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2.

ULUSLARARASI
EVRE VE AHLAK
SEMPOZYUMU

2ND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM


ON ENVIRONMENT AND MORALITY

BLDRLER KTABI

PROCEEDINGS

2. Cilt

Volume 2

24-26 EKM 2014


ADIYAMAN

24-26 OCTOBER 2014


ADIYAMAN

EDTRLER
Prof. Dr. Ahmet PINARBAI
Prof. Dr. Murat PALA

EDITORS
Prof. Dr. Ahmet PINARBAI
Prof. Dr. Murat PALA

EDTR YARIMCILARI
Do. Dr. Tanju TEKER
rt. Gr. Faruk KRKER
rt. Gr. Hseyin KUTLU

Co-EDITOR
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tanju TEKER
Instructor Faruk KRKER
Instructor Hseyin KUTLU

ORGANZASYON
ADIYAMAN NVERSTES
TRKYE

ORGANIZATION
ADIYAMAN UNIVERSITY
TURKEY

ISBN: 978-605-60221-8-0

EDTRLER
Prof. Dr. Ahmet PINARBAI
Prof. Dr. Murat PALA
EDTR YARIMCILARI
Do. Dr. Tanju TEKER
rt. Gr. Faruk KRKER
rt. Gr. Hseyin KUTLU

YAYINCI
Adyaman niversitesi Yaynlar
Telefon: 0 416 2233800
www.adiyaman.edu.tr

1. Bask, Adyaman niversitesi, Ekim 2014

BASKI
Mesut Matbaa
Yeni Pnar Mah. 305. Sokak No: 14
ADIYAMAN
Tel: 0 416 213 30 37

Eserin hukuki ve etik sorumluluu yazara aittir. Tm haklar sakldr.


Bu kitabn yayn haklar Adyaman niversitesine aittir.
zinsiz kopyalanamaz, aktarlamaz, oaltlamaz.

KURULLAR/ COMMITTEES
ONUR KURULU/ HONORY COMMITTEE
Mahmut DEMRTA (Adyaman Governer)
Prof. Dr. M. Talha GNLL (Adiyaman University, Rector)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Eyp DEBK (President of Cevre Foundation)
Advt. Muzaffer ZCAN (President of CEKUD)
DZENLEME KURULU/ ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Prof. Dr. Ahmet PINARBAI (Adiyaman University, Chair)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Naci CAGLAR (Sakarya University, Co Chair)
Prof. Dr. Bedri GENCER (Yildiz Technical University)
Prof. Dr. Hr Mahmut YUCER (Karabuk University)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Eyp DEBK (President of Cevre Foundation)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Murat PALA (Adiyaman University)
Prof. Dr. Mehmet SARIBIYIK (Sakarya University)
Assist. Prof. Dr. Ozer UYGUN (Sakarya University)
Assist. Prof. Dr. Hakan ASLAN (Sakarya University)
Dr. Huseyin BUDAK (CEKUD)
BLM KURULU/ SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
Dr. Abdullah SOYSAL (Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Turkey)
Dr. Ahmet ALP (Sakarya University, Turkey)
Dr. Ahmet DEMR (Yildiz Technical University, Turkey)
Dr. Ahmet Zafer TEL (Adiyaman University, Turkey)
Dr. Alfina SIBGATULLINA (Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Dr. Ali ATA (Gebze Institute Of Technology, Turkey)
Dr. Ali Caglar CAKMAK (Karabuk University, Turkey)
Dr. Almaz Ulvi BINNATOVA (Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences)
Dr. Aysel Alkan UCKUN (Adiyaman University, Turkey)
Dr. Bakhtiyor KARIMOV (Institute Of Plant And Animal World Genetic Resources,
Uzbekistan)
Dr. Bekir KAYACAN (Duzce University, Turkey)
Dr. Benjamin HALE (University of Colorado, USA)
Dr. Beytullah EREN (Sakarya University, Turkey)
Dr. Bilal DELISER (Gumushane University, Turkey)
Dr. Bilal KUSPINAR (Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey)
Dr. Bilal SAMBUR (Yildirim Beyazt University, Turkey)
Dr. C. Zehra KOROGLU (Gumushane University, Turkey)
Dr. Cihan OKUYUCU (Suleymansah University, Turkey)
Dr. Cumali KINACI (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey)

Dr. Dale JAMIESON (New York University, USA)


Dr. Dietmar MIETH (Universitt Erfurt, Germany)
Dr. Erdinc AHATLI (Sakarya University, Turkey)
Dr. Erol ARCAKLIOGLU (Karabuk University, Turkey)
Dr. Ertan ARSLANKAYA (Yildiz Technical University, Turkey)
Dr. Evangelos GIDARAKOS (Technical University of Crete, Greece)
Dr. Fazlun KHALID (Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environ. Sci., UK)
Dr. Ferit YUSUPOV (Kazan Federal University, Tataristan)
Dr. Harun TRKMENLER (Adiyaman University, Turkey)
Dr. Ibrahim DEMIR (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey)
Dr. Ibrahim OZDEMIR (Gaziantep University, Turkey)
Dr. Ismail KOYUNCU (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey)
Dr. Ismail TORZ (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey)
Dr. Izzet ZTRK (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey)
Dr. zzetullah NUREDDNOV (Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences)
Dr. Jame SCHAEFER (Marquette University, USA)
Dr. John MUTTER (Columbia University, USA)
Dr. Kadir OZKOSE (Gaziosmanpasa University, Turkey)
Dr. Lisa SIDERIS (Indiana University, USA)
Dr. M. Doan KARACOKUN (Kilis 7 Aralk University, Turkey)
Dr. Mawil Izzi DIEN (University of Wales, UK)
Dr. Mehmet Emin AYDIN (Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya)
Dr. Meral Topcu SULAK (Karabuk University, Turkey)
Dr. Mufeed BATARSEH (Abu Dhabi Polytechnic, UAE)
Dr. Mufit BAHADIR (Technical University of Braunchweig, Germany)
Dr. Mustafa SEKKELI (Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Turkey)
Dr. Nadirhan HASANOV (Fatih University, Turkey)
Dr. Necdet YILMAZ (MEC Research and Training Center, Turkey)
Dr. Nedim VARDAR (Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico)
Dr. Noor MOHAMMAD (The National University Of Malaysia, Malaysia)
Dr. Osman BAKAR (Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam)
Dr. Qilin LEE (Rice University, USA)
Dr. Richard FOLTZ (Concordia University, Canada)
Dr. S. Parvez MANZOOR (Swedish Writer, Swedish)
Dr. Seyyed Hossein NASR (George Washington University, USA)
Dr. Sherzodhon Yu. MAHMODOV (Academy of Sciences of The Republic of Uzbekistan
The Institute of History)
Dr. Talip ALP (Yalova University, Turkey)
Dr. Tanju KARANFIL (Clemson University, USA)
Dr. Teoman DURALI (Krklareli University, Turkey)

Dr. Timothy G. ELLIS (Iowa State University, USA)


Dr. Turgay DERE (Adiyaman University, Turkey)
Dr. Yavuz DEMIRCI (Adyaman University, Turkey)
Dr. Ziyadulla YUSUPOV (Tashkent State Technical University, Uzbekistan)
SEKRETERLER/ SECRETARIES
Research Assist. Mustafa OZSAGIR (Sakarya University)
Research Assist. Halil Ibrahim UZUN (Cevre Foundation)
Lecturer Faruk Krker (Adiyaman University)
Lecturer Hseyin Kutlu (Adiyaman University)
Res. Assist. Mehmet Faruk YAREN (Sakarya University)

2nd International Symposium on Environment and Morality


24-26 October 2014, Adyaman - TURKEY

Determination of Convection of Pollutants from Raw or Treated Waste:


Extraction Tests
*1Kamil B. Varnca, 1Mustafa Talha Gnll
Faculty of Engineering Department of Environmental Engineering, Adiyaman University
02040, Adiyaman, Turkey

Abstract
One of the most important issues in waste disposal is to prevent the transport of pollutants. Especially
in environments where solvents such as water, disperse of pollutants from waste or material into the
liquid medium the environment are the unwanted event in terms of the protection of the environment
and human health.
Various extraction tests have been developed for the detection of pollutants passage from raw or
treated wastes/materials into liquid environment. These tests are used to determine pass degree of
pollutants into liquid environment under model situations of natural environment.
In this paper, the present extraction tests examined and these tests compared with each other in terms
of the model conditions of environment.
Key words: Waste, solidification/stabilization, convection, extraction, TCLP

Ham veya lenmi Atklardan Kirletici Tanmnn Tespiti:


ztleme Testleri
zet
Atk bertarafnda en nemli konulardan biri kirleticilerin tanmnn engellenmesidir. zellikle su gibi
zclerin olduu ortamlarda kirleticilerin atk veya malzemeden sv ortama geerek evrede
dalmalar evre ve insan salnn korunmas asndan istenmeyen hadiselerdendir.
Kirleticilerin ham veya ilenmi atk/malzemelerden sv ortama geiinin tespit edilebilmesi iin
eitli ztleme testleri gelitirilmitir. Bu testler atk veya malzemenin doal hayatta karlaabilecei
ortam artlarna gre modellenmi artlar altnda kirleticinin sv ortama gei derecesini tespit etmek
maksadyla kullanlmaktadr.
Bu almada, mevcut ztleme testleri incelenerek bu testler kendi aralarnda modelledikleri ortam
artlar bakmndan mukayeseye tabi tutulmutur.
Anahtar kelimeler: Atk, katlatrma/kararllatrma, tanm, ztleme, TCLP

*Corresponding author: Address: Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Adiyaman


University, 02040, Adiyaman, TURKEY. E-mail address: kvarinca@adiyaman.edu.tr, Phone: +904162233808, Fax:
+904162233809

K.B. VARINCA, M.T. GNLL / ISEM2014 Adiyaman - TURKEY


1. Giri
Atklar ham veya ilenmi olarak kontrolsz olarak doaya brakldklarnda zamanla evresel
artlar (rzgr, yamur, scak, souk vb. gibi) sonucunda ilerindeki kirleticileri evreye
salabilirler. Kirleticilerin evreye salnmas neticesinde de bu kirleticiler tanm yoluyla su ve
besin zincirine girerek evre ve insan sal zerine tehlike olutururlar. Bu sebeple atklar
kontrolsz bir ekilde doaya braklmaz, gerekli ilemler geirildikten sonra kontroll bir ekilde
bertaraflar, depolanmalar salanr.
ztleme (eng: extraction); toprak, kirlenmi toprak, amur, kelti, kompost, atk veya inaat
malzemeleri gibi kat maddeler iindeki bileenlerin fiziksel, kimyasal veya biyolojik ilemlerle
su fazna geirilmesi olarak tanmlanmakta [1] olup birok ztleme testi bulunmaktadr.
2. ztleme Testleri
Kirleticilerin tanm ve evreden izole edilmesi amaland iin ztleme testi, bir ham veya
ilenmi atn szma derecesini lmek iin kullanlan en yaygn test yntemleridir. ztleme
artlar farkllk arz ettii iin zaman ierisinde ok eitli test yntemleri gelitirilmi ve
kullanlmtr. Kullanlm olan bu ztleme testleri izelge 1de, ztleme test yntemleri
kaynaka listesi izelge 2de ve ztleme testlerine ait test artlar ise izelge 3de derlenmitir.
izelge 1. Uygulanabilir ztleme testleri [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

Test
alkalamal ztleme Testleri
Toxicity Characteristic Leaching
Procedure (TCLP) (tur: Zehirlilik
zellikleri Szma lemi)
Extraction Procedure Toxicity (EP
Tox) Test (tur: Zehirlilik ztleme
lemi)
TCLP Cage Modification (tur:
Deitirilmi TCLP Kafes)
California Waste Extraction Test (Cal
WET) (tur: Kaliforniya Atk
ztleme Deneyi)
Synthetic Precipitation Leach Test
(SPLP) (tur: Sentetik Ya Szdrma
Deneyi)
Agitated Powder Leach Test (tur:
alkalamal Toz Szdrma Deneyi)

Malzeme
Uygulama(a) Ama
U S L

Yntem

USEPA SW-846
1311(b)

USEPA SW-846
1310B(b)

USFR(c)

California Code()

USEPA SW-846
1312(b)

MCC-3S(d)

Shake Extraction Test (tur: Sallamal TS 9394(e)


ztleme Deneyi)
ASTM D3987(f)

1082

Zehirlilik verilerini yasal deerler ile


karlatrmak iin (ABDde RCRA
gereksinimidir.)
Sznt suyu konsantrasyonlarn
deerlendirmek iin (ABDde RCRA
gereksinimidir.)
TCLP testinin deerlendirilmesine
niteliksel katk.
Metaller iin TCLPden daha gl
szma testi salamak iin (ABD
Kaliforniyada yasal gerekliliktir.)
Asit yamurlarna maruz atklar iin
(ABDde RCRA gereksinimidir.)
alkantl ak iindeki btn
numunenin szma direncini
deerlendirmek iin
Hzl bir ekilde bir sulu ektrakt elde
etmeyi salamak iin

K.B. VARINCA, M.T. GNLL / ISEM2014 Adiyaman - TURKEY

Test

Yntem

Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC)


Test (tur: Asit Ntralizasyon
Kapasitesi Deneyi)
alkalamasz ztleme Testleri
Static Leach Test (tur: Duraan
Szdrma Deneyi)
Static Leach Test (tur: Duraan
Szdrma Deneyi)
High Temperature Static Leach Test
(tur: Yksek Scaklkl Duraan
Szdrma Deneyi)
Monofilled Waste Extraction
Procedure (MWEP) (tur: Tekdolgulu
Atk ztleme lemi)
Equilibrium Leach Test (ELT) (tur:
Dengesel Szdrma Deneyi)
Ardk Kimyasal ztleme Testleri
Sequential Batch Extraction Test (tur:
Ardk ztleme Deneyi)
Sequential Extraction Test (SET)
(tur: Ardk ztleme Deneyi)
Sequential Chemical Extraction Test
(SCET) (tur: Ardk Kimyasal
ztleme Deneyi)
Dinamik Testler, Seri
Multiple Extraction Procedure (MEP)
(tur: oklu ztleme lemi)
Leaching Test (tur: Szma Deneyi)

WTC-ANC(g)

Availability Test (tur: Ulalabilirlik


Testi)
Dinamik Testler, Ak-etrafndan
American Nuclear Society (ANS)
Leach Test (tur: Amerikan Nkleer
Cemiyeti Szdrma Deneyi)
Monolithic Diffusion Test (tur:
Yekpare Difzyon Deneyi)
Leach Test (tur: Szdrma Deneyi)
Dinamik Testler, Ak-iinden
Dynamic Leach Test (DLT) (tur:
Dinamik Szdrma Deneyi)
Column Leach Test (tur: Kolon
Szdrma Deneyi)
Column Test (tur: Kolon Deneyi)

Malzeme
Uygulama(a) Ama
U S L
X X X Bir malzemenin asidi ntralize
edebilme yeteneinin llmesi iin

ASTM C1220(f)

MCC-1P(d)

MCC-2P(d)

USEPA SW-924()

Dk hzl doygun blgede atk


bertaraf iin

Statik ak iindeki btn numunenin


szma direncini deerlendirmek iin
Statik ak iindeki btn numunenin
szma direncini deerlendirmek iin
Statik ak iindeki btn numunenin
szma direncini deerlendirmek iin

WTC-ELT(g)

En fazla sznt suyu salamak iin

ASTM D5284(f)

Bishop(h)

WTC-SCET(g)

ztleme kapasitesini deerlendirmek


iin
oklu ztleme ile tamponlama
kapasitesini deerlendirmek iin
K/K ilemi grm atklarda metal ve
organiklerin tutunmasn
deerlendirmek iin

USEPA SW-846
X
1320(b)
EN 12457-(1-4) ()
X
TS EN 12457-(1-4) (e)
NEN 7341(i)

ANSI/ANS/16.1(j)

NEN 7345(i)

ISO 6961(k)

WTC-DLT(g)

ASTM D4874(f)

NEN 7374(i)

1083

Asidik artlar altnda atk szmasn


deerlendirmek iin
ztleme kapasitesini deerlendirmek
iin

K/K ilemi grm atklarn


mukayesesinde bir difzyon katsays
oluturmak iin
Yekpare parann ztleme
kapasitesinin belirlenmesi iin
ztleme snrnn belirlenmesi iin
K/K ilemi grm bir ata has
difzyon katsays tahmin etmek iin
Kolon eklinde szdrma kapasitesinin
belirlenmesi iin
Szma kapasitesinin belirlenmesi iin

K.B. VARINCA, M.T. GNLL / ISEM2014 Adiyaman - TURKEY

Test

Yntem

Dinamik Testler, Soklet


Soxhlet Leach Test (tur: Soklet
Szdrma Deneyi)

MCC-5S(d)

Malzeme
Uygulama(a) Ama
U S L
X

Srekli yenilenen saf szdrma suyunda


btn numunenin szma direncini
deerlendirmek iin

izelge 2. ztleme test yntemleri kaynaka listesi


Yntem
ANSI/ANS/16.1

Kaynak
Yaymc
ANSI/ANS/16.1-2003:R2008, Measurement of the Leachability of American Nuclear
Solidified Low-Level Radioactive Wastes by a Short-Term Test Society (ANS)
Procedure http://www.ans.org/store/i_240249
http://www.ans.org/
ASTM C1220
ASTM C1220-10, Standard Test Method for Static Leaching of ASTM International.
Monolithic Waste Forms for Disposal of Radioactive Waste
http://www.astm.org/
http://www.astm.org/Standards/C1220.htm
ASTM D3987
ASTM D3987-12, Standard Practice for Shake Extraction of Solid
Waste with Water http://www.astm.org/Standards/D3987.htm
ASTM D4874
ASTM D4874-95(2014), Standard Test Method for Leaching
Solid Material in a Column Apparatus
http://www.astm.org/Standards/D4874.htm
ASTM D5284
ASTM D5284-09, Standard Test Method for Sequential Batch
Extraction of Waste with Acidic Extraction Fluid
http://www.astm.org/Standards/D5284.htm
Bishop
Bishop, P.L., Prediction of Heavy Metal Leaching Rates from
Stabilization/Solidification Hazardous Wastes, Toxic and
Hazardous Wastes: Proceedings of the Eighteenth Mid-Atlantic
Industrial Waste Conference, Technomic Publishing, USA, 1986.
California Code
California Code Title 22, Article 11, pp. 1800.75-1800.82.
EN 12457-(1-4)
EN 12457-(1-4), Characterisation of waste - Leaching European Committee for
Compliance test for leaching of granular waste materials and
Standardization (CEN)
sludges
http://standards.cen.eu/
ISO 6961
ISO 6961:1982, Long-term leach testing of solidified radioactive International
waste forms
Organization for
http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.h Standardization
tm?csnumber=13511
http://www.iso.org/
MCC-1P
MCC, Materials Characterization Center, Pacific Northwest
Materials
MCC-2P
Laboratory (PNL), Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook: Test
Characterization Center
MCC-3S
Methods, USDOE, DOE/TIC-11400, 1981.
(MCC)
MCC-5S
http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/9285773
NEN 7341
NEN 7341:1995, http://www.nen.nl/NEN-Shop/Norm/NENNetherlands
73411995-nl.htm
Standardization Institute
NEN 7374
NEN 7374:2004, http://www.nen.nl/NEN-Shop/Norm/NEN(NEN)
73742004-nl.htm
http://www.nen.nl/
NEN 7345
NEN 7345:1995, http://www.nen.nl/NEN-Shop/Norm/NEN73451995-nl.htm
USEPA SW-846 1310B USEPA SW-846 On Line, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid
United States
USEPA SW-846 1311 Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods.
Environmental
USEPA SW-846 1312 http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/online/ Protection Agency
USEPA SW-846 1320
(USEPA)

1084

K.B. VARINCA, M.T. GNLL / ISEM2014 Adiyaman - TURKEY


Yntem
USEPA SW-924
USFR
TS 9394
TS EN 12457-(1-4)

WTC-ANC
WTC-DLT
WTC-ELT
WTC-SCET

Kaynak
USEPA, SW-924, Solid Waste Leaching Procedure, 1984.
http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=2000OL4A.txt
USFR, 53 FR 18792, May 24, 1988.
http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=10003P0J.txt
TS 9394:1991, Atklar-Kat atklarn su ile alkalanarak
ekstraksiyon metodu
TS EN 12457-(1-4), Atklarn nitelendirilmesi - Katdan ztleme
analizi - Granl kat atklarn ve amurlarn kat ztlemesi iin
uygunluk deneyi
WTC, Wastewater Technology Centre, Environment Canada,
Investigation of Test Methods for Solidified Waste Evaluation A Cooperative Program, Report: EPS 3/HA/8, 1991.
http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/23220612

Yaymc

Trk Standartlar
Enstits (TSE)
https://intweb.tse.org.tr/
Standard/Standard/Stand
ardAra.aspx
Wastewater Technology
Centre, Environment
Canada (WTC)

izelge 3. Uygulanabilir ztleme testlerinin test artlar [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

SPLP
MCC-3S

Sv:Kat
Oran
Asetat tamponu(a)
20:1
0,04 M asetik asit (pH 5,0) 16:1-20:1
Asetat tamponu(a)
20:1
0,2 M sodyum sitrat (pH
10:1
5,0) veya Cr6+l su
(c)
20:1
()
10:1

ASTM D3987

Deiyonize su

20:1

ANC Test

Artan gte nitrik asit


zeltisi

3:1

()

MWEP

Deiyonize/distile su

ELT
SET
SCET

Deiyonize su
0,04 M asetik asit
Asiditesi artan 5 szdrma
suyu

MEP

EP Tox gibi, sonrasnda


arlka 60:40 orannda
slfirik asit:nitrik asit
yamuru (pH 3,0)

Test Yntemi
TCLP
EP Tox
TCLP cage
Cal WET

MCC-1P,
MCC-2P

Szma Ortam

Parack Boyutu
< 9,5 mm
< 9,5 mm
(b)

< 2,0 mm

ztleme
Says
1
1
1
1

< 9,5 mm
Yars <0,044
mm, yars 0,0740,149 mm aras
Alnd ekliyle
parack veya
btn
< 150 m

1
1

(d)

10:1 (her
ztleme
iin)
4:1
50:1
16:1den
40:1e
kadar
eitli
20:1

ztleme Sresi
182 saat
24 saat
18 saat
48 saat

18 saat
Her bir numune iin 28,
56, 91, 182, 273 ve 364
gn
18 saat

ztleme bana 48 saat

Yekpare

< 9,5 mm veya


yekpare

Her bir numune iin 28,


56, 91, 182, 273 ve 364
gn
ztleme bana 18 saat

< 150 m
< 9,5 mm
< 45 m
< 150 m

1
15
5

< 9,5 mm

9 (veya
ztleme bana 24 saat
daha fazla)

1085

7 gn
ztleme bana 24 saat
2den 24 saate kadar
eitli

K.B. VARINCA, M.T. GNLL / ISEM2014 Adiyaman - TURKEY


Sv:Kat
ztleme
Parack Boyutu
ztleme Sresi
Oran
Says
(e)
ANSI/ANS/16.1 Deiyonize su
Btn uzunluk10-12
Szdrma suyu 2,7 saatte
ap oran 0,2-5,0
yenilenir; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 14,
aras
28, 43 ve 90 gn
(f)
(f)
DLT
Deiyonize su
Btn uzunlukSzdrma suyu 0, 1, 4, 7,
ap oran 0,2-5,0
24, 31, 48, 72, 79 ve 100
aras
satte veya 0, 4, 24, 31,
72, 104, 168 ve 196
saatte yenilenir
MCC-5S
Deiyonize su
Yeniden Yekpare
1
Her bir numune iin 3, 7
damtlm
ve 14 gn
suyun
srekli
ak
(a)
Asetat tampon zeltisi (pH 5,0) veya asetik asit (pH 3,0)
(b)
TCLP tipi ztleme esnasnda tel kafes iinde yuvarlanan para
(c)
Arlka 60:40 slfrik asit nitrik asit karm. pH deiyonize su ile 4,2 veya 5,0a ayarlanr.
()
Silikatl su, deiyonize su veya tuzlu su
(d)
Szdrma suyunun hacmi numunenin llen geometrik yzey alanna baldr. Hacmin yzeye oran 10 il 200
cm arasnda olmaldr.
(e)
Szdrma suyu hacminin numune yzey alanna oran 10 cm
(f)
Yenileme frekanslar bilinen difzyon katsaysna gre seilir. Yzey hacim oran kirleticinin tespitini salamak
zere seilmelidir. Yenileme frekans dengesiz artlara da hkim olacak ekilde seilmelidir.
Test Yntemi

Szma Ortam

Grld zere uygulamada birok farkl ztleme testi bulunmaktadr. Temel amalar ayn
olsa da uygulama artlar farkl olduu iin bu testlerden farkl sonular elde edilmesi tabiidir.
nemli olan mukayese ve muhakeme asndan ayn olmasa bile benzer nitelikteki ztleme
testlerinin kullanlmasdr. Bu ztleme testlerinin seiminde kanuni zorunluluun bulunmasnn
yannda uygulama kolayl, ksa srede sonu elde edilmesi ve ekonomiklik tercih sebebidir.
ztleme testleri ierisinde en ok kullanlanlardan biri Toxicity Characteristic Leaching
Procedure (TCLP)dir.
2.1. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)
USEPA SW-846 1311 Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (tur: Zehirlilik
zellikleri Szma lemi), United States Environmental Protection Agency (tur: Amerika Birleik
Devletleri evre Koruma Ajans) tarafndan yaymlanm olan SW-846: Test Methods for
Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods deney yntemleri ierisinde yer alan bir
yntem olup ABDde tehlikeli atk ve katlatrlm malzeme zelliklerinin belirlenmesi iin
uygulanmas zorunlu olan deney yntemlerinden biridir.
Deney, yntem uyarnca malzemenin 9,5 mmden daha kk hale getirilmesinin ardndan 20:1
oranndaki sv asidik ortamda 18 saat alkalanmas sonucu zeltide kirletici tayini yaplmas
eklinde uygulanr [8]. Bylece atk malzemenin uzun vadede tabii artlar altnda gsterecei
davran, 18 saatlik bir srede asidik ortamda hzlandrlm olarak gerekletirilmekte ve uzun
sreler sonunda elde edilebilecek sonular nceden tahmin edilebilmektedir.

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K.B. VARINCA, M.T. GNLL / ISEM2014 Adiyaman - TURKEY


Deerlendirme
Atklar ham veya ilenmi olarak kontrolsz olarak doaya brakldklarnda zamanla evresel
artlar (rzgr, yamur, scak, souk vb. gibi) sonucunda ilerindeki kirleticileri evreye
salabilirler. Kirleticilerin evreye salnmas neticesinde de bu kirleticiler tanm yoluyla su ve
besin zincirine girerek evre ve insan sal zerine tehlike olutururlar. Bu sebeple atklar
kontrolsz bir ekilde doaya braklmaz, gerekli ilemler geirildikten sonra kontroll bir ekilde
bertaraflar, depolanmalar salanr.
ztleme (eng: extraction), atn ierisindeki kirleticinin darya salnmas derecesini gsteren
bir kavram olup birok ztleme testi bulunmaktadr. Bu testlerden en ok kullanlan, United
States Environmental Protection Agency (tur: Amerika Birleik Devletleri evre Koruma Ajans)
tarafndan yaymlanm olan SW-846: Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,
Physical/Chemical Methods deney yntemleri ierisinde yer alan USEPA SW-846 1311 Toxicity
Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (tur: Zehirlilik zellikleri Szma lemi) deney
yntemidir. Yntem, ABDde tehlikeli atk ve katlatrlm malzeme zelliklerinin belirlenmesi
iin uygulanmas zorunlu olan deney yntemlerinden biridir.
Bu testler sonucunda ham atn veya ilenmi atn ierisindeki kirleticilerin szmas
belirlenerek evre ve insan sal zerinde oluabilecek olumsuz etkiler nceden grlerek
tedbirinin alnmas salanmaktadr.
Kaynaklar
[1]

[2]

[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

[7]
[8]

T.C. evre ve Orman Bakanl. Atklarn Dzenli Depolanmasna Dair Ynetmelik.


Resm Gazete: 26/03/2010-27533. (Yaymlanan hli: http://goo.gl/CkXFII Gncel hli:
http://goo.gl/5ZXIJG)
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Chemical Testing Procedures, Technology Screening, and Field Activities. EPA/625/689/022. USEPA, 1989. http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=30004CB5.txt
Barth EF. et al. Stabilization and Solidification of Hazardous Wastes. Noyes Data
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http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/pdfs/1311.pdf

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