

Divergent
&
Convergent
Evolution

Mendel’s
experiments

Evolution
of Life

Pedigrees
(Family trees)

Mendelian
Genetics
Chromosomes,
genes & DNA

THE
BLUEPRINT
OF LIFE

Meiosis &
gamete
formation

Chromosomes
&
DNA

Sex-llinkage
&
Codominance

Reproductive
Technologies
&
Genetic Diversity

Molecular Genetics
&
Mutations

DNA
Replication

Transcription &
Translation
Effects on
genetic
diversity

Genetic
Engineering

Punctuated
Equilibrium

The link to
evolution

Artificial insemination
and pollination.
Cloning
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Mutation
&
mutagens

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1. EVOLUTION OF LIFE
The Evidence for Evolution

Fossils of “Transitional Forms”

There is overwhelming evidence that life on
Earth has undergone a sequence of changes
over the past 3.5 billion years or so. Here, briefly
(K.I.S.S. Principle) are the main sources of that
evidence:

Only a tiny fraction of all the zillions of
organisms that have ever lived have ended up
being fossilised. The fossil record is, therefore,
incomplete and a rather patchy record of
evolution.

Palaeontology

The Study of Fossils
The fossil evidence is undoubtably our most
important, direct evidence showing that life on
Earth has changed.

Despite this “patchiness”, there are some
fossils that have given us a glimpse of the
change that occurred when one type of life was
evolving into another. Such fossils are called
“Transitional Forms”

The fossils not only show that life was once
different, but that the changes follow a pattern
or sequence... this is evolution.

Perhaps the most famous is Archaeopteryx.
(“Archae”= ancient, “pteryx”= wing)

Fossil

Pa
atterns of Cha
ange
Ancient Life
Modern Life
Simple types
Less variety
Less like
present-d
day life

More complex types
Greater variety
More and more
resembling modern life

Bony jaw
with teeth

youngest

How do we know this to be fact? Not only do we
have many fossils of extinct organisms, but we
can place them in time sequence to see the
patterns.

oldest

Reconstruction

Bony tail
covered in
feathers

Clawed wings
It is very unlikely that Archaeopteryx could fly like a
modern bird. It may have climbed trees & glided
down on insect & lizard prey

These fossils
correlate to
each other.

When this fossil was first discovered, its
skeleton was clearly that of a small dinosaur.
Only later was it noticed that the faint outlines
around the fossil were the impressions of
feathers. This was a dinosaur-bird!
Transitional fossils are important evidence that
each new type of life that “appears” in the fossil
record did in fact evolve from a previous
ancestor.
Scientists
have
discovered
transitional fossils showing:

The
coresponding
rock layers
(in different
places)
must be the
same age.

• reptiles evolving to become mammals.
• ferns evolving to become cone-bearing plants.
• lobe-finned fish evolving into amphibians.
...and many more, including fossils of
our own probable ancestors, who were very
ape-like, but undoubtably human-like too!

Initially, scientists could only place fossils in
relative time order by correlating the
sequences, as suggested in the diagram above.
Now we can also place absolute times on many
fossils by “Radiometric Dating”... the
determination of the actual age of things by
measuring the residual radioactivity of certain,
naturally-occurring radio-isotopes in the rocks.
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Biogeography

Comparative Embryology

(how life is distributed)
When Charles Darwin travelled around the world
on board HMS Beagle in the 1830’s, it was the
distribution of different types of life in different
places that first gave him the idea for Evolution.

If the embryos of various vertebrate animals are
compared, it is found that they are remarkably
similar, even though they later develop into
quite different animals.

Some Vertebrate Embryos...

He noticed that each continent had its own
characteristic biota, often showing similar
features although often not closely related to
each other. For example, each continent has
characteristic grazing mammals:
North America

...and
what they develop into

OZ

Why should they be so similar when they grow
up to be very different animals? Why should (for
example) a human embryo have a tail and gill
arches like a fish?

All these
Sth America
animals are
relatively
large, fastrunning,
Africa
with flat
grinding
teeth, and all lead pretty much the same lifestyle.
So why is there not just one type of large grazer
in the world, living on every continent?

Comparative Anatomy
When the body structures of different
organisms are compared, it is often obvious that
they share common features, even though those
body parts might be used in different ways.

Evolution explains why. On each separate
continent different animals have evolved to fill
the “large grazing herbivore” role, often
beginning that evolution from an ancestor quite
different to that on other continents.

The classic example of this is the Pentadactyl
Limb structure of the vertebrate animals.
1 bone in
upper arm

Another aspect of Biogeography was seen by
Darwin on a much smaller scale in the Galapagos
Islands. He discovered that the islands were
populated by many different species of small
birds... finches. Although all were obviously
related to each other, each separate island had its
own particular species.

2 bones
in forearm
5 sets
of finger
bones

Ancestral Finch

Why?

Island 1

Island 2

Human
arm

Whale
flipper

Bat
wing

Each limb is used in very different ways by
animals that have very different lifestyles, yet all
have exactly the same basic arrangement of
bones. Why?

Island 3

The explanation is:
• the islands were first colonised by one type of
finch which spread to all of the islands in the group.
• on each separate island conditions were different
(eg different foods available) so each population
evolved in a different way, into a different species.

Once again, these are FACTS that are consistent
with, and easily explained by, the concept of
EVOLUTION.

BIOGEOGRAPHY doesn’t prove Evolution has
occurred, but many facts about the distribution
of organisms are best explained by Evolution
HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life”
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Not
to
same
scale

Evolution explains this as the result of all these
animals evolving from a common ancestor
which had this bone structure.

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(“Penta”= 5, “dactyl”=fingers)

Evolution explains this as the result of all these
animals evolving from a common ancestor
which had an embryo like this.

• structural chemicals in their basic cell components. or which bull to breed with the cows. It was always thought that the lizards and crocodiles were more closely related to each other than to the birds. but have been changed by selective breeding. as certain features are “selected” in favour of others. Selective Breeding proves that a species can be changed. in the wild it happens by “Natural Selection” New Technologies Change Our Ideas About Evolutionary Relationships The new technology of analysing the sequence of DNA molecules is changing our ideas about the evolutionary relationships between living things. this doesn’t prove that evolution occurred. DNA sequencing shows that birds and crocodiles are more closely related to each other than either is to the lizards. Modern wheat is nothing like the wild grass we believe it was bred from. Cabbages and cauliflowers used to be the same thing. This has drastically changed all these plants and animals. CROCODILES and BIRDS.com. • genetic code in their DNA. The changes occur from one generation to another. the evolutionary relationship between LIZARDS. All organisms have basically the same: People wonder how one organism can just “turn-into” another by evolution.® keep it simple science Biochemistry Selective Breeding All the life-forms on Earth have remarkable similarities at the molecular level. • enzymes used for basic metabolic processes. Human farmers have always chosen which seeds to keep for next year’s crop. which show evolutionary “relatedness” BIRD is DIFFERENT Croc & Lizard in SAME GROUP Stand by for more revelations as DNA analysis reveals more! Based on body structure HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. Humans can do it artificially. This relationship has been overturned by DNA analysis. WHY SHOULD ALL ORGANISMS HAVE THE SAME STRUCTURES AND CODES IN THEIR DNA? All breeds of dogs are descended from the wolf. but it is consistent with the idea that life on Earth has evolved from common ancestors who had these biochemical features.au 5 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . Traditionally crocodiles & lizards are classified as “Reptiles” and considered a separate class to the “Birds”. Once again. such as cellular respiration.keepitsimplescience. No individual animal changes during its life-time. CLASSIFICATION IN THE FUTURE? LIZARD is DIFFERENT Croc & Bird in SAME GROUP TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION Based on DNA studies. For example. Humans have been doing it to plants & animals for centuries. such as the phospholipids in cell membranes.

Alfred Wallace (1823-1913) came up with exactly the same idea after his journeys in the 1840’s and 1850’s. Oysters produce a million eggs at a time. you can see that survival is uncertain.. the breeding rate is far higher than the survival rate. but the population has changed because of which animals survived and reproduced. In 1859 they jointly published an outline of their theory. but Wallace’s contribution should not be forgotten. If you put points 1 & 2 together. Charles Darwin (1809-1882). Those best suited to their environment survive.. another Englishman.. but only 1 or 2 survive. How Natural Selection Works A population of a species with a lot of “variations” 2. We often give Darwin most of the credit for this major scientific theory. Natturral Selecttion n 3. because only some. No single animal changed. Nature selects which individuals survive hairy survives This is called “Natural Selection”. He became convinced that living things had changed. 6 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . All organisms produce more offspring than can survive Plants scatter thousands of seeds and maybe only one ever makes it to plant maturity.. Charles Darwin The Darwin-Wallace Theory of Evolution Natural Selection “Natural Selection” refers to the way that the conditions of nature constantly select who survives and who dies.au The Species ha as Evolved.keepitsimplescience. big ears squat body winters get colder Many die in the harsh winters Squat survives Survivors breed over many generations 5. reproduce. This is best done as a series of numbered points:- 1. In all species. the climate changes. the species changes. If survival depends on speed to run from a predator. and it is explained in more detail at right. Soon most of the population are squat and hairy. voyaged around the world on the naval survey ship HMS Beagle. In a drought those plants with slightly thicker cuticle on their leaves conserve water and survive. AND the chances of survival are not equal for each individual. In every species there is variation among the individuals Each animal or plant is slightly different to the other members of the species. and might not be easily visible. then the faster individuals survive and the slower ones get eaten. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. but they’re important! hairy long neck long legs light colour Then. and it will be discussed in more detail later. Darwin & Wallace In the 1830’s a young naturalist.It Evolves The survivors pass on their characteristics. and pass on their characteristics This is called “Survival of the Fittest”. Each generation is slightly different than before. Surrvival of the “Fitttestt” 4. Over generations. You need to learn the details of this theory.com. and Darwin followed up with his detailed book “Origin of Species” about 2 years later.® keep it simple science Origin of a Theory Meanwhile. and spent the next 20 years researching. gathering evidence and developing the “how” of a theory to explain evolution. selected individuals have bred and passed on their characteristics. Even ntually itt chan nges so much thatt itt becom mes a differren nt species. while others die. The differences may be slight.

• being more inquisitive might find more food. Predators spot the black moths more easily But of course “squat” and “hairy” were already in the population. This moth always rests during the day on tree trunks.. • smaller body size might allow more food gathering on small branches of trees. The lichens were killed and tree trunks blackened with soot... For example. there will be fewer survivors every generation and the species may decline into extinction! Black moths survive and breed in greater numbers Population ratio. Now that industrial pollution has been stopped. DDT was no longer useful for killing insects. Any change in an environment will result in Natural Selection picking out different characteristics for survival and the species will evolve in line with the environmental change. and finally predominant. During the coal-burning phase of the Industrial Revolution many forests were damaged by pollution.keepitsimplescience.) Another example of “micro-evolution” was observed when DDT insecticide began to be used against a variety of insects.. A few individuals had a natural resistance to the DDT and they survived and reproduced and passed on their resistance to their offspring.. such as diseasecarrying mosquitoes or crop-eating pests. because they survived in greater numbers and reproduced to pass on their characteristics to their offspring. (previous page) the climate became colder and it would seem that some evolutionary force caused an appropriate change in the population. • larger body size might deter predators. Lighter-c coloured It may seem as if “Evolution” is an intelligent force which directs organisms in a an appropriate direction. the moths have evolved back to being mostly of the lighter-coloured type. Their type simply became more common. The lighter form is rare. In our fictitious population of animals.® keep it simple science A Change in the Physical Environment More on Natural Selection Any characteristic might be a help to survive under different conditions. are mostly covered in light-patterned lichens. the dark-c coloured moths are better camouflaged. In unpolluted forests. destroying the insect populations. the chemical was a huge success. Initially. The DDT acted as a “Chemical Selecting Agent” resulting in the evolution of the insects by natural selection and survival of the fittest. 7 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . which in natural forests. They are “fittest” for survival and breeding. and climates change as the continents gradually “drift” to new locations. They are “fittest” for survival and breeding. • more timid behaviour might avoid dangers.. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. although occasional black moths occur...com.. because DDT caused ecological damage by Biological Magnification. moths survive and breed in greater numbers Population ratio. • a stronger immune system survives diseases. Among the millions of insects in each population there was variation. we know that ice-ages come and go. But then Natural Selection did its thing.. A classic example of “micro-evolution” is the change in the population of the English Pepper Moth which has been studied and documented over the past hundred years.. Nature selects the survivors from the different “types” available. Predators spot the lighter moths more easily If the change is sudden and drastic. The black form is rare. Effects of Changing Conditions In polluted forests. Under these conditions the light “peppery” moths are the most common form. and resistant types kept surviving and breeding until almost the entire population was resistant. the lightercoloured moths are camouflaged. A Change in the Chemical Conditions of the Environment Over many generations the non-resistant types were killed. Evolution is not intelligent. Environments can change in many different ways. you can’t reproduce! It was observed that the Pepper Moth population changed in the proportion of peppery to black types. • brighter coloured flowers might attract more pollinators and ensure reproduction. if you’re dead.au Similar examples have been observed with bacteria becoming resistant to Penicillin and other antibiotics. Survivors breed. (Just as well.. the animals became squat & hairy to conserve body heat better.

predator or competitor. then they will have an advantage to survive. because out of all the different “types” there is a good chance that at least some will survive to breed and continue the species. If among the natural variations within either species there are some individuals who are perhaps less fussy about their food or nesting sites (what ever the resource might be) and who can survive on slightly different foods.. gets to eat most of the food and lives to a ripe old age. a species with a lot of variation has more chance to survive. They also have different hunting techniques. fastest. a change of climate. is a complete failure if it does not reproduce! It is vital for the on-going survival of a species that it has variation among the individuals of the population. a new disease.. or utilise different nesting sites.. the predatory “big cats” of the African plains avoid competition because each has slightly different preferences among the various prey animals.. An animal which does not live long. It doesn’t just mean biggest.® keep it simple science Natural Selection and Competition Survivors breed and pass on their characteristics.. Reproduction is the true measure of “survival”. strongest. Over generations the species evolves to be using a slightly different resource. The biggest toughest animal in the herd. Population stable New competitor enters ecosystem ER N IN W LO SE R TIME (years) However.keepitsimplescience.. More on “Survival of the Fittest” The Importance of Variation “Survival” does not just mean survival. those best suited to some environments might be the smallest. For example. In evolutionary terms “Survival” means to survive and reproduce. “Fittest” refers to those individuals with a combination of characteristics best suited to their environment. 8 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only .. so they avoid direct competition. at least within the area of competition. this is not the only possible outcome.com. a change in availability of a food. a “Win-Win” situation. most cautious types. Therefore. When changes occur in the environment...au . might have no survivors from an environmental change.or any other biotic or abiotic factor of the environment. sneakiest. and become extinct.. but manages to produce many. the loser becoming extinct.. who scares predators away. or the most cha arming and socia ally accepta able HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. What constitutes an environmental change? It could be. viable offspring is an evolutionary success! A species with little variation within it. it is no longer in competition and both species can survive. . A TYPICAL COMPETITION GRAPH Species using resource.. This outcome is called “Resource Partitioning” and is commonly observed in nature. Population Size (ABUNDANCE) In a previous topic it was pointed out that competition between 2 species for the same resources usually results in a “winner” and a “loser”.

sperm & egg cells and DNA have changed to become incompatible. and they are very different in the details of body structure and metabolism.. even if they mixed together again.® keep it simple science Directions of Evolution It is easy to imagine that evolution has a “target” that it aims for. dolphin (a mammal) and the extinct ichthyosaurus (a reptile). nesting sites. Looking back at fossil ancestors of a modern species. Now. and each population was effectively cut off from other populations. they could not interbreed because their mating rituals. Once a population of finches colonised a new island they were isolated from other populations. For example. shelter. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www.com. Of course. different conditions of water supply.au There are many other examples of such convergence. All evolved the same streamlined shape. In 100 million years time. dorsal fin and sharp teeth to suit this lifestyle. the fossils of today’s creatures will seem primitive. The resemblance is superficial. it’s easy to think that those ancestors were deliberately evolving to become the modern. the shark is a gill-breathing ectotherm. Island 3 From one ancestral species of finch over a dozen different species evolved. Movement of birds between islands must have been a rare event. so they may come to resemble each other even though not closely related at all. they had diverged! All 3 animals are (were) fast-swimming fish-hunters of the ocean. Rember Darwin’s finches Galapagos Islands? on the Ancestral Finch More Island 1 Island 2 A classic example is the shark (a fish).. 9 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only .. powerful tail. while the dolphin is a lung-breathing endotherm. Ancestors always look “primitive” compared to their modern descendants. final species. This is how we think all species have arisen from common ancestors over millions of years. Divergent Evolution Convergent Evolution (“Diverge” = move apart) (“Converge”=come together) One of the aspects of evolution to be aware of is the importance of Isolation. On each island conditions were different. It is an on-going process which continues to cause changes. different foods were available.keepitsimplescience.. Natural selection caused each population to evolve along a different path until they became different species. predators and so on. They are forever separate. one on each of the islands in the group. If totally different organisms live in the same kind of environment and lead similar lifestyles they will be subject to the same sorts of “Selection Pressures” and evolve many of the same features. Evolution has no targets. the modern species is NOT the final outcome at all.

................. `Name.” 5............ An important type of fossil is a l)................ Variation within a population is vital so that if the environment changes............................ d)”................... 4................. Evolution” is when quite unrelated species evolve to aa)..................................................... When the insecticide q)...... Initially scientists could only place fossils in i).................... of years..................... variety to f)...com....... This happens when different populations of a species become x)............................... direct evidence for Evolution comes from a)............................ environments and so natural selection favours evolution of similar ac)...................... 3............................. This can happen because they live in ab).... into ................................................................................... i).............. These “forces of nature” could include disease.... variety and becoming more and more like g)...................................... It appears to be a n)....... and use the same x)............... to control their metabolic processes....................... A good example is m)...... Another example was due to a chemical change in the environment............... This is explained by evolution as being due to these animals all evolving from a s)......... “Survival of the Fittest” refers to how the organisms j). the study of Comparative Anatomy shows much the same...................... This is evidence of y)..............au 10 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only ...................................................... 2. each other.......... agent”................................................ the fossils from one place to another.......................... ......................... However..................... form................. This shows that life on Earth has changed from being c)................. which is an “inbetween” organism... to the environment will survive and k).............................. “z)........... Selective Breeding of domesticated plants and animals shows that z)............................... to the environment survive and f).......................... and ..... even though each animal grows up to be r)...........keepitsimplescience......... Over generations........................... pressure due to the differing environments..................................... time order by j)....................... The n)......... The Theory of Evolution was developed independently by a)... Worksheet 2 Theory of Evolution Name........................................... Changes to actual populations have been observed..................... “Natural Selection” refers to the way that the forces of nature choose who survives...... Moth of England was observed to undergo a population change over generations due to o).......... Similarly.......... This “5-digit” limb structure is called v).............................. in the process of evolving into a o)............................................................. even though they are not af)........... All organisms produce b)................................................................... It can be summarized in 5 main points: 1............ Those organisms e)........... to each other................................ “Divergent Evolution” is when one species w). Competition for resources can result in one species losing and becoming t)............. pollution changing the background colours of its environment...... This led to a change in the ratio of p)............................................................... It gives indirect evidence for evolution..... complex to become d)...... and showing e)... Every species shows c)........................... the forelimbs of vertebrates have the same t)......................................... Biogeography is the study of p)..................... and m)...............® keep it simple science Worksheet 1 Evidence for Evolution The most important................................... The technique of k)...................... because the selected characteristics are being passed on in greater proportions...................................... For example............. another possible outcome is called “Resource u).................................................................... there are more likely to be some individuals who will l)...... This is called g)”...................................... the species h)....................... causing mant pest species to evolve to become s).......... A good example is the shark and ad)...................................” which results if one species evolves to avoid the competition by v)..... and ......... even though each animal uses the limb u)....................... complex.................... was widely used it acted as a r)”.......................” occurs to choose the survivors.......... Each population is subject to different y).... dating has allowed absolute ages to be measured................ the study of b).................... HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www............................................................... to each other... Biochemistry reveals that all organisms have the same genetic code in their w).... Comparative Embryology reveals that vertebrate embryos are all q).......................... over a period of h)..................................... from each other........ which have many common ae)................................ and any factors in the environment............

(3 marks) Comparative Anatomy can give evidence supporting the idea of evolution. C. “living fossil”. DNA structure and the biogeography. reproducing many offspring... B.. giving examples of each. divergence of “Darwin’s finches” on the Galapagos Islands.. 9.... most individuals are similarly adapted. living a long and healthy life.. C. Multiple Choice Longer Response Questions 1. the changes to living things over generations. from ancient times to recent times. common fossil. the species has a lot of genetic variation. D. strong individuals. using an example. B.. how advances in technology have changed scientific thinking about evolutionary relationships. D. convergence of the shark and dolphin. 6. those organisms best suited to the environment survive and reproduce. factors of the environment determining which organisms survive and which do not..® keep it simple science Worksheet 3 Test Questions Section 1 Name. by outlining how each is achieved and what each can tell you about fossils. the way that not all organisms can survive because too many offspring are produced. 10. D. C. ( 3marks) Briefly discuss. showing a stage of evolution. of: A. useful for correlating between locations.. greater diversity to less diversity. C.. A species has a better chance of long-term survival during changes to the environment if: A. embryos of vertebrates & the pentadactyl limb. “index fossil”..au 11 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only .. D.. 2. D.. no distinct pattern of change. 5. is: A. a) Outline an example of comparative anatomy that gives such evidence.. 4. Mark values given are suggestions only. B. change in the population of “Pepper Moths”.. The really important part of “Survival of the Fittest” is: A. 3. there are many large. 11. Two types of evidence which both suggest descent from a common ancestor are: A. the extinction of the dodo. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. D... 7. convergent evolution and biochemistry. D. B. B.. C. 12.. natural selection and survival of the fittest.com.keepitsimplescience. The fossil record shows a pattern. B. and are to give you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate.... (4 marks) Explain the difference between “relative dating” of fossils and “absolute dating”.. being very well adapted to the environment.. found in many rock layers. (4 marks) Differentiate between “convergent” and “divergent” evolution.. B. increasing complexity and diversity. “Natural Selection” refers to A. C. C. Answer in space provided. more complexity to less complexity... “transitional form”. an extremely primitive bird alive today. 8. it reproduces asexually. being “chosen” to survive... (5 marks) Outline the Darwin-Wallace Theory of Evolution.. or on reverse. An example of “microevolution” that has actually been observed to happen. The famous “archaeopteryx” is a: A.. b) State how this example is evidence of evolution..

The monks grew most of their own food. but became interested in discovering how inheritance works. • He bred large numbers of plants so that the numbers of offspring were statistically significant. e.® keep it simple science 2. but with hundreds.. MENDELIAN GENETICS Next.au 12 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . such as. His 2nd generation totalled thousands of plants. In Charles Darwin’s lifetime there were 2 parts of his Theory of Evolution that no-one could explain: Where Does Variation in a Species Come From? (That will be explained later in this topic) How Are Characteristics Passed On to Offspring? That will be explained right now! TALL F1 plant SELF X SELF POLLINATED Gregor Mendel’s Experiments Mendel was the Abbot of a monastery in what today is the Czech Republic. The result was that all the offspring showed the characteristic of one parent and none took after the other.. Gregor Mendel had discovered the basic mechanism of inheritance.g. and the second generation always appeared (in their thousands) in a ratio of very close to 3:1. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. and so on. Scientists before him had studied inheritance. First he bred his pea plants over several generations to select plants that were “pure breeding” for certain contrasting characteristics. but had failed to discover the simple patterns. (If he’d bred just a few offspring then random chance could have produced misleading results. WHITE FLOWER Reasons for Mendel’s Success as an Experimenter Each type was “pure breeding”. Dwarf is RECESSIVE to Tall. he self-pollinated the plants of the F1. TALL DWARF PURPLE FLOWER He got the same result with flower colours. seed shapes. seed pod colours. In every case the first generation always took after one parent completely. so Mendel worked his investigations into the day-to-day vegetable gardening by choosing to experiment with garden peas. “X” is shorthand for “crossed with” F1 (1st Generation) Offspring were ALL TALL • He began with “pure-breeding” parent plants. not just a few. F2 (2nd Generation) Offspring occurred in a ratio of 3:1 Mendel didn’t do this with one or two plants. For example. height was either tall or dwarf. He was trained as a teacher and was not a professional scientist. when TALL plants were crossed with DWARF: X • He chose simple. easily-identified characteristics which occurred in just 2 forms. Why was he successful? Then he cross-pollinated 2 contrasting types to obtain “hybrid” (cross-breed) offspring.com. meaning that if they were self-pollinated they always produced offspring of exactly the same type as themselves.keepitsimplescience.) Mendel explained this result by suggesting that the “factor” (GENE) which caused “Tallness” was DOMINANT to the gene for “Dwarfism”.

Why? He was not a recognised scientist. the F1 plants were selfpollinated to produce the F2 Tall Tt t x Possible GAMETES Tall Tt T t possible fertilisations Although each plant carries 2 genes for each characteristic. right) explains why Mendel observed a ratio of about 3:1 in the plants of his F2 offspring. only one gene is passed into the gametes (pollen or ovules).g.® keep it simple science Mendel’s Explanation of Results (Using Modern Terminology) Each characteristic is produced by “factors” (we now call them genes) carried by the plants. and a corresponding gene for dwarf stem. TT TALL Tt TALL Ratio of Phenotypes Which one of the 2 genes for each characteristic is passed on is completely at random. Tt TALL tt DWARF 3 Tall : 1 Dwarf The diagram (above. 2 genes the same PARENT PLANTS Tall TT These are “Genotypes” the actual genes present Each plant carries 2 genes for a characteristic. Tall ( T ) is dominant to Dwarf ( t ) Purple flower ( P ) is dominant to white ( p ) These are “Phenotypes”. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www.. It was not until well after Mendel’s death that in 1900 his work was “discovered” by scientists. Mendel’s “Pure-B Breeding” parent plants were homozygous for each trait. descriptions of the outward appearance ALL THE F1 OFFSPRING ARE TALL. We usually use letters of the alphabet to designate this: e. Dwarf plant T x Dwarf tt Only 1 gene is passed into gametes T t GAMETES Fertilisation All the F1 offspring receive this combination of genes One of the alleles is “Dominant” over the other. He is now known as the “Father of Genetics”. or “allelic genes”. so the offspring gets one from each parent and gets back to having 2 genes for the characteristic. The 2 genes may be the same as each other (“homozygous”) or different to each other (“heterozygous”). Reasons Why Mendel’s Work Was Ignored Mendel published his results in 1865 in a German Science journal and was totally ignored. He bred large numbers of plants and so his actual ratio was very close to theoretical.com.. Each parent passes on one gene. but not exactly 3:1. His work was written only in German. France & USA.keepitsimplescience. Genes for “tall” and “dwarf” are alleles. who failed to see its significance. while all the “important” science of that time was appearing in English or French. His experimental ratios were approximately 3:1.. Genes for “purple flower” and “white flower” are alleles.. and had no contact with the “scientific establishment” of his time.au 13 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . which is said to be “Recessive”. There is a gene for purple flower and another for white flowers. Tall plant (T dominant) tt = homozygous. and his great contribution was recognised. and so on for other characteristics. The genes which control “opposite” forms of the same characteristic are called “alleles”. BUT HETEROZYGOUS Tt Tall Next. This is because the actual combinations of gametes at fertilisation occur at random. there is a gene for tallness of stem. in well-known journals in England. the possibilities are: TT = homozygous. For example. Tall plant Tt = heterozygous. His work was read by only a small circle of people. Self-p pollinating the F1 plants is the same as crossing with the same genotype Example: for the height characteristic.

. for the F2: Genotypes of parents b&b Bb Tt All the F1 flies must be Genotype: Ll Phenotype: 100% Long winged Solution B t Gametes possible: In mice. Predict the outcome of mating a heterozygous black mouse with an albino. Their offspring were allowed to mate among themselves to produce a second generation. and we should not be surprised if the actual numbers were (say) 190 to 50. b Tt Parents genotypes: Sample Problem 1 b TT Solution To work out the F1.. the allele for long wings (L) is dominant to the allele for short wings ( l ). the formation of the F2 plants in Mendel’s experiment. You will soon come to realise that only 3 outcomes are possible: 100% : zero 50% : 50% 75% : 25% HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. A pure breeding long winged fly was crossed with a short winged fly. Predict how many of each phenotype would occur.au L However. There were 240 flies in the F2. Parents are Tt parent genotypes List of all possible gametes Punnett Square table shows all the possible offspring genotypes Phenotypes of Offspring Black : Albino 1:1 50% : 50% The phenotypes of offspring are written as a ratio or percentage L& l x L gametes l L& L l L LL L l L l l l l ll Phenotypes of Offspring Long Wing : Short Wing 3:1 75% : 25% If the F2 comprises 240 flies.. these are cases of “Mendelian Genetics” and you need to be able to predict the outcomes of simple crosses. black coat (B) is dominant to albino (b). we should expect close to 180 long wing flies and 60 short wing flies. 14 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only .keepitsimplescience. It has been found that there are many characteristics.com.® keep it simple science The Punnett Square the table shows all the possible genotypes of the offspring The “Punnett Square” working (right) shows the same cross. a punnett square is not really needed. this is a statistical prediction only. which are inherited just the way Mendel discovered. bb Bb b bb bb tt Phenotypes of Offspring Tall : Dwarf 3:1 75% : 25% ll LL x L only l only and Then. Study the following examples to help you work through the next worksheet. A scientist called Punnett invented a simpler method which you must learn to use. just by random chance. B&b t Sample Problem 2 “mono” = 1 (referring to just one characteristic) “hybrid” = cross-breed x T&t gametes T phenotypes of offspring should be shown as a ratio or percentage Monohybrid Crosses Bb Tt x T&t The “working out” of a cross by a diagram can be a bit messy and confusing. in all sexually-reproducing organisms. gametes T In drosophila fruit flies..

you will see that the expected outcome is 50% rollers and 50% non-rollers.. . some people can “roll their tongue” while others cannot. 1 Generations Questions & Answers How can we be sure that parents 1 & 2 are both “Rr” (heterozygous)? A: Since they produced son “4” who is a nonroller (must be genotype “rr”) both 1 and 2 must be carrying the recessive gene. This is a diagram showing the inheritance of a trait through a family.com. If you work out a punnett sqare for this. a daughter and 3 sons. Here is a pedigree of a family showing how this trait was passed on.and work out most people’s genotypes: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Rr Rr ? rr ? Rr rr rr (Individuals “3” & “5” might be either “RR” or “Rr”.. Examples are haemophilia (in which blood will not clot properly) and colour-blindness (inability to distinguish certain colours).. Vertical lines lead to children of that couple. and is NOT affected by the fact they have already had 2 non-roller children. Sarah can. then advise people about the risks to future children. individuals 1 & 2 were both tongue-rollers.. more information needed to be sure which) Example In humans. 2 I II 3 4 5 Can we be sure that son “6” is “Rr” and NOT “RR”? A: He married a non-roller (rr) and both the children in generation III are non-rollers. interpret and construct a pedigree diagram. 9 Uses of Pedigree Diagrams Pedigree diagrams are used to study human inheritance because it is not moral or ethical to carry out breeding experiments on people to discover which traits are dominant/recessive. Therefore. tongue-rolling ability must be Female with trait We can now assign symbols. 15 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . This is passed on by simple Mendelian Inheritance... the child’s phenotype must be recessive. Female without trait Horizontal connections are “marriage lines”.® keep it simple science Pedigrees (Family Trees) Interpretation of this Pedigree Another skill you must learn is how to read. Nathan can’t HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. In Generation I. The chance for the next child is 50% either way. both must be “Rr”.) Symbols Used in Pedigree Diagrams Male without trait Male with trait being studied Therefore. dominant. They had 4 children. Each generation is numbered by Roman Numerals. (Whenever a child shows a trait different to both parents. Most of the kids can roll their tongues. This means the inability to tongue roll must be recessive. He must be heterozygous (Rr) to do this. son “6” must have passed on a recessive gene to his children. The cross is Rr x rr. It is used particularly with human families to trace some characteristic over a number of generations. Therefore..keepitsimplescience. 7 6 III 8 9 rr If “6” and “7” had another child. Health professionals can study affected families by compiling a pedigree chart. could it be a tongue roller? What’s the chance? A: Yes. This allows people to make informed decisions about family planning. Individuals may be numbered for identification. but son “4” cannot. tongue-rolling = R non-rolling = r .au Some human disorders are inherited..

.................. numbers of plants so the numbers of offspring would be ac)............ state the expected phenotypes of the offspring as a percentage.........................-stem plants...-pollinate... the offspring plants were 100% h)..... where others had failed................. are brought together in each offspring........... Mendelian Genetics Problems 1.......................... characteristics 2........ and did not come to the attention of the scientific community until after his death..........................-zygous......... was a monk who experimented with b)............ The genes which control the “opposing” traits of a characteristic are called m)................. and it is pure-breeding? i) Use a punnett square to predict the outcome......... One of the alleles is dominant to the other..... plants and discovered the basics of how characteristics are c)........................... parent plants 3... He started with plants that were d).... iii) gg x GG iv) Gg x gg HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www....keepitsimplescience..................... (homozygous)........... he crossed pure-breeding tall-stem plants with e).. ii) heterozygous? iii) yellow? c) Use a punnett square to predict the outcome of each of the following crosses. genes............ 2... or n)............................. and crossed them.......................... black fur (B) is dominant to brown (b).............. Mendel’s achievements were not recognised because he was not ad)........ or may be different (called q)........................................... 5 black & 2 brown........... or g)... he bred ab).. he began with aa)................................... When the gametes unite at s).........com........ the F2 (which means j)............ and because his findings were published in an obscure journal written in ae)................... (Answer on reverse) i) Gg x Gg ii) Gg x GG ii) In fact........... if the genotype is: i) GG? ii) gg? iii) Gg? Name.............. When these were allowed to i)................ In pea plants....® keep it simple science Worksheet 4 Mendelian Genetics Fill in the blank spaces Name.........au 16 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . one gene from each t).....-breeding for 2 opposing traits....... For example...... The v)............. which is called u)....... of tall to dwarf plants... they produced 7 babies.... In each case...... In rats.. Worksheet 5 However...... i) green............. The appearance of an organism due to its genes is called the x)... he chose z)...................... Gregor a).. significant............... while the “genotype” is the y).............. an organism always has o)... f)..... but the recessive one can only be expressed in the case where it is w)...... (eg sperm/eggs) contain only 1 of the genes for each trait..................... In the first generation..... the r). ................) showed a ratio of k).................................................................. a) If a pure-breeding black rat mated with a purebreeding brown rat...... genes...................) In sexual reproduction....... For each characteristic..... what would be the i) genotypes of the offspring? ii) phenotypes of the offspring? b) What is the genotype of a plant with seed pods that are: b) One of the offspring from the cross described in part (a) was crossed with a brown rat........ Mendel was successful...... green seed pods (G) is a dominant trait over yellow seed pods (g) a) What is the phenotype of a plant............................ which may be p). because: 1.... Is this result surprising? Explain your answer.................... gene will always show its effect............. He explained these results as follows: Each trait is determined by “factors” we now call l).......

. green seed pods(G) is dominant to yellow pods (g). approximately 75% of the babies to be black. Inheritance of red-hair in the Meggs family... all the babies to be white. 50% tall : 50% dwarf.com.. giving reason(s). Was there any chance they might have had a child with curved little fingers? Explain your answer.. dwarf : tall. 75% tall: 25% dwarf. b) Mendel’s discoveries were ignored by other scientists for many years. II 5 6 7 8 9 III a) Is the curved little fingers trait dominant or recessive? Explain your answer referring to specific individuals above. Study the pedigree diagram. approximately.keepitsimplescience. Explain your answer. predict the phenotypes (as ratio or percentage) of the offspring from this second cross. approximately 50% of the babies to be white D.. T C. some people have little fingers that are straight. b) State whether “red-headedness” is a dominant or recessive trait.. he found that the F2 phenotypes were: A. Shaded shapes represent curved little fingers.. In mice... as far as is possible. f) In fact.. (cont) Multiple Choice Name. b) Assign the letters “S” and “s” appropriately to the 2 alleles operating in this pedigree. ratio of 3:1.. If a heterozygous mouse mated with a white mouse.au 2 c) Predict the hair colour of Fred & Mary’s grandchildren. The genotype of a pea plant described as “heterozygous tall” would be: A. 5. all the babies to be black. (5 marks) In pea plants. 2. you would expect A. b) Homozygous & Heterozygous. and bred them through 2 generations.. a daughter and 3 sons.. TT D. c) Genotype & Phenotype... 17 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only .. A pure breeding green pod plant was crossed with a pure-breeding yellow pod plant. The redheaded son married a red-headed girl and they have a son and a daughter.. Showing all working. 1.. Using the symbols chosen..® keep it simple science Worksheet 6 1 Pedigrees 4 3 I In humans.. Fred and Mary both have blonde-brown hair. approx.. Longer Response Questions 4. C. tt b) One of these offspring plants was later crossed with a yellow pod plant... (5 marks) Outline the reasons why: a) Mendel’s experiments were successful in discovering the fundamentals of how inheritance works.. Use a punnett square to predict the finger shapes of their children. Tt B.... e) Person 5 later married a girl with curved little fingers.. approx. This characteristic is inherited by simple Mendelian inheritance. a) Explain why all the offspring will have green pods. Black coat (B) is dominant to white (b). 3. C. When Gregor Mendel crossed pure-breeding tall pea plants with pure-breeding dwarf plants... person 5 and his wife had 2 beautiful little girls both with straight fingers. (6 marks) Explain the difference between each pair of words: a) Dominant & Recessive genes. the other 2 sons are similar to their parents. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. (on reverse) c) Extra information: individuals 2 & 4 are homozygous. 10 11 d) Couple 1 & 2 had children who all have straight fingers. D.. work out the genotypes of everyone in the pedigree.. Their daughter and one son are red-heads. B.. Is this possible? Is your prediction wrong? Worksheet 7 Test Questions section 2 5. 100% tall plants B. then answer the questions which follow. while others have curved little fingers. 6. They have 4 children. 7.. (8 marks) a) Use the following information to construct a pedigree diagram.

They only become visible (to a light microscope) during cell division. 2n = 4 Mitosis • Chromosomes occur in pairs. Genotype is AaBbCc. as a double chromosome. the chromosomes are first duplicated.. to form double chromosomes Homologous pair B In this case. and cell divides in 2. ORIGINAL BODY CELL with 4 chromosomes (2 homologous pairs) • Chromosomes are thread-like structures in the nucleus of cells.. and separate the chromatids. There may be 1000’s of genes on one chromosome. This cell is “DIPLOID” (abbrev. Now cells divide again.. At about the same time. This is how the genes could be located on some chromosomes. a A Consider 3 sets of genes. new techniques in using stains to highlight specific parts of the cell had led to the discovery of chromosomes..keepitsimplescience. merely corresponding. CHROMOSOMES & DNA STRUCTURE Chromosomes Mitosis & Meiosis Mendel’s discoveries were “re-discovered” by mainstream science in 1900. nor to parent cell Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only .. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. Chromosomes line up in their homologous pairs Chromosomes line up in a single line c The chromatids in a double chromosome are Indentical Chromatids in identical. Things to know. but are NOT identical. The combination of Mendelian Genetics + Chromosomes was the next big breakthrough.au DIPLOID CELLS 2n = 4 2 Daughter cells Identical to each other and to the parent cell 18 HAPLOID CELLS n=2 “Haploid” means half the chromosome number. each chromosome is duplicated. (heterozygous for each characteristic) c Another Homologous pair Notice that homologous pairs correspond with each other. Chromatids separate • Before cell division. Homologous pair of Double chromosomes Study the diagram. b C Meiosis In BOTH processes. The chromosomes are not in pairs. Homologous chromosomes correspond with each other by carrying allelic genes in corresponding locations. Now look more carefully at what happens to the chromosomes during each process. Chromosomes in a pair are called “homologous”. A A C C a a c Cell Divides in 2 b b B B Homologous pairs have separated. The original and its exact copy remain attached to each other. Study this diagram to get the idea. “2n”) (chromosomes in pairs) 4 Gamete cells NOT identical to each other.® keep it simple science 3.. Each part of a double chromosome is called a “Chromatid”.com. • Chromosomes have genes along their length. (look at the each chromosome genes in the diagram) but the homologous partners are not identical. You should already be familiar with the difference between these processes of cell division in terms of their outcomes.

HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. the entire molecule is corkscrewed into a “double helix”. The basic unit of DNA is a “Nucleotide”. it is a gene. G A-T T bonded G C-G G bonded C We now know that DNA is a double helix-shaped molecule which carries a chemical code. Chromosomes During Meiosis Mendel’s Genes Begin in homologous pairs Two genes for each characteristic Pairs separate in meiosis The 2 genes separate in gamete formation Gametes have only 1 of each chromosome pair (haploid) Gametes have only 1 of each gene pair At fertilisation. so 4 nucleotides are in DNA Sugar (Deoxyribose) The 4 different bases are usually known just by the first letter of each name: A Adenine C Cytosine G Guanine T Thymine DNA molecules are composed of 2 strands of nucleotides (one running “upside-down” compared to the other) which are joined by the bonding between “base” molecules. Both were aware of Mendel’s discoveries. made of many smaller units which are joined in long chains. Part of a DNA molecule Sugars & phosphates are the side rails Bases are the “steps” of a ladder Each chromosome contains 1000’s of DNA molecules (wrapped in protein) each one specifying one of the organism’s many hereditary traits. (named for nucleus) Walter Sutton (USA) and Theodor Boveri (Germany) had both been studying meiosis using new staining techniques which made chromosomes more visible.com. compared to how Mendel’s genes were inherited. rather like a spiral staircase or ladder. T A Notice that the only base combinations are A-T T and C-G G Chromosomes One Nucleotide Finally.keepitsimplescience. Like many biological molecules. DNA is a polymer. so the offspring gets back to having two genes per characteristic A NUCLEOTIDE Phosphate group “Base” molecule There are 4 different bases. each gamete supplies one gene. Two Strands of Nucleotide Chains T A Bases The obvious similaries made it clear that the genes must be located on the chromosomes in the cell nucleus. so the zygote gets back to having paired chromosomes (Diploid) At fertilisation.au 19 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . C Chromosomes Contain DNA Bases Chemical analysis reveals that chromosomes are made of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA for short) wrapped in proteins.® keep it simple science Chromosomes & Mendel’s Genes The Structure of DNA In 1902. which had been “rediscovered” just 2 years before. each gamete supplies one chromosome. two scientists independently noticed a similarity between the way that chromosomes behaved in meiosis...

Morgan discovered a male fly with white eyes. A female is described as “XX” Male’s sperm cells can either carry an X or a y. Males 50%: 50% see next page. the “sex chromosomes”.. YOU MUST TRACK THE “X” AND “y” CHROMOSOMES. 20 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . 22 pairs are called “autosomes” diagram to track. Of these. He set out to do a “Mendel-type” breeding experiment: PARENTS White-e eyed Male The possible female phenotypes are: Red-e eyed Female XRXR XRXr XrXr X (XX) genotypes & Red eye female (homozygous) Red eye female (heterozygous) White eye female The possible male (Xy) genotypes & phenotypes are: XRy Red eye male Xry White eye male F1 generation All have red eyes. The Explanation: The genes for eye colour are carried on the X chromosome.com. Females have a matching pair of chromosomesthat are known as “X” chromosomes.. In 1910. and one smaller “y” chromosome. The dominant (Red) gene can be designated as “XR”. Morgan concluded (correctly) Red is DOMINANT. Thomas Morgan began experimenting with Drosophila fruit flies and quickly found they were ideal for genetics experiments. WHEN DOING PUNNETT SQUARES WITH SEX-LINKAGE.® keep it simple science What Determines Sex? In humans. in an experiment involving flies with different eye colours. males and females were inheriting eye colour differently.au Note that females get 2 genes. Sex-Linkage Inheritance The common and normal eye colour in the flies is red. The recessive (White) gene is “Xr ” The male “y” chromosome does NOT carry one of these alleles at all.keepitsimplescience. Non-Mendelian Inheritance Gregor Mendel discovered the basics of Genetics. not genes.. Males are described as being “Xy”. but males only get one because their “y” chromosome lacks this allele totally. A male cannot be heterozygous for this trait and cannot have a “hidden” recessive gene.. and in many other species. his results were statistically significant. What’s going on? HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. Xy The 23rd pair are the “sex chromosomes”: Notice that X&y females can only pass on an X chromosome in their eggs. Morgan produced hundreds of flies in the experiment so. White RECESSIVE F1 flies were allowed to mate among themselves F2 generation Females 100% red eyed. sex is determined by a special pair of chromosomes. Males have one “X” chromosome.. Morgan realised that the way this characteristic was being inherited depended on the sex of the fly. but the sex and are the same size and shape in males as in chromosomes: Father Mother females. In a normal human body cell there are 46 How these chromosomes are passed on to chromosomes arranged in 23 homologous children can be shown using the Punnett Square pairs. XX x X&X gametes X X X XX XX y Xy Xy Girls Boys Phenotypes of Offspring Which type of Girls : Boys 1:1 sperm fertilises 50% : 50% the egg determines the sex of the baby.. but it was found early in the 20th century that genes don’t always work in that simple “Mendelian” fashion. like Mendel.

there is gene (R) that causes the hair of the animal’s coat to be “red” (actually a rustyPARENTS X brown colour). 21 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . The best-known are 2 genetic disorders: • Red-Green Colour Blindness. is a condition in which the blood does not clot properly. XRXr XR & Xr gametes XR Xr XR XRXR XRXr y XRy Xry Phenotypes of Offspring FEMALES MALES Red : White Red : White 100% : 0 50% : 50% Phenotypes of Offspring (both sexes) Red:White 100% : 0 There are a number of genes in humans that are sex-linked. with both alleles present. Notice that the F1 females are all heterozygous red eyed ( XRXr ) and the males are all red eyed ( XRy ). the animal must be RR WW homozygous for this gene. • Haemophilia. producing mottled patterns of red and white hair which is called “roan”.® keep it simple science Morgans’s Sex-Linkage Experiment (continued.com.) Then. Both genes are expressed.keepitsimplescience. Here is what happens in a “Mendel-type” cross: Example: In Shorthorn cattle. To be red. Genotype RR gametes: R only W only The other allelic gene (W) causes the coat to be white. is where a person cannot distinguish between certain colours. the F1 generation were allowed to breed among themselves. This is a fairly common situation in which the 2 alleles for a characteristic do not show a Dominant-Recessive pattern. if the animal is homozygous. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. and may result in an “in-between” phenotype.au RW F1 breed among themselves RW WW RED : ROAN : WHITE 1 : 2 : 1 25% : 50% : 25% Try to verify for yourself the F2 result by using a Punnett Square. inherited as recessive genes on the “X” chromosome.. putting the person at constant risk of internal bleeding. neither gene dominates the other. Here is the experiment explained by Punnett Square. Note that females are all heterozygous.. It was always a fatal condition. since neither gene is recessive. but in modern times people with haemophilia are treated with “clotting factors” from donated blood. F2 XRXR gametes XR & XR XR XR Xr XRXr XRXr y XRy XRy x XRy XR & y The F2 are red : white 3:1 just like Mendel’s results. but when both genes are present (heterzygous) they are both expressed. but the sexes are different. gametes: R or W RW RR F2 Phenotypes: Genotype RW Note that it is best to use 2 different CAPITAL letters as symbols in this case. They occur much more often in males than females. x Xry F1 Xr & y The F1 are all red-e eyed. Inheritance by Co-Dominance Another example of “Non-Mendelian Inheritance” is known as “Co-Dominance”. RW RW Genotype WW RW F1 100% Roan If an animal is heterozygous. Both conditions are sex-linked.

com. even before fertilisation occurs. imagine planting them (as baby seedlings) in very poor soil. Each pair of homologous chromosomes line up and separate at random. For example. Study the diagram of meiosis on page 18..au A Summary Meiosis creates variations in the way homologous chromosomes separate. education. but the environment may influence this. it is possible for meiosis to produce about 8 million different combinations of chromosomes in the gametes of each person! HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. The offspring receives genes from 2 different individuals. the environment has an effect as well. the flowers on each cutting can be different colours. each gamete gets just one of these 4 chromatids WITH CROSSING-O OVER Where does variation come from? Natural Selection needs differences between individuals to choose the survivors. 22 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . Variation Caused by Meiosis The process of meiosis to produce the sperm and egg cells increases variation. thereby getting a new “mix” of traits. how do they pass on their “survival traits” to their offspring? A a a MEIOSIS B The Science of Genetics can now explain that b B b Possible gene combinations in gametes AB or ab Remember.. Why is there variation anyway? a A Variation comes from MEIOSIS and Sexual Reproduction B B A a b MEIOSIS b Possible gene combinations in gametes AB aB Ab ab These chromosomes have exchanged pieces of chromatid with each other. Presumably these differences were due to different foods. In Hydrangea plants.® keep it simple science The Effect of Environment It’s not just an organism’s genes that produce its phenotype. “B” and “b”. and independently of all other pairs. so the number of different possible gametes is very large. In the USA about 40 years ago. AND in the process of Crossing-Over. further mixing up the possible gene combinations: GAMETE FORMATION WITHOUT CROSSING-O OVER How are characteristics inherited? When the “fittest” survive and breed. personality. creates a lot of variation. IN GOOD SOIL Genotype TT Phenotype TALL Genotype tt Phenotype DWARF Now. with 23 pairs of chromosomes. so that normal growth was not possible. possibly altering the final appearance (phenotype). Further variation comes from combining genes from 2 parents. Genetics. If the soil is slightly acidic the flowers will be blue. This has mixed up the combinations of genes “A”. a famous study was done on identical twins who had been adopted into separate families and raised in different environments. “a”. Charles Darwin freely admitted that there were 2 big gaps in his controversial Theory of Evolution. Sex and Evolution Crossing-Over During his lifetime.keepitsimplescience. and even appearance. During meiosis homologous chromosomes also swap pieces of chromatid with each other. The point is that the genes may control what the organism COULD grow up to be. The study found quite large differences between the twins in intelligence. In humans. consider some of Mendel’s pea plants with different genes for stem height. Remember that homologous chromosomes are NOT identical. etc. if cuttings are taken from a single individual (the cuttings would be genetically identical) and grown in different soils. IN POOR SOIL Genotype TT Genotype tt Phenotype DWARF Phenotype DWARF Identical twins have inherited exactly the same genes. Variation Caused by Sexual Reproduction The simple fact that sexual reproduction involves TWO parents. but in slightly basic soil they’ll be pink.

.. From this observation it was clear that w)............... (number) • Offspring receive ah). In 1902............................. cell..... Before a cell division.......... Each one is made of 3 smaller parts..................................... to each other...........................................au Name.................. 23 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only .. while egg or sperm cells have s)..... two scientists t).... while gametes are said to be q).......... noticed the similarities between how Mendel’s genes worked and how u)........... and ........... Thus... In Mitosis............... Then the cells divide again to form n)................. and the first division separates the m)...... It is known that the DNA molecules contain a chemical code which is a y)...................................... The “rungs” of the ladder are formed by 2 “bases” bonding with each other..... Chromosomes are thread-like structures in the a)............. The DNA molecule is a aa). The 2 parts are called f).................. In Meiosis..................... ............... (number) strands resembling a twisted ladder.. pairs...... ......... and ..® keep it simple science Worksheet 8 Chromosomes & DNA Fill in the blank spaces...............ae).. each with o)....... (number) chromosomes.. Chromosomes have been analysed chemically and found to contain x). genes in corresponding locations................. each one encoded by a molecule of z)............................... but correspond with each other because they carry d)......................... ad)...................... They are only visible during b).. the chromosomes line up l)...................... made of af). and ................ ac).. the chromosomes line up h)........ of a cell......... so that the daughter cells are j)................... and . The bases can only bond in combinations ag)............ There are 4 different “bases”......................com............................ and ..................................... separate............................................... to make a “double chromosome”...................................................... (letters) The DNA molecule is a double.......................... to each other.............................. WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www....... and the i)... • ai)........ • the process of aj)... of repeating units called ab)................ ........................................................................... each chromosome is e)......................................... The members of a c)....keepitsimplescience.... of homologous chromosomes in meiosis........ referred to as c).......................... and ... ...... Human body cells have a total of r).. pair are not identical....... shape............. the original number of chromosomes.................... WHEN COMPLETED...... Sexual reproduction produces variations in a population because: Body cells with pairs of chromosomes are called p)...... in meiosis........ and they are g)............................. Chromosomes come in pairs..................... known by the intial letters of their names. behave during v).......................................... (number) gametes........................ and to the k).... each chromosome contains many genes.................................................

..... who is heterozygous? b) a white bull mated with a roan cow. Offspring phenotypes should describe the sexes separately) 4.. Refer to the information about Co-Dominance. the feather colour is controlled by 2 alleles “B” and “W”. c) i) What is the genotype of a female.. b) From which parent (mother or father) does a white-eye male fly inherit his white eyes? Explain. d) Use a Punnett Square to predict the outcome of each cross below. b) a normal-vision male..com. red flowers.keepitsimplescience.... The heterozygous genotype BW results in black & white “speckled” feathers. c) Use these symbols to write the genotype for: i) red flower ii) pink flower iii) white flower d) Use a Punnett Square to predict the phenotypes resulting from crossing a redflowering plant with a white-flowering plant and breeding through to the F2 in a “Mendel-type” experiment.. 2.p20 a) Why are there 3 genotypes for female flies... a recessive gene (“Xn”) carried on the X chromosome causes colour-blindness. a) Suggest how just 2 genes can result in 3 different colours.. Use Punnett Squares to predict the phenotypes of calves born if: a) a roan bull mated with a red cow. c) a colour-blind male. Use these symbols to write the genotype of: a) a homozygous normal-vision female. Genotype WW produces white feathers.... (You must track the X & y chromosomes. c) a black rooster and a speckled hen... d) a colour-blind female. but there are 3 phenotypes possible.... but only 2 for males? Name. b) a black hen and a white rooster. (show working on back of sheet) HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www.. ii) What is her phenotype? iii) Explain why this genotype is often referred to as a “carrier” female.. b) Suggest suitable symbols for the alleles.au 24 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . e) a “carrier female” (heterozygous) f) A man with normal vision married a woman who is colour blind... Some plants have flower colours controlled as follows: There are only 2 alleles involved. 5.® keep it simple science Worksheet 9 Sex-Linkage & Co-Dominance Problems 1. Genotype BB produces black feathers. In a particular breed of chickens.. The “normal vision” gene can be symbolized by “XN”. Use a Punnett Square to predict the pattern of inheritance in their children.. 3. white flowers and pink flowers. In humans.. Refer to Morgan’s experiment with fruit flies. i) Xry crossed with XRXr ii) XRy crossed with Use a Punnett Square to predict the colours of chicks from: (show working on back of sheet) XrXr a) a speckled rooster and speckled hen...

If the organism is heterozygous for allelic genes “Q” and “q”. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. base pairs A-T and C-G.. Show your working. a heterozygous female will show the recessive phenotype. B.. In a species of small African rodents it was noticed that 2 grey coloured animals produced a litter of babies that were about 25% white. A “nucleotide” contains: A. D.. 5. A. iv) the chromosomes in ONE of the cells resulting from meiosis. 25% black and about 50% grey. phosphate.... grey is dominant to both black and white. sugar..au 25 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . Longer Response Questions Answer on reverse. 2. It seems likely that: 10... 3. black and white are co-dominant.. B.. males may inherit the trait only from their mother. A recessive. C. phosphate and 1 of 4 possible “bases”. C..keepitsimplescience. 4. are identical to each other. 23 chromosomes. with the help of simple diagrams if you wish.. grey is a recessive gene. A pair of homologous chromosomes: A. C. (6 marks) a) Sketch one pair of homologous chromosomes. 1.. & 1 of 4 possible sugars. iii) how these 2 chromosomes would line up for meiosis. sex-linked gene causes white eyes. B. D... males and females to show the phenotype equally.. B.. 46 chromosomes including either an X or a y.. the process of “crossing over” with chromosomes. D. 23 chromosomes. including either an X or a y. 6. 4 identical gametes... (5 marks) A certain species of African rodent was described in Multiple Choice Question 6. Using appropriate (declared) symbols.. if insufficient space. a “base”. (5 marks) In Drosophila fruit flies. If a recessive gene is “sex-linked” you would expect: A. ii) the chromosomes in ONE of the cells resulting from mitosis. In human sperm cells you would expect to find: A..... predict the phenotypes (separately for each sex) of the cross between a white-eye male and a heterozygous red-eye female. 9. males will pass the recessive gene on to their sons. the normal eye colour is red. Xr and y. 46 chromosomes including an Xy pair. D.® keep it simple science Worksheet 10 Test Questions Multiple Choice section 3 Name. C. B. b) Explain how this process contributes to the genetic diversity of a species... will line up as a pair during mitosis. D. show on your diagram the positions of all copies of these genes. b) Draw simple sketches to show: i) how these 2 chromosomes would line up for mitosis.. a mutation occurred to produce new colours in the babies. Using symbols XR.. amino acids in a polypeptide chain. carry totally different genes C. C.com. 2 diploid body cells.. 4 non-identical body cells. c) State one other process which increases genetic diversity in a species. Meiosis produces: A. D. carry alleles in corresponding locations.. co-dominant alleles are controlling coat colour. B.. 8.. including an X. predict the outcome of a mating between a grey and black animal of this species. 7.. 4 haploid gamete cells. (3 marks) a) Explain. just before a cell was to undergo a cell division.

keepitsimplescience. they figured out the base-pairing.. DNA REPLICATION A C A A T G C C G G C A T T A C G G C Sugar & phosphate chains CG “Spare” nucleotides CG C AT G G A C T C T Nucleotides match up with complementary base on original strand. That’s exactly what happens to all the DNA in each chromosome. doublestranded DNA TA G T A T Double-s stranded Helix C-G G GC Molecule is untwisted and “unzipped” by enzymes Then a young American. he took their data to Crick for his expert interpretation. Enzymes connect them in place.au Original.. This means that if you have ONE STRAND of a DNA molecule it is a “mirror-image” template for the other. Success came from different people communicating and unselfishly sharing their knowledge and talents. • Replicate (duplicate) itself for cell division? • Control the phenotype of an organism? It seemed likely that the key to this problem was to find out the structure of the DNA molecule. MOLECULAR GENETICS & MUTATION How DNA Structure Was Discovered DNA Replication By the middle of the 20th century it was suspected that DNA was probably the “genetic chemical” and it was known that it contained sugar. The story of what happened is a classic example of how Science and scientists make progress using collaboration and communication. phosphate and the 4 bases A. G G C A G T AT GC CG A T T C G A T GC AT T A CG GC When completed. which are the genes on the chromosomes. each new DNA molecule is twisted back into a doublehelix shape. if DNA was the genes. Each had certain data. each strand can be used to build a new. before a cell division occurs.C. visited the Wilkins-Franklin laboratory. Bases A G T C C A T C A G G T The only combinations that will bond are Meanwhile. who was interested in understanding the DNA mystery. Maurice Wilkins (New Zealand) managed to prepare a pure crystal of DNA. James Watson.. or skills or expertise. and Rosalind Franklin (England) was able to get an X-Ray Diffraction image of it. forming a new strand. “old” strand “New” strand No one of these scientists could have made progress alone. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. What no-one could understand was. 26 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . double-helix structure of DNA and realised immediately how this structure could lend itself to replication. how could it: So how does the structure of the DNA molecule lend itself to replication? The key is the way the complementary bases bond together in the double stranded structure.® keep it simple science 4. complementary strand. English scientist Francis Crick had become an expert at interpreting the shapes of molecules using the new technique of “X-ray Diffraction”. are replicated in preparation for cell division. If you split a DNA molecule into 2 separate strands. but neither understood how to make any sense of the pattern it produced. an essential feature of a gene.. With their collaboration. at another laboratory. Watson and Crick made one of the most notable scientific breakthroughs in the history of Biology.G and T. Pairs of Bases and A-T T TWO IDENTICAL DNA MOLECULES This is how the DNA molecules. sugar-p phosphate “side rail” In 1953. but only by bringing it all together was the great discovery possible.com. Between them.

. The other “mirror-image” strand is present only to allow the gene to be replicated for cell divisions. Each 3 bases are a “code word” (called a “Codon”) which specifies an amino acid to go into the polypeptide chain. they found that there were 3 different genes that could produce the same defective phenotype.000 amino acids is needed.R and S are cell chemicals.® keep it simple science DNA and Protein Synthesis How Can DNA Control a Phenotype? The sequence of bases in the DNA molecule is a code. or the gene for enzyme 2.2 & 3 must have a separate gene. and so on. • Many “Special Molecules” are proteins.. So. The exact shape of the final protein depends on the sequence of the amino acids in the polypeptide chain. Amino Acid molecules a “Polypeptide” chain may contain 1000’s of amino acids Amino Acids forming a Polypeptide ENZYME Protein with precise 3-D D shape If a polypeptide containing 1. (the oxygen carrier in blood) chlorophyll (absorbs light for photosynthesis) antibodies (which help fight disease) . several polypeptides join together to form the final protein molecule Only one strand of the double-helix of DNA is the gene. Protein Functions Proteins have many functions within an organism: • Enzymes are all protein molecules • Structural Molecules. such as in muscle fibres.com. DNA Strand Bases Protein Structure has been covered briefly in previous topics. 3-D D shape. A “Gene” is a DNA molecule which specifies one polypeptide HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. Changing Definitions of a “Gene” When studying Genetics at the organism level: “gene” = the hereditary unit which determines one trait in the organism’s phenotype. hair and bone matrix are proteins. and some of them are attracted to (or repelled from) each other. To answer this question. will be the gene for this polypeptide.keepitsimplescience. Normal Chemical Pathway in Fungi Cells P Enzyme 1 Q Enzyme 2 R Enzyme 3 S P. two American scientists. such as haemoglobin. of proteins. Here’s a quick revision: T A Codon C T G G C A T C A A PROTEINS are polymers of Amino Acids. A Polypeptide is NOT a protein until it folds and twists into a final. then “S” cannot be made. How the DNA base sequence makes a functioning protein which then produces a phenotype is explained by a simple model on the next page. you need to be reminded about the structure. If any reaction is blocked. skin. it is the shape of the protein molecule which is essential to its correct functioning. IT IS THE DNA WHICH CONTROLS THE AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. Studying a genetic defect in a common fungus.000 nucleotide bases. Beadle and Tatum realised that each enzyme 1. then a DNA molecule made up of 3. Then. “gene” = a unit of heredity that specifies a protein Proteins carry out many vital functions. The phenotype “S-defect” could be produced by a defect to the gene for enzyme 1. in the 1940’s. and that some proteins require more than one polypeptide chain.au 27 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . and the organism has a chemical defect In every case. George Beadle and Edward Tatum discovered the connection of genes to proteins. the new definition for a gene became: Enzymes can only connect to their substrate if their shape is right. and many more.. or the gene for enzyme 3. There are about 20 different amino acids. Sometimes. Haemoglobin can only pick up oxygen if the shape is correct. so how the chain twists and folds upon itself depends on exactly which ones are located where.. But now that we know about DNA..Q.. and the role. Correct functioning depends on the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain.

but are only expressed in your iris cells. The coloured pigment is made by enzymes. Similarly. What controls which genes are expressed is still unknown in most cases. used to build muscle or skin Possibly it is combined with other polypeptides or special chemical groups to form. coded in your DNA Amino Acids are carried into position by t-R RNA (“Transfer RNA”) molecules It could be a Hormone.au 28 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only ..keepitsimplescience.® keep it simple science How DNA Causes a Phenotype Part 1. used to carry oxygen in the blood a functional PROTEIN molecule It could be an ENZYME.com. Substrates You should recall that the Ribosomes are organelles responsible for protein synthesis in cells Maybe it becomes a molecule of Haemoglobin. From DNA to Polypeptide The next step is called The initial step is called TRANSLATION TRANSCRIPTION DNA m-R RNA RNA is a polymer of nucleotides. From Polypeptide to Phenotype The polypeptide chain twists and folds to form a protein Perhaps it’s a structural protein. similar to DNA. which controls some aspect of Homeostasis Enzyme Enzyme catalyses reaction(s) to produce coloured pigment in cells of the iris of the eye Product. but • single strand only • different sugar • one different nucleotide gr ow in g Each 3-b base “codon” in m-R RNA specifies one amino acid in the polypeptide chain This occurs in the nucleus mfro RNA m m the ove nu s ou cle t to us ar ibo som e P by oly ad pep di ti tio de n ch of a Am in in o Amino Acids Ac id s m-R RNA Ribosome moves along m-R RNA then. Part 2. the genes for liver functions are only expressed in your liver cells. and genes to make taste buds are only expressed in your tongue. able to catalyse a chemical reaction Example: Eye Colour STARTING CHEMICALS (Substrates) t-R RNA’s Ribosome enzymes connect the amino acids to form a polypeptide chain One strand of the DNA (the gene) acts as a “template” for the production of a single-s stranded “messenger RNA” (m-R RNA) The colour of your eyes is a genetically determined phenotype. which are proteins. a Coloured Pigment The gene(s) for eye colour are present in every cell of your body. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www..

No effect on multicellular organism. • Certain Chemicals. with a sunny climate and outdoor lifestyle. some pesticides. Gamete involved in fertilisation Mutation might cause malfunction in cell. have high rates of skin cancer.® keep it simple science Mutation DNA Change Makes a New Gene In all organisms. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. ranging from absolutely nothing. C T G G A Blue • Medical records from Japan following the Atom Bomb attack on Hiroshima (1945) indicate a huge increase in genetic mutations among the people in the years following. or nuclear radiations. T Just one amino acid being different may alter the way the polypeptide folds into its 3-D shape. they are just accidents that happen. Mutation rates are higher in hotter climates. fruit flies etc) by exposing them to doses of X-rays. and meiosis to make gametes for sexual reproduction. helps survival. Entire chromosome can be “lost”. then incorrectly repaired. • Chromosomes get broken. • neither good nor bad. This could alter the shape of an enzyme molecule. No effect.au 29 Offspring might get new inheritable gene.. just different. • Errors can occur in duplicating the DNA. Change will occur here Original DNA Strand Bases T A C Codon T G G C A T C A A Any accidental change to the genetic material is a Mutation. so that instead of producing (say) Blue-Eye Phenotype.. The mutation becomes a new variation to be inherited by future generations Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . the chromosomes are replicated and all the DNA they contain makes an exact copy of itself. Whenever a cell is about to divide. New trait might be: • detrimental. New Mutated Enzyme Colour Pigment Effects of Mutation Mutation during Meiosis Affects a Gamete Mutation during Mitosis Affects a Body Cell Mutation might have no effect on cell. But sometimes mistakes happen.. but future generations are not. for example. it produces a new colour pigment. These cancers are believed to be due (at least in part) to the mutagenic properties of UV light. Changed base Altered DNA Strand Mutant Phenotype (new colour) Gamete NOT involved in reproduction.keepitsimplescience. You will see at the bottom of this page that mutations can have many possible effects. original Enzyme C A A Pigment in iris Original Phenotype (Blue eyes) Substrate Chemical • Countries like Australia. How could a new characteristic happen? Imagine an accidental change to just 1 base in a DNA strand. • Radiation. However. A 1 Amino Acid will be different in the polypeptide Evidence for Mutagenic Nature of Radiation It depends on what sort of cell the mutation occurs in. Cell might not be able to function properly. and include: Bases T A Codon • Higher Temperatures. including X-rays. • Controlled experiments have demonstrated that genetic changes can be induced in living things (eg plant seeds. nuclear radiation and ultra-violet radiation from the Sun. cells divide all the time. which becomes cancerous. fungi. less chance to survive. it is known that certain factors can increase the likelihood of mutations. Cell dies.. Causes of Mutation Amino Acids forming a Polypeptide Some mutations do not have any clear cause. These factors are called mutagens. Organism seriously affected. to a new inheritable characteristic. • an improvement. There’s mitosis to make new cells for growth.com.

due to the “patchiness” of the fossil record. 4... apparently unchanged. for millions of years.THEN A RAPID BURST a very rapid OF CHANGES genetic shift within 20 years or so. New traits originate from genetic mutation. The Rate of Evolution Evidence for Punctuated Equilibrium Darwin always imagined that evolution was a very slow process. This does not prove that a new species can evolve quickly. The “Fittest” individuals reproduce and pass on their characteristics as genes (DNA) inherited by the processes of Genetics.. It is suggested that a species might change significantly within just a few thousand years rather than millions. called “Punctuated Equilibrium” suggests that evolution does not occur in a slow and steady way. but the original source of variation is MUTATION. sharp bursts of rapid change. inheritable trait in an offspring. 1. 3. in Darwin’s opinion.000 generations over perhaps millions of years.® keep it simple science Mutation and Evolution Mutations occur at random in the DNA molecules and chromosomes.. This idea. In every species there is variation. Usually. but occasionally a mutation produces a new.. 5. Some fossil sequences show the same species existing..g. and so on. Only when 2 heterozygous individuals mate and bring together a pair of recessive genes does the new phenotype actually appear. Over generations. STEADY CHANGES OVER A VERY LONG TIME The fact that the fossils GRADUALISM showed significant change from one rock layer to the next was simply. SLOW.. a species evolves... but in short. Perhaps it rapidly EVOLUTION by evolved into the PUNCTUATED “new” species? EQUILIBRIUM EVOLUTION by STABLE AGAIN NO CHANGE.. • slightly bigger ears • slightly shorter toes • a new colour pigment in the fur • a slightly longer intestine . However. Finally. Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis keep mixing the genes in new combinations. Being recessive. then suddenly “disappearing” and being replaced by a different (but similar) species.keepitsimplescience. in between long periods of little or no change at all. producing greater variation. it is such small differences that give the variation to a population for Natural Selection to work on. but lends support to the idea of rapid change. The new phenotype might be quite a trivial difference.com. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. The debate continues. giving us just a glimpse here and there of the slow and steady changes going on. 2. they can be inherited through many generations without ever being visible in the population. Traits are mixed in new combinations by meiosis and sexual reproduction.. for a species to change significantly. 30 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . Natural Selection chooses the survivors.au Studies on living populations (eg snails in grasslands) show that if the environment changes suddenly (e. taking at least 100.. Darwin & Wallace’s Theory of Evolution is complete. because of humans clearing the land) the species can respond with . An alternative explanation was proposed in the 1970’s. new mutant genes are recessive alleles. All organisms produce more offspring than can survive. Most are detrimental to the cell in which they occur.

.... and certain aw)..... was able to prepare a crystal of pure DNA................ are known to be mutagens.... skin and hair cells........ and the complementary base-pairing allows DNA molecules to be i)................... Between them... & ......................-stranded.... chain”........ One different base could cause one bb).................................... Compared to DNA.. to one of the aj)........ and has a different ag)................. To do this.... and involves the production of a molecule of ad)... and took their data to Francis f)...... was able to get an X-ray Diffraction image of the crystal.... was put forward................................................................ chain...... called al).................... then catalyse the reaction to join the amino acids to each other...................... in the “backbone” of the molecule......... and these are specified by the base sequence of the z)....................... The discovery of the structure of DNA shows how good a)............................................-stranded structure.. 31 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only ................................. Watson & Crick figured out the double-helix shape and the g)......................... molecule can create a new gene................ James e).................................. each other.... (number) different amino acids and they may attract or u).. and bases n)....................... including ax)... Here the second stage....... Some do not have any discernible cause..... This in turn could alter the bd).......... occurs....................... Once a new strand is built onto each “old” strand................ of a protein.......................................................... can go together........... For example... for the making of a new complementary strand................. this could result in a different bf).... In DNA each aa).......................... it must twist and fold into a precise r)... First............. which aq)......... the polypeptide chain must then twist and fold to form a functioning ap)............ As an example................ According to the code of bases on the m-RNA...................... Various forms of radiation are mutagenic.. of the amino acids....................... is called a “q).... and az) ............. in preparation for a cell j)..................... it could become an enzyme... in a population comes from originally......... but neither of them could interpret it. acids...... called au)...... In the 1970’s a new idea. proteins in muscles................... which produces the phenotype of eye colour......... the “gene strand” of the DNA is used as a ae). DNA molecules.................................................................................................... of evolution................................. and b)............................. for long periods of time..... the RNA is only af)... This shape is due to the sequence of y)............................ Proteins are polymers of p).......... called an)........ because they explain where bh). is one................... and Rosalind d)..... and w).............) to specify one amino acid............... of the protein which is vital to its correct functioning............... If this protein is an be)....... who had become an expert in this new technology...................................... Maurice c).. Another form of RNA......... ...... Any accidental as)........................................... and one different ah).....keepitsimplescience.... The reaction might result in the production of a coloured ar)......... resulting in a different chemical product.... but there are certain factors.... carries each amino acid into place..... the result is 2 o)....................-pairing structure of DNA............ the m-RNA moves out of the ai).. to a gene or chromosome is a at)............. chain.. collaborated with them.. The first step in the process is called ac).....au Name.................. to build the RNA from nucleotides......... Practice Questions are at the end of the next section.... There are about t)................. (number) bases form a code word (called a ab).... The h)....... & .... Some different types of proteins include v)... To cause a phenotype to occur............................ These organelles are the sites of protein ak).. amino acids are placed one-by-one in sequence to build the am).... and ay).... because only bases m)....® keep it simple science Worksheet 11 Molecular Genetics & Mutation Fill in the blank spaces Next...................... in the iris cells of the eye..................................... then the way it catalyses a reaction could change........ A chain of p)........... HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www....................... the DNA strands k)............. and so a new phenotype for eye colour.. It has usually been accepted that evolution occurs with a slow and steady accumulation of changes. and then undergo bk).......... Then each strand can act as a l).......... Altering just one base on a ba)................. causing the chain to twist and fold upon itself..... it is the x).................... which catalyse metabolic reactions... Mutations are significant for the Theory of bg)........ To become a functioning protein..........com.......... This suggests that species bj)................ Higher av).... called bi).. Each base specifies what must go on the new strand.... a chemical reaction in the iris of the eye..... Exactly how the chain twists and folds depends on the exact s)...-acid to be different in the bc)......................................... The enzymes of the ao)..... contribute to scientific progress. which increase the likelihood of a mutation.. ..................... In each case........

Artificial Pollination Every time a plant is grown from a cutting. Later. a clone is being created. There are “sperm banks” of frozen semen for this use.. and even ourselves. or by grafting. but he and his wife wish to have children. the process of “Tissue Culture” has allowed plant cloning on a massive scale. thereby improving the quality of cattle herds all over the world. it involves taking pollen from one (selected) plant and dusting it onto the flower of the other (selected) parent. Such “cross-breeds” are called “Hybrids”. REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES & GENETIC DIVERSITY Reproductive Technologies Cloning Humans have developed a number of techniques for controlling or enhancing the reproduction of crop plants. it can be used to fertilise a cow. Body Cell Artificial Insemination (A.) Semen can be collected from a champion bull. The simplest form of cloning is asexual reproduction. dogs. almost all of our cereals.au EGG DONOR PARENT of CLONE “Fertilized” egg placed in uterus Normal pregnancy and birth The baby lamb is genetically identical to the single parent at top left. Distributed anywhere in the world. This is the oldest and simplest reproductive technique. for their own reproduction too. which has been done artificially with plants for thousands of years. There are huge advantages. Gregor Mendel used this to control the reproduction of his pea plants. Very simply. divided up into many small samples and frozen.com. Diploid Nucleus Extracted Unfertilised Egg Nucleus removed Diploid Nucleus from body cell placed into Egg Cell Thus a top-quality bull can become the father of many thousands of calves. sheep and so on. domesticated animals. such as great consistency in growth rates and food quality. she can be inseminated with semen from an anonymous donor. we will discuss possible disadvantages.I. This involves taking thousands of small pieces of tissue (each perhaps just a few cells) from a “parent” plant and culturing them in a nutrient liquid in a test tube in the laboratory. New “types” are created by artificial pollination using different varieties or even different species. More recently. For example. except younger 32 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . This allows a clone of many thousands to be grown from just one parent plant.I.keepitsimplescience. Farmers and gardeners have been doing this for thousands of years. In modern agriculture. This results in millions of almost identical plants being grown in crop “monocultures”. Cloning of animals is much more difficult and the first mammal clone was not achieved until the 1990’s with the famous “Dolly” the sheep. HOW TO CLONE A MAMMAL Commercially it has many advantages. (Discussed later) Surrogate Mother Humans use A. This gives complete control over which plants become the parents of the next generation. huge numbers of seeds are produced. this would be an ethical & moral issue.® keep it simple science 5. fruits and vegetables are now the result of artificial pollination. A “clone” is a group of organisms which are all genetically identical. This works too. Once commercially important varieties are created. It is an “identical twin”. Eventually they grow large enough to be planted out into soil to grow to be “adult” plants. If a man is sterile.. and it had probably been used for centuries before that. but there may be disadvantages too. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. for racehorses. No-one has seriously suggested using this to “improve” the human race. such as entire herds of high-quality beef cattle. the “nectarine” is a hybrid of peach and a plum. again by artificial pollination of selected parent plants.

Gene Transfer Purpose / Benefits They relied totally on potatoes.au Bacteria produce insulin (to treat diabetic patients) in great quantity. the widespread use of A. and everyone was growing the same crop! Human genes for bloodSheep can be milked and blood clotting factors inserted factors extracted to treat into sheep. Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . and cloning all have the potential to diminish the Genetic Diversity of the species involved. There are many benefits to this. Among farm animals such as beef cattle.. This has also resulted in low genetic variation. Its spores spread on the breeze and it destroyed a crop field within days of infection. climate change) might adversely affect ALL the population. Is this a disaster waiting to happen? Already. blood factors in their milk. Some examples: In Ireland in the 19th century. humans are altering the “gene pools” of species in another way. then any change in the environment (eg a new disease. parent. Transgenic Species As well as reproductive technologies. such as wheat and rice. so there was little genetic variety. but there may be serious consequences too.. which produce patients suffering Haemophilia. This was asexual reproduction. the only crop which grew well in the climate and produced enough food to live on. resistant varieties were slowly introduced. By then. or even just one. A. many of our food crops.® keep it simple science Reproductive Technologies & Genetic Diversity Too much of the same? Artificial Pollination. result in many offspring being produced from just a few. The plants were grown from “seed-potatoes” saved from the best plants of the previous year’s crop. and leave no survivors. to resist freezing better. This means that all these offspring are closely related to each other and have less genetic diversity. This “Potato Blight” totally destroyed the crops for 3 successive years until different. Remember that genetic diversity (“variation”) is essential for the long-term survival and evolution of a species. All these processes. In 1847. Genetic Engineering technology is able to The Irish Potato Famine transfer one or more genes from one species to another to form “Transgenic Species”. the entire population may be a clone of genetically identical plants grown from cuttings and “suckers” (asexual runners) from a single parent..I. Canada and Australia. Strawberry plants have Allows strawberries to be received a gene from a grown in colder areas not fish. which allows them previously possible. any insect which eats the crop will die. Millions more fled Ireland. a fungal disease struck. Crop plants have received a gene from the Pyrethrum plant which causes the crops to produce a natural insecticide chemical. Human gene for Insulin hormone inserted into bacteria Almost every field was planted with the same variety of high-yield potato. to improve herds has also lessened the genetic diversity of those herds.I.com. an estimated 1 million people had starved to death. 33 Crops do not need to be sprayed with insecticides to control insect pests. if used on a large scale. Our food crops and animals have been bred selectively for high productivity. In a banana plantation.keepitsimplescience. thousands of poor families lived by subsistence farming on rented fields barely large enough to grow food for a family. If a species has little variation.. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. are “monocultures” of millions of individual plants who are “siblings” from relatively few parents. settling in USA.

and wrong religiously and morally. the DNA fragment becomes incorporated into its chromosomes. Reproductive technologies. the main concerns tend to be ethical issues raised by society. and can readily join together when mixed in the presence of suitable enzymes. The desired fragment can then be incorporated into the DNA of the “target species” by several possible methods. the fragments match-up. Circular bacterial DNA extracted from a bacterial cell Human DNA. the companies who develop transgenic species own patents on them. informed opinion. Since both were cut by the same enzyme. The DNA fragment is inserted into a harmless virus. Firstly. Early treatments relied on extracting insulin from animals at an abbatoir. These cells can be isolated and grown in huge numbers. DNA re-iinserted into bacterial cells. putting profit before people. You need to be aware of the issues and prepared to form your own.au This is seen as unethical. • In the case of transferring human genes into bacteria. This is often achieved by collecting DNA from cells of this species and chopping it into fragments using “restriction enzymes” from bacteria. notably to produce pure human insulin for treating diabetics. “Recombinant DNA” Technology now supplies pure human insulin. 34 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . the same “restriction enzyme” is used to chop-up both the human DNA.® keep it simple science How Genes are Transferred The exact mechanism of transfer of genes for Genetic Engineering depends on the species. Weigh up the benefits (some were listed on previous page) against the concerns some people raise. • foods from transgenic species may have unforseen consequences for human health. Human Insulin Type I Diabetes is a killer disease in which a person’s pancreas stops making the hormone insulin.. However. the gene to be transferred from the “source species” needs to be isolated. extracted from a human cell chemically “chopped-u up” into fragments chemically cut open Mixed together • Some viruses quite naturally transfer pieces of DNA from one cell to another. Ethical Issues Concerning Genetic Engineering • transferring genes. but there were many side-effects and supplies were uncertain. and the bacterial “Plasmid”. especially human genes. The DNA becomes incorporated into a chromosome and is an inherited gene from that point on. there is no single correct answer. into other species is unnatural. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. • In some cases the DNA fragment can be injected into an egg of the target species. • under current law. These can be “enlisted” as vectors to carry DNA to the target cells... such as inceases in cancer. and are making huge profits by forcing farmers to use their products or sell-out.keepitsimplescience. No-one has the right to expose us all to unknown risks. the growing bacteria will make human insulin .. This technique has been in use for about 40 years. These enzymes have the ability to cut DNA into sections. It often takes a lot of trial-and-error to then locate a fragment of the chopped-up DNA containing the desired gene. a bacterial chromosome. Some human DNA fragments recombine with the bacterial DNA. They produce human insulin which can be collected for the treatment of diabetes.. Then when the virus is allowed to infect a “target cell”.com.. Without insulin their cells cannot absorb glucose and they lapse into a coma and die. If the recombinant DNA contains the gene for insulin. such as Genetic Engineering and “Transgenic Species” cause some scientific concerns about loss of genetic diversity.

. The corresponding m-RNA section would be ATTCGAGGCTAC.. (5 marks) a) What is a “mutagen”? b) Describe 2 pieces of evidence that radiation is mutagenic... The factor least likely to be mutagenic is: A. A....... D. DNA replication is possible because: A. nuclear radiation. herbicide chemicals like agent orange... C. This section contains 6 codons. low temperatures. 10. Crossing-over process during mitosis. (4 marks) Compare and contrast the idea of “Gradualism” in Evolution.com. this is a mutation. (5 marks) a) Give an example of the use of a “transgenic” species. 9. 3. C.. and ii) the benefit or purpose achieved...ATTCGAGGCTAC. (6 marks) Use a simple flow chart diagram to outline the process by which DNA controls the production of a polypeptide.. The complementary strand would read TAACGACCGTAC. 7. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www... (5 marks) a) Outline the process that can be used to make a clone of a mammal. The base sequence on a part of a DNA chain is .. A. B..au 35 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . DNA acts as a template to make m-RNA. When genes are transferred from one species to another: A.. if insufficient space. D.... B. Combining gametes from different parents at fertilisation.. b) Explain the effect that cloning could have on the genetic diversity of the cloned species.. with the theory of “Punctuated Equilibrium”. Each DNA strand makes an identical copy of itself.. C. This section could code for 4 amino acids... D. Independent segregation of homologous pairs in meiosis. B.. 2.. Mutation in a gamete before fertilisation. this reduces the genetic diversity of the species. C. D. how a change in a DNA sequence could result in a change in cell activity.. c) Describe using a simple flow chart. the result would be a clone of the original. 5. Which of the following is NOT a source of increased genetic diversity in a species? 6. b) State an ethical concern that some people might have with the use of this transgenic species.keepitsimplescience. C. D. B. ultra-violet light. Longer Response Questions Answer on reverse..... stating: i) precisely which species are involved. Each DNA strand makes a complementary strand. The polypeptide chains in DNA are “mirror images”... Which of the following statements is correct? 8.® keep it simple science Worksheet 12 Test Questions Multiple Choice section 4 & 5 Name. 1. 4. B. this produces a transgenic species..

THE BLUEPRINT OF LIFE HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www.au 36 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only .® keep it simple science CONCEPT DIAGRAM (“Mind Map”) OF TOPIC Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts.com. Practise on this blank version.keepitsimplescience.

Sequencing the DNA of different species allows their degree of “relatedness” to be determined very precisely.. Divergent evolution is when one ancestral species evolves into 2 or more different species. lizard. “Survival of the Fittest”: those best suited to the environment survive and reproduce. B 3. bat. These “decay” at known rates. There is variation within each species.. Convergent evolution is when different species evolve to resemble each other. a) An example is the “Pentadactyl Limb” structure in vertebrate animals. supply j) who are best suited k) reproduce l) survive m) reproduce n) Pepper o) industrial p) black to light moths q) DDT r) selection s) resistant t) extinct u) Partitioning v) using slightly different resources w) evolves into several / more than one x) isolated y) selection z) Convergent aa) resemble ab) similar / same ac) characteristics / adaptations ad) dolphin ae) features / adaptations af) closely related 11. Relative Dating is done by correlating fossils from one place with those elsewhere. Worksheet 2 a) Charles Darwin & Alfred Wallace b) more offspring than can possibly survive c) variation (genetic diversity) d) Natural Selection e) best suited f) reproduce / breed g) Survival of the Fittest h) evolves / changes i) predators.au 37 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . b) This is evidence of descent from a common ancestor which had that bone structure. Absolute Dating involves measuring the radiation from naturally occurring radioisotopes. DNA analysis reveals that birds are more closely related to crocodiles than either is to the lizards. but are not related in an evolutionary sense.. where a different species of finch has evolved on each separate island. Answer Section Worksheet 1 a) Palaeontology b) fossils c) less d) more e) less f) more g) present-day organisms h) millions (billions) i) relative j) correlating k) Radiometric l) transitional m) Archaeopteryx n) dinosaur o) bird p) how living things are distributed q) very similar r) very different s) common ancestor t) bone structure u) for different purposes v) Pentadactyl limb w) DNA x) enzymes y) common ancestry z) species can be changed 10.com. C 2. etc. but the actual ages cannot be determined. For example. D 6. It allows scientists to put things in order. Over many generations the species changes. are all essentially the same. 4. fastswimming look-alikes.® keep it simple science 9. The “survival characteristics” get passed on to offspring so each generation is slightly different than before. “Natural Selection”: the factors of the environment choose which individuals survive. 12. walking. from oldest to youngest. B 5. not all the same. since closely related species have very similar DNA. 3. C 7. An example is the shark & dolphin which are both streamlined. Worksheet 3 1.keepitsimplescience. food. dog.. even though each looks very different on the outside. flying. 2. 5. it evolves. A 4. swimming.. all from a single ancestral species.. All species produce more offspring than can survive. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. it has previously been thought that lizards and crocodiles (both classified as reptiles) are more closely related to each other than to birds. (Best in 5 numbered points) 1. and each is used for very different purposes. An example is the finches of the Galapagos islands. even though they are not closely related. The bone structures in the fore-limb of a whale. human. so the amount of radiation remaining in a rock or fossil allows the actual age in years to be determined.D 8. This has revealed some surprises that have changed the thinking on evolutionary relationships. etc.

10=SS or Ss(uncertain).com. f) It is quite possible.. eg “Aa”. In small samples. 50% straight. C 4. random chance can result in offspring ratios that are not in agreement with the prediction. easily identified ab) large ad) a recognised scientist b) S = Straight. Dwarf. Heterozygous means to have 2 different alleles for the trait. Recessive gene can only be expressed when no other allele is present (i. Phenotypes of Offspring Black : Albino 50% : 50% ii)Not surprising. 3=ss. a) i) green b) i) GG c) i) ii) yellow ii) Gg iii) green iii) gg Gg Gg x G&g Worksheet 7 G&g gametes G g G GG Gg g Gg gg 1. HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. 2=SS. Aa Phenotypes of Offspring Green : Yellow 3:1 75% : 25% c) Genotype is the description (usually in symbols) of the actual genes present for a trait. random chance can give results not exactly in the expected ratio. • he bred large numbers of offspring so the results could be interpreted statistically. because all children must receive a “S” gene from mother who is “SS”. B 2.au 38 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only .. 7=Ss. 8=Ss. b) pea d) pure f) dwarf h) tall j) 2nd generation l) genes n) allelic p) the same r) gametes t) parent v) dominant x) phenotype z) simple. A 3. 5=Ss. This can only happen if both parents are carrying a “hidden” gene. a) Dominant gene will always be expressed. a) Mendel’s experiments were successful because: • he chose to study simple traits that occurred in just 2 alternative forms. ii) Gg x GG: 100% green iii) gg x GG 100% green iv) Gg x gg 50% green : 50% yellow 2. in German. aa) pure-breeding ac) statistically ae) German a) Recessive. b&b gametes b b B Bb Bb b bb bb b) His work was ignored because: • he was not a recognised scientist. didn’t realize the significance). but a monk in an obscure monastery. Prediction is not wrong. or bb. • he began with pure-breeding parent plants. AA. therefore it must be recessive. 4=SS.® keep it simple science Worksheet 6 Worksheet 4 a) Mendel c) inherited e) pure-breeding g) F1 i) self k) 3:1 m) alleles o) 2 q) heterozygous s) fertilization u) recessive w) homozygous y) actual genes present. so were not read by many people (and those that did. (In a large sample of offspring there should be approximately 50-50) Worksheet 5 1. 6=Ss.keepitsimplescience. c) 1=ss. eg. such as Tall v. 9=Ss. if homozygous for the recessive gene) b) Homozygous means having 2 copies of the same allele for a particular trait. In such small samples. e) Ss x ss would give 50% curved. Couple 7 & 8 have straight fingers. Phenotype is the outward appearance caused by the genes for that trait. eg “Purple flowers” or “Dwarf stem”.e. 11=ss d) No chance of curved-finger children. but had a child (11) with curved little fingers. s = curved. • his findings were published in a little-known journal. a) i) BB x bb: all offspring will have genotype Bb ii) Phenotype: all will be black b) i) Bb bb x B&b 5. eg. Answers only for the rest of these.

but had redheaded children. both 6 & 7 must be homozygous for red-hair and must pass on genes to children 8 & 9. phosphate & base ad) A. Phenotypes of Offspring Green pod : Yellow pod 1:1 50% : 50% c) i) XRXr ii) Red-eyed iii) She carries the recessive gene and passes it to her children. a) XNXN d) XnXn Worksheet 8 HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. but does not show the phenotype of it herself. Males 100% white eyed. because Fred & Mary are not red-heads. The y chromosome doesn’t carry an allele. Since it’s recessive. who also must be homozygous. a)Shaded shapes are red-heads Fred Generations Xr & y I II x Xry d) i) Mary 3 4 5 7 6 III 8 XR Xr Xr XRXr XrXr y XRy Xry ii) Females 100% Red-eyed. it will be expressed so all offspring will have green pods. since their parents are. a) Each of the offspring will receive a gene from each parent and so all will have genotype “Gg”.C. b) From his mother. 7. which doesn’t carry an allele.G & T ae) helix af) 2 ag) A-T and C-G ah) genes from 2 different parents ai) Independent Segregation aj) Crossing-over (cont) 6. They must both carry a recessive gene. Father gives y. 2. c) Must both be red-heads. who gives him his X chromosome. b) Gg gg x G&g g&g gametes g g G Gg Gg g gg gg Worksheet 9 1. a) Males cannot be heterozygous because they only have one X chromosome. a) nucleus b) cell division c) homologous d) allelic e) replicated / duplicated f) chromatids g) identical h) in single file i) chromatids j) identical k) parent l) in pairs m) homologous n) 4 o) half p) diploid q) haploid r) 46 s) 23 t) Sutton & Boveri u) chromosomes v) meiosis w) the genes must be located on chromosomes x) DNA and protein y) gene XRXr b) XNy e) XNXn c) Xny x XNy f) XN & y XnXn Xn & Xn gametes Xn Xn XN XNXn XNXn y Xny Xny Phenotypes of Offspring FEMALES MALES 100% normal 100% colour blind vision the 39 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only .au XR & Xr gametes Phenotypes of Offspring FEMALES MALES Red:White Red : White 50% : 50% 50% : 50% 9 b) Red-headedness must be recessive.com.keepitsimplescience. Since G is dominant.® keep it simple science Worksheet 7 Worksheet 8 (cont) z) DNA aa) polymer ab) nucleotides ac) sugar.

A 4. A Q q Q q b) i) in a single line Phenotypes of Offspring Red : Roan 1:1 50% : 50% ii) b) WW x RW. a) BW x B&W iii) in pairs iv) B&W gametes B W B BB BW W BW WW x Xry 8. c) i) RR d) Parents: Gametes: ii) RW RR x WW R only W only F1: GREY BLACK BW x BB 100% RW (Pink) RW F2 9.® keep it simple science Worksheet 9 Worksheet 10 (cont) RW 3. Phenotypes of offspring 50%White.au 40 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . R & W. Xr XRXr XrXr c) BB x BW gives 50% Black and 50% Speckled. W=White iii) WW x R&W B&W RW R&W gametes B&B gametes B B R W B BB BB R RR RW W BW BW W RW WW Phenotypes of Offspring Black : Grey 1 : 1 50% : 50% Phenotypes of Offspring Red : Pink : White 1 1 : 2 : 25% : 50% : 25% HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. D 5.keepitsimplescience. Phenotypes of Offspring FEMALES MALES Red : White Red : White 50% : 50% 50% : 50% b) Best to use 2 different CAPITALS. D R R R RR RR W RW RW 3. a) If the 2 alleles are Codominant. C 6. a) R&R gametes 2. Gene symbols: B= Black.com. BW 4. B Homologous pair of Double chromosomes 7. then there can be 3 phenotypes. a) RR x R&W 1. 50% Roan. y XRy Xry 5. Xr & y Phenotypes of Offspring Black : Speckled : White 1 : 2 : 1 25% : 50% : 25% XRXr XR & Xr gametes XR Xr b) BB x WW gives 100% Speckled offspring.

) HSC Biology Topic 2 “Blueprint of Life” copyright © 2005-2 2009 keep it simple science www. 1. m-R RNA controls sequence of amino acids joined together 7. a) Body cell taken from “parent”. 9. (In this particular case. b) 1.keepitsimplescience. There was a large increase in human mutations and genetic abnormalities in Hiroshima after the atomic bomb attack of 1945. insects. where normal pregnancy and birth occur. Egg cell implanted in uterus of surrogate mother. Difference:“Gradualism” = evolution occurring slowly and steadily over relatively long time periods. and results in more variety of gene combinations in gametes. B 6. TRANSLATION Polypeptide c) Mutation / Independent Segregation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis / Receiving genes from 2 different parents during sexual reproduction. 10. b) If used on a large scale. Controlled experiments have demonstrated that mutations are caused in plant seeds. Similarity: both are models describing evolution of a species. C TRANSCRIPTION m-R RNA Moves to a Ribosome b) This mixes up the combinations of genes on each chromatid. a) “Crossing-over” is when homologous chromosomes exchange corresponding parts of a chromatid with each other. c) Worksheet 11 a) communication b) collaboration c) Wilkins d) Franklin e) Watson f) Crick g) base h) double i) replicated j) division k) unzip / untwist l) template m) A & T n) C & G o) identical p) amino acids q) polypeptide r) 3-D shape s) sequence t) 20 u) repel v) enzymes w) structural x) shape y) amino z) DNA aa) 3 ab) codon ac) Transcription ad) m-RNA ae) template af) single ag) sugar ah) base ai) nucleus aj) mitochondria ak) synthesis al) Translation am) polypeptide an) t-RNA ao) mitochondria ap) protein aq) catalyses ar) pigment as) change at) mutation au) mutagens av) temperature aw) chemicals ax) X-rays ay) nuclear radiation az) Ultra-violet U. and nucleus extracted. 2. vegetarians might also see it as unethical that the strawberries contain an animal gene. b) Some people may be worried about long term health effects of eating transgenic foods.au 41 Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only . Egg cell obtained and nucleus replaced with nucleus from “parent” cell. a) Mutagen = something that CAUSES a mutation. etc which are exposed to nuclear radiation or x-rays. “Punctuated Equilibrium” = species remains unchanged for long periods. cloning would reduce genetic diversity because less parents are involved and more offspring would be identical. a) i) Gene from a fish transferred into strawberry plants.com. C DNA 3.® keep it simple science Worksheet 10 Worksheet 12 (cont) 10. then evolves in a rapid burst. ii) Makes strawberries frost-resistant. and the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine 1986. D 4. Baby is clone of “parent” individual. allowing them to be grown in areas not previously possible. and in offspring. ba) DNA bb) amino bc) polypeptide bd) shape be) enzyme bf) pigment bg) Evolution bh) variation / genetic diversity bi) Punctuated Equilibrium bj) remain unchanged bk) rapid bursts Altered DNA Change in cell’s activity Altered m-R RNA Altered Polypeptide Altered Enzyme causes different chemical product to form 8.V. A 5. 2.

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