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LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE

A STUDY OF THE BOOKS OF


DANIEL AND REVELATION

C O N T E N T S
LESSON # SUBJECT

PAGE

PREFACE....2
1.

INTRODUCTION5

2.

ITS ALL ABOUT FAITH-FULNESS..13

3.

COMPARING and CONTRASTING....21

4.

NUMBER OF WAYS TO NUMBER OUR DAYS..........31

5.

BITING THE ESCHATOLOGICAL BULLET39

6. IN ALL THE DRAMA, WHERES THE CHURCH......48


7. GATES OF WRATH: BEASTS, BATTLES....................60
8. THE SOVEREIGN LORD ULTIMATE FOCUS.........67
APPENDIX #I...76
APPENDIX #II..78
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS81
REFERENCES .......99

George R. Frederick, October 2009

PREFACE TO

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


GETTING AN OBJECTIVE PERSPECTIVE
Theology is more than a mere intellectual discipline; in fact, without prejudice, it is
perhaps the widest and most intriguing of all the disciplines. Of course, someone from
another field may lay claim to that same credit for theirs; and that is understandable.
However, since theology is a study that goes beyond the known sciences, and has to pull
from the unfamiliar realm of the unknown in order to state and, at times, substantiate its
case, makes it a most unique endeavor. There are instances, and areas of study that no
human being, living or dead, was present to produce empirical evidence as to their
validity. As such, maybe the most profound aspect of all theology is the area of Gods
self-disclosure, which we call revelation; for had He not taken the initiative to reveal
certain things about Himself, we would not have had the faintest clue of his Being
Eschatology the Doctrine of Last Things itself is the most recent division to
theology, so says Millard J. Erickson, in his 1977 book Contemporary Options in
Eschatology (p12), quoting James Orr; but that does not exempt it from the same rigid
scrutiny as those that preceded it. An eschatologist, like all other theologians, must be
eternally vigilant in seeking to be objective in his approach to the subject.1
A persistent error has been observed, however. Many (Students and scholars alike)
seem unaware, that being hooked unto a particular doctrine, or school of thought, or
even more specifically, having gravitated to a denominational position on an issue, the
assumption is made that every other aspect of that denomination or school of thought is
1

Millard J. Erickson, Contemporary Options in Eschatology, Baker Book House, USA, 1977, p. 12
George R. Frederick, October 2009

equally correct. Quite frankly, it has been shown that that is not always the case. As a
result, many Christians approach to their personal faith often borders the subjective.
Maintaining an objective approach in the study of eschatology is never an easily
challenge.

Agreeing with a position taken by a well-known or highly respected

theologian, does not necessarily mean that one is obligated to agree with every other
position he holds. To put it contrastingly, one can even find occasional virtue coming
from those we deem out-right heretics. So, bracing oneself not to simply allow others to
tag us along, but to prove all things and hold fast to that which is true, is the most
objective, and biblical stance to adopt.
Take for example, many proponents teaching on Last Things often segment their
doctrine into truncated slots, and attach tabs to those slots by which they identify
themselves and/or their teachings (Premillennialists, Amillennialists, Postmillennialists,
Post-tribulationists, Mid-tribulationists, Pre-tribulationists, Dispensationalists, etc). In
this study, every attempt is being made to avoid undue dogmatism, yet at the same time
try not to function is an aimless vacuum, with no semblance of meaningful direction.
What happens in reality is that a person holding either of these afore-mentioned
postures may not necessarily con-cur in every defining point with others like himself who
hold to the same view. Using as an instance, a person might hold himself to be a
Premillennialist (that, in un-technical terms, means he subscribes to the belief that the
Second Coming of Christ will take place before the special Millennium of peace and
prosperity kicks in); however, it is not to be assumed that he necessarily endorses the
views of the Pretribulationist (who holds that the Rapture of the Church will occur before
the Great Tribulation).
And those scenarios run randomly among the varying views, i.e. Posttribulationists
and Postmillennialists occasionally agree on matters though they hail from different
perspectives. Then you can have a Dispensationalist who flatly opposes the

George R. Frederick, October 2009

Midtribulationalist. Hence the call for objectivity in the pursuit of understanding Gods
eschatological program for mankind and the world.
This study has the above situation in mind, as the compendium of Light in the Shadow
of the Apocalypse, along with Contemporary Options in Eschatology, is fleshed in the
class (or individual study) setting.

The Objectives are:

Students should have a practical, laymans understanding of Eschatology.

Be able to simply define the various Eschatologists views.

Be able to have a clear grasp of the books of Daniel & Revelation.

Be able to present a written Paper on an Eschatological issue on the Study as it


relates to a current affair.

Course Credits:
30% Credits will be given for Class Attendance
10% Credits will be given for Class Participation.
10% Credits will be given for Class Presentation.
50% Credits will be given for Final Paper
* Those in the Bachelors program will do a Research Paper 5-6 pages in total.
* Those in the Masters program will do a Research Paper 10-12 pages in total.
* The Choice of Topics will be given out during the Class sessions.
* Presentations should be doubled-spaced, with a clear, readable font.
* Attention should be paid to Grammar and Language style.
* Also noteworthy credit would be given to the extent of research done.

George R. Frederick, October 2009

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


A STUDY OF THE BOOKS OF
DANIEL AND REVELATION
[THIS IS A STUDY OF THE TWO MOST GRAPHIC ACCOUNTS IN SCRIPTURE OF

THINGS TO COME. IT LOOKS AT THEIR DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES, THEIR


CONTENT (WHAT THEY ACTUALLY SAY), INTENT (WHAT THEY ACTUALLY MEAN)
AND EXTENT (WHAT IS THEIR LIKELY RELEVANCE), ALONG WITH THEIR
THEOLOGICAL VALUE AND PHILOSOPHICAL VIRTUE. [ All Scripture quotations, unless
otherwise indicated, are from the New International Version (NIV) of the Bible.]

INTRODUCTION
On the Daniel account, it would be of immense assistance if we take a peek into the existing
culture of his time, which would help us appreciate the reason behind certain areas of emphases
that today we pay comparatively little attention to; in that way we can deduce meaning from
ancient information and practice, to see what application they would have to our times and
cultures.
The name Daniel, for instance means God is my Judge, Judgment of God, God is
judging or God will judge sustaining all the variants. And, if we were to dissect it
(Dan...i..El) into parts, we would notice that he himself very likely hailed from the tribe of Dan
(which means justice). Remembering that the name was given to the first son of Rachels maid
(Bilhah) whom she gave to Jacob when she became aware that she was unable to have children,
saying that God has vindicated

me (intervened on my behalf); he has listened to my plea and given me a son

(Genesis 30:6). The i is a suffix denoting a genitive relationship; and El = God. The fact that
he carried a name that reminded him that he virtually reflects Gods judgment was in itself an
awesome task. No wonder the Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar, was anxious to change the
young prophets name to Belteshazzar, which meant Bels Prince (a name after his god), along

George R. Frederick, October 2009

with the other three Hebrew boys: Hananiah (to Shadrach), Mishael (to Meshach) and Azariah
(to Abednego) (Dan. 1:6-7).
So while Daniel per se did not deal with the immediate judgment that had befallen the Jewish
people, having been confined to Babylonian captivity because of their unrestrained idolatry and
apostasy brought about during the reign of Athaliah, Ahaz, and particularly Manasseh, which,
according to Dr. George W. Westlake, Jr. in his Textbook on Daniel and Revelation (Third
Edition 1999, p. 17), including worship of planets, human sacrifice, and devil worship. He
(Manasseh, also) approved of astrology, divination, and occultism all of these were practiced
regularly.2 It is therefore not too early to learn from this that Gods judgment becomes
synonymous with apostasy, which is the spirit that characterizes our time.
Notable and highly respected Bible commentator, born almost 3 centuries ago in Broad
Oak, Matthew Henry, in his well used One Volume Commentary on the Whole Bible, 1960
Edition, made an extensive exposition on the Book of Daniel in which he makes a pertinent
comparison to Ezekiel. In it he says: Ezekiel told us what was seen, and what was foreseen, by
him in the former years of the captivity: Daniel tells us what was seen, and foreseen, in the latter
years of the captivity. And it was a comfort to the captives that they had first one prophet and
then another, to show them that God had not quite cast them off. Then his Commentary went on
to explain that: 1. Concerning this prophetEzekiel, his senior, speaks of him as an oracle
when he upbraids the king of Tyre with his conceit: Thou art wiser than Daniel , Ezek. xxviii. 3. Noah,
Daniel, and Job are reckoned as three men that had the greatest interest in heaven, Ezek. xiv. 14.
Some of the Jewish rabbin rank among the Hagiographa, not among the prophecies. One
reason is because he did not live such a mortified life as Jeremiah and other prophets ( ch. vi),
and mortifying himself as other prophets did, when he ate no pleasant bread (ch. x. 3.), and
fainted and sick when he was under the power of the Spirit of prophecy, ch. viii. 27. Another
reason they suggest is because he wrote his book in a heathen country, and there had his visions,
and not in the land of Israel; but for the same reason, Ezekiel would also be expunged out of the
roll of prophets. But the true reason is that he speaks so plainly of the time of the Messiahs
coming that the Jews did not care to hear of it. Josephus calls him one of the greatest of the
2

George W. Westlake, Daniel and Revelation (Third Edition), ICI University Press, Mass. USA, 1999, p. 17
George R. Frederick, October 2009

prophets. He lived an active life in the courts and councils of some of the greatest monarchs,
Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus, Darius. The Spirit, as the wind, blows where it lists. And, if those that
have much to do in the world plead that as an excuse for the slightness of their converse with
God, Daniel will condemn them.3
Revelation, on the other hand, is the last canonical book of the NT, and the name also carries
several variants. Typically called The Revelation of John, it should, however, be more
appropriately called, as the book infers, The Revelation of Jesus Christ. For all good intent and
purposes, many renowned theologians have dubbed it The Apocalypse, due of course, to the
sheer nature of its content. Not that there is anything blasphemous about it being called the
Revelation of John; after all, it was to him the messages, visions, symbols, signs and their
interpretations were given. To him it was told to write what he had seen (historical information), what is
now (current to his time) and what will take place later (future events) (Revelation 1:19).

on

It was he who was exiled

the island of Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus (1:9),

and saw and heard

privileged things that many would wish to have been a part of. The very term Revelation means
the act of revealing or disclosing, or making something obvious and clearly understood through
active or passive communication with the divine. 4
One would find it surprising that Matthew Henry had comparatively little to say in his
introduction of the Revelation of John. He simply says that: It ought to be no prejudice to the
credit and authority of this book that it has been rejected by men of corrupt minds. The church
of God has generally received it, and found good counsel and great comfort in it. Christ himself
prophesied of the destruction of Jerusalem; and, about the time in which that was accomplished,
he entrusted the apostle John with this book of revelation for the support of the faith of his
people and the direction of their hope. 5
Concerning the Revelation though, Dr. Kenneth S. Wuest, in his Expanded Translation of the
Greek New Testament notes: There are some important matters with reference to the translation
work (of the Book of Revelation) with which the reader should be acquainted (and would very
3

Matthew Henry, One Volume Commentary on the Whole Bible, 1960 Edition, Eastern Press Ltd, London and
Reading, Great Britain, OT p. 1083.
4
En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel&Revelation.
5
Matthew Henry, NT p. 768.
George R. Frederick, October 2009

well serve for us to not just get a feel, but also get into the mental and spiritual state of the
author).
Johns statement, I was in the Spirit (1:10, A.V.), needs the clarification which the Greek
text and an expanded translation affords. The Greek word translated was is not the verb of
being, but ginomai, which means to become. The verb is in the aorist tense; as to its
classification, ingressive aorist, signifying entrance into a different state or condition. The word
in is the translation of en, a preposition followed by a locative case, here the locative of sphere.
John writes literally, I became in the sphere of the Spirit. The expanded translation offers, I
entered into a different experience in the sphere of the Spirit [His absolute control]. This is
not the relative control of the Holy Spirit which He exercises over John in his usual day-by-day
experiencehere the Spirit needed Johns perfect attention in order that he might receive the
revelations contained in this book. Thus the degree of control is increased from a relative to an
absolute one, one in which the control exercised by the Spirit superseded Johns free will for the
time being. 6
The Purpose of Revelation
By virtue of the nature of the Book of Revelation that fills one with fascination and the lifting
of ones expectations, among other things, its important for one to become cognizant of the
driving force that lay between its pages. Certainly God has far more important things to do than
to be merely engaged in stimulating our imagination and tickling our fantasy with images and
creatures and signs and symbols, if those objects mean nothing in themselves.

Walvoord

attempts to simplify that for us:


The purpose of the Book of Revelation is to reveal events which will take place immediately before,
during, and following the second coming of Christ. In keeping with this purpose the book devotes
most of its revelation to this subject in chapters 4 18. The Second Coming itself is given the most
graphic portrayal anywhere in the Bible in chapter 19, followed by the millennial reign of Christ
described in chapter 20. The eternal state is revealed in chapters 21 22. So the obvious purpose of
the book is to complete the prophetic theme presented earlier in the prophecies of the Old Testament
(e.g., Dan.) and the prophecies of Christ, especially in the Olivet Discourse (Matt. 24-25). Along with
the predictive character of the Book of Revelation is extensive revelation in almost every important
6

Kenneth S. Wuest, Expanded Translation of the Greek New Testament, Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., Grand rapids,
Michigan, USA, 1959, p. 225.
George R. Frederick, October 2009

area of theology. In addition, many verses suggest practical applications of prophetic truths to a
Christian life. Specific knowledge and anticipation of Gods future program is an incentive to holy
living and commitment to Christ. 7

Dr. William Hendriksen, in his documentary, Survey on the Bible, is settled on Revelations
theme in his mind. He says:
The theme of this book is: The Victory of Christ and of His Church over Satan and
His Helpers.
The Apocalypse intends to show us that things are not what they seem. The beast that
comes up out of the abyss seems to be victorious8

Later, he showed that that victory was only for a brief moment.

The Fusing of Visions


The character of both books suggests that they be studied together since they, in effect,
complement each other. Where Daniel for instance, paints future events with a broad brush,
showing mountain peaks of the prophetic manifestation of things to come; Revelation fills in
the gaps with pertinent details. Case in point: Daniel (12:2) predicts the resurrection of all
mankind (Righteous and Wicked alike) as one, big conglomerate event (Multitudes who sleep in the
dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt. ),

gives details (20:4-6) that explain not only a first

resurrection

while Revelation

(of the Righteous) and a later

resurrection (of the Unrighteous), but also infers that there may be interval resurrections during
the Tribulation period.
Also Daniel, when seeking clarification for some of the things he was seeing, was told in what
seemed like a blunt response to Go your waybecause the words are closed up and sealed until the time of the
7

John F. Walvoord, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Victor Books SP Publications, Inc., Wheaton, Illinois, USA,
1986, p. 927.
8
William Hendriksen, Survey of the Bible, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, 1978, p. 436.
George R. Frederick, October 2009

end (12:8-9).

Whereas, in Revelation, John is seeing the seals being opened and disclosure of

dark things, hidden for eons, are being made available to him for the overall benefit of the
Church of Jesus Christ, in the first instance. There is undoubtedly a whole world of special
information contained in these two marvelous books.

Information that excites the spirit,

stimulates the intellect, awakens the emotions and sends us down to the train station of
expectation and desire to see their fulfillment. But thats where a word of caution is fitting.
For many have plunged headlong into the abyss of religious zeal, over-dogmatizing, prematurely concluding that theirs is the ultimate and only interpretation to this reservoir of
prophetic utterances God has allowed to be written for our admonition and learning.

prayerful, objective, honest and open approach is still by far the best way to go. Academic
satisfaction will no doubt be realized, but the ardent Student will find that that is neither the final
nor only aim as the books of Daniel and Revelation are being perused; ones faith and spirit
would be lifted to new dimensions and a greater appreciation that in the end Jesus Christ is the
Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah and of all nations of people and language and cultures
and races.

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


George R. Frederick, October 2009

10

NAME__________________________
CLASS EXERCISE #1
(1) The meaning of the name Daniel has several variants; list at least two of them:
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
(2) The name Belteshazzar was given to Daniel by king Nebuchadnezzar, what did it
mean? _______________________________________________________________
(3) Give another legitimate name for the Book of Revelation:
_________________________________________
(4) Daniels style of writing paints future events with broad brush; how does that
differ from the style of writing about the future in the Revelation?

____________________________________
____________________________________
(5) As was seen resulting from Israels unrestrained idolatry, what has become
synonymous with apostasy? ________________________________________

(6) In avoiding errors that result from excessive religious zeal, over-dogmatizing, etc.,
what approach in studying Daniel and Revelation is considered the best way to go?
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

George R. Frederick, October 2009

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(7) What was primarily responsible for Israels captivity in Babylon that eventually led
to all the drama in the Book of Daniel?
_________________________________________________________

(8)

John was also in confinement, a type of captivity, on the Isle of Patmos; not for

disobedience or any other negative reason. What that reason?


__________________________________________________________
(9)

Emerging from questions 7 & 8, and their respective answers, what lesson can one

learn from these two similar, yet contrasting scenarios?


_____________________________________________________________
(10) What in the character of both books, Daniel and Revelation, that suggests they be
studied together?
____________________________________________________________

George R. Frederick, October 2009

12

LE S SO N 2
ITS ALL ABOUT FAITH--FULNESS
Introduction
It is probably naive for anyone to question the fact that this is an age when more and more
people are willing and ready to flash their credentials at you. The system tells them that not
only it is their badge of authority, but also it is that which gives them a feeling of authenticity.
So, I have not only earned the right to speak, I also, by virtue of what I have acquired, earned
the right to occupy a space on the planet. But, while credentials are understandably necessary
as a functional part of dispensing information and holding certain positions (and as such, we are
encouraged to pursue them), a greater question arises: from whom are we really earning our
rights as human beings? Who certifies our qualifications in character reference and tells us that
we are morally fit to address the vexing issues of life? We would hope that the one we see as
being ultimately capable of giving an altruistic reference on us is the One Who knows (our)
down-sitting and (our) up-rising, andunderstands (our) thoughts afar off (Psalm 139:2 NKJV).
There is little doubt that Daniel and his Hebrew colleagues were professionally trained and
qualified, since they were able to hold positions of prominence in the administration of the then
most powerful kingdom of earth - Babylon. They were caught in the fray of Judahs captivity by
Nebuchadnezzar after he had defeated Egypt whose control they were under. A chronological
review would show clearly that amid the taxing and, sometimes, traumatic experiences
encountered, it was their unflinching faith that motivated their unwavering faithfulness:

Dr.

William Hendriksen in his Survey on the Bible, notes:


Takethe Book of Daniel. The author is clearly telling us one, connected story. He himself gives us
the links between the various parts of that story. We learn from the first chapter that as a reward
for his faithfulness Daniel received an understanding in all visions and dreams. Hence, it does not
surprise us that in chapter 2 he is represented as interpreting a dream. Again, when, as a result of
this interpretation, honors are bestowed on him not only but also on his three friends (2:49), it does
not cause surprise that, through the envy of his enemies, these three friends are cast into a fiery
furnace (chapter 3).9

William Hendriksen, Survey of the Bible, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, 1978, p. 46.
George R. Frederick, October 2009

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The Geographical Setting of Babylon:

The hanging gardens of this magnificent city, according to the Grecian records, were
one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

The city of Babylon lay between the two mighty Tigris and Euphrates Rivers the area
commonly referred to as the Fertile Crescent. From these rivers which flowed from the
mountains of what is now called modern Turkey (then Armenia), earth sediments
traveled downstream toward the Persian Gulf. This fertile plain became the cradle of
ancient civilization, causing ancient writers to refer to it as the bread basket of the
world.

The Historical Setting:

There is an older Empire that rose to prominence in ancient Middle East, during the 2 nd
millennium B.C. founded by Nimrod, according to Genesis 10:10. 10 The New Empire
emerged about 626 B.C. under Nabopolassar after resisting Assyrian opposition. He
died 605 B.C. while his son, Nebuchadnezzar was involved in military campaigns.

Under Nebuchadnezzar, Babylon defeated the Egyptian army at the battle of


Carchemish in 605 B.C., gaining control of Judah which was under Egyptian rule for
the last four years.

King Josiah was defeated at Megiddo in 609 B.C., and

Nebuchadnezzar had gone to Jerusalem and taken captives and all the treasures from
Jerusalem, and carried them off to Babylon.

In 597 B.C., he returned to reinforce his dominance over the Jews when he realized
that King Jehoikim had paid no tribute to the Babylonian Empire, ignored the rules and
had turned to Egypt for help. It was in that conflict Jehoikim died and was succeeded
by King Jehoichin who surrendered to Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 23:34 24:14).

After a long siege, Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the temple in Jerusalem, and by


extension, the entire city in 586 B.C., removed King Zedekiah whom he escorted to
Babylon, and left the poorest of the people to take care of the land.
The Structure of the Book:

10

D. J. Wiseman, New Bible Dictionary, Second Edition, Inter Vasity Press, Leicester, England 1986, pp. 111-113
George R. Frederick, October 2009

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The first 6 chapters can be dubbed a history of moral conflicts, or, others might prefer
Gods providence versus Gentile paganism, while the next 6 chapters careen us down
the prophetic path:
Chapter One narrates the tenacity of the Hebrew boys faith, and by implication,

showing us that a Christian can live faithful to God even in the midst of a hostile
environment.
Chapter Two shows that Gods miraculous intervention in the powerful interpretation
of dreams is superior to mans magical maneuvers.
Chapter Three tells perhaps one of historys most dramatic stories of the Three
Hebrew Boys in the Fiery Furnace Because we believe, we will not bow.
Chapter Four, with King Nebuchadnezzars dream, makes it clear that Gods
supremacy over-rules an earthly kings nocturnal vanity He who gives sleep to man can
also superintend the dreams of man.
Chapter Five, in King Belshazzars dilemma, teaches that God can disturb mans
apple-cart at the height of his frivolity and mockery and debauchery.
Chapter Six closes the historical drama by showing that the power of God transcends
earthly governments, kingdoms and human jealousies and prejudices; for even in the
lions den God protects Daniel as He would protect us from the ferocious spirits that
would otherwise tear us apart.
The rest of Daniel, even the narratives, is intended to take us through an
eschatological path with visions and imagery that hold our attention in a spell-bound grip.
Verse after verse pulsates with historical and prophetic data that fascinate the casual
reader, and send the persistent Seeker on a road of in-depth research.

George R. Frederick, October 2009

15

___________________________________________________
John, the divine, may not necessarily have had the same drama in his life as Daniel
did. And we say may, because he would have had the distinct honour of being
physically close to the Master; he would have heard His whispers and felt the vibrations
of His heart. Who else was more qualified to speak of Jesus with such moving language
when he said, That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes,
which we have looked at and our hands have touched this we proclaim concerning the Word of Life (1 John
1:1).

Hendriksen was probably in a state of euphoria when he writes on the Revelation:


Beautiful beyond description is the last book of the Bible. It is beautiful in form, in
symbolism, in purpose, and in meaning. Where in literature do we find anything that excels
the majestic description of the Son of Man walking in the midst of the golden lamp-stands
(1:12-20)? Where in Scripture do we find a more vivid and picturesque portrayal of the
Christ, Faithful and True, going forth unto victory, seated upon a white horse, arrayed with
a garment sprinkled with blood, followed by the armies of heaven (19:11-16)? Where, again,
do we find a sharper contrast than that between the doom of Babylon on the one hand and
the felicity of Jerusalem the Golden on the other (chps. 18, 19, 21, 22)? And where are the
throne in heaven and the blessedness of heavenly life depicted in a manner more simple, yet
beautiful in its simplicity (4:2 5:14; 7:13-17)? What a wealth of comfort; what an insight
into the future; above all, what an unveiling of the love of God is contained in words of the
prophecy of this book!11

The Historical Conditions:


He would have had his own lions den experience for he was exiled for his faith on
the island of Patmos because of the Word of God and the testimony of Jesus (Rev. 1:9).

So one can say

that he interfaced with both the Word of God (the Logos) and the Word of Life (the
Rhema); and he was made to suffer because of it. It was while he was in exile that, like
Daniel, he heard voices, saw visions, felt vulnerable, but was strengthened and given
hope.
11

Hendriksen, p. 435.
George R. Frederick, October 2009

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The Structure of the Book:


Ridley Colleges principal from Melbourne, L. L. Morris, documents on the Book of
Revelation that The last book of the Bible is, for most Christians, one of the least read
and most difficult. A few pages from it are well known and well loved (e.g. 7:9-17); but
for the most part modern readers find the book unintelligible. This is largely because it
abounds in symbolism of a type that we do not use and to which we no longer possess the
key. Yet this kind of imagery was readily comprehensible to the men of the day. Indeed,
this partly accounts for our difficulties. The author could assume that his readers would
detect his allusions, and therefore he felt no need to make explanations.12 Of course, if
one stays at Morris documentation, one can easily come away with the erroneous idea
that parts of the Bible are not only illogical, but also irrelevant; that God spoke things that
the people of that time could comprehend, but that such comprehension today is without a
key. So, while not denying the difficulty that one has to encounter in an attempt to
unravel the Revelation, this Book, like the other books of the Bible, was inspired, and
therefore, in addition to the Law of Grammatical Interpretation, it requires the Law of the
Spirit to engage our hearts and minds in the process.
John was given seven messages for the seven angels of seven actual churches (these
were local assemblies that existed in certain geographic locations). The nature of the
seven messages however, depicted attitudes, circumstances and conditions that could all
prevail simultaneously in any one assembly and/or in any individual Christian. Yet, true
to the character of the Book itself, the seven messages are representative of different
periods of the Church age, displaying these various dominant characteristics in
chronological sequence.
Not to be ignored in Johns case of writing is the fact of his character that would have
emerged from his faith-base. Jesus considered him a faithful person, because while on
12

L. L. Morris, New Bible Dictionary, pp. 1027-1029


George R. Frederick, October 2009

17

the cross, when He made those famous sayings, He told His mother, Mary, that she would
be committed to the care of John. When a dying man could commit his closest family
member to the care of someone, speaks volumes of the character of that person so
entrusted with the responsibility. Also, noteworthy is the record in Acts when the people
saw John, among the other disciples, they took knowledge that (he) had been with Jesus
(Acts 4:13). The Third Epistles written by him say unquestionably, that he was an apostle of
love.
__________________________________________________________
Conclusion
Yes there has been no end of drama in these Biblical accounts stories that go way
beyond fascination of the mind. But what is most important is that the people God used,
were men who were reliable; their character could have sustained them, even when their
reputation was being put on public display and made to look like the jester clowns. In
short, they were men of faith and that motivated them to be in hall of fame of the faithful.

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


NAME__________________________
CLASS EXERCISE # II

George R. Frederick, October 2009

18

(1) False as it may be, in this day and age, what gives people a feeling of
authenticity? ________________________________________
(2) The structure of the Book of Daniel is dubbed by some as a history of moral
conflicts; from the text, give another view others might prefer to see it as:
__________________________________________________________

(3) In the Revelation, how many messages, and to whom was John given to deliver
them?

_________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

(4)

State at least one fact about the geographical Babylon of Daniels time?
____________________________________________________________

(5)

State one historical fact about Babylon of Daniels time?


___________________________________

(6)

State another historical fact about the said Babylon?


____________________________________

(7) The 12 Chapters of the Book of Daniel could be divided into two main parts; the
first part (1 6) being filled with dramatic incidents that reflect a history of moral
drama. What does the second part (7 12) show us?
_______________________________________________

George R. Frederick, October 2009

19

(8)

Though it borders opinion somewhat, in what way would you say that John the
apostle was more privileged than Daniel the prophet, in the context of their
writing?
________________________________________________________

(9) What was the primary ingredient (or the base) of the character of both authors of
Daniel and Revelation that virtually qualified them to be assigned the task of
writing Scripture? __________________________
(10) Last Days or no Last Days, what does that say about the type of person I ought to
be (This answer is rather personal; and as such, has no right or wrong component to
it)?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

LE S SO N 3
COMPARING and CONTRASTING

George R. Frederick, October 2009

20

Introduction
As has already been alluded to, Daniel and John had this in common, among their
other giftings, they were men consistent in character; hence the credibility of their
writings can be trusted. And while John would have written after Jesus would have
ascended back to heaven, Jesus quoted from the writings of Daniel ( Matthew 24:15), giving
authenticity to the Book. There are however, some distinct characteristics about both
books that are so strikingly similar and others that are so distinctly different, that for a
true appreciation of the study, those distinctive must be noted and compared.
So the uniqueness to both books could be dissected as follows:

They plunge into events that apply to the end times.

They surface the personalities that would play a pivotal role in the closing drama on
the world stage.

They both saw visions.

They were given signs; and their language is very symbolic.

What they both saw and heard had serious disabling effects on them.

They both had encounters of a celestial kind.

Their message carries with it a sense of urgency.

The Seal is closed


Daniel was given explanation and vivid details of the vision which he saw that caused
him much trauma; but he was told to close (it) up and seal the words of the scroll to the
time of the end (12:4). He even prodded to ascertain a definite time slot (12:6): when will
all this be fulfilled? Again, he was told the duration (12:7). But when he insisted on their
specific fulfillment (12:8), he received what seemed like a partial scolding; because that
was privileged information, and not for his time; it was sealed till the time of the end
(12:9).

George R. Frederick, October 2009

21

The Seal is opened


John, in the Revelation (5:1-6), said he saw a scroll with writing on both side and,
sealed with seven seals. And the question arises: might this have relation to the words
that were sealed in Daniel? John was also traumatized when a mighty angel proclaiming
in a loud voice whom he saw asked, Who is worthy to break the seals and open the
scroll? and no one in either heaven, or earth or even under the earth, was found who
was worthy to open the scroll or look inside. He wept much. That was until the Lion of
the tribe of Judahtriumphed. He is able to open the scroll and its seven seals. So what
was closed in Daniel is seemingly being opened in Revelation.
Keeping in mind that the whole issue of the time slots is the crunch point of the two
books; and no doubt, that could very well be the most salient factor that marries both
Books together. As a matter of fact, Dr. Westlake, Jr. pieced that time element of both
books in a simple, but effective matrix shown below:13

RECURRENT TIME SEGMENT IN DANIEL AND


REVELATION
TIME

LOCATION

Time, times and half a time

Daniel 7:25; 12:7; Revelation

42 months
1260 days

12:14
Revelation 11:2; 13:5
Revelation 11:3; 12:6
Dr. George W. Westlake, Jr.

(For this study)

Figure 2.1

One on-line Bible Study ministries made the observation, that:


13

George W. Westlake, Jr., p. 41


George R. Frederick, October 2009

22

for two plus millennia, all who have read Daniels words have
understood them and have understood his vision. But neither
scholars nor prophecy pundits have understood the sealed and
secret prophecy about a great conflict that will occur during
the three and half years preceding the kingdom of the world
becoming the kingdom of the Most High and of His Christ

(Rev. 11:15). The prophecy would not have been sealed if it had
been understood earlier than the end of the age.
Homer Kizer Ministries, January 19, 200914

We have been always advised to avoid as much dogmatism as possible especially


when dealing with material of a prophetic nature. That is not to suggest that we must see
ourselves swimming in a vast ocean of prophetic uncertainty. There are areas where we
know that, as

2 Peter 1:19

says, we have the word of the prophets made more certain,

and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place, until the
day dawns (Emphasis added). So what has been made certain, we pay attention to; but in
those grey areas (grey to us), we must bring to bear as much prayerful, objective and
unbiased views as is humanly possible; cashing in on the advice of the Wise man, that in
the multitude of counselors, there is safety (Proverbs 11:14 KJV).
Take for instance, how do we view the very renowned, long standing radio and
television Bible teacher of the Shepherds Chapel Broad-Telecast for over some fifty
years, Dr. Arnold Murrays interpretation of the Seals and the trumpets? He insists that
the seals both in Daniel and Revelation are secured secrets in the mind (of man); and
that those seals secrets will be open with the blasts of the trumpets to signal what is going
to happen (Emphasis added).15 He further stated that the Anti-Christ comes first should be
sealed in our minds, so that we would know who this personality is when he makes his
entrance on the world stage.
Shepherds Chapel Hour, SVG Television, October 26, 2009

14
15

Danielandrevelation.org/ Homer Kizer Ministries, January 19, 2009


Arnold Murray, Shepherds Chapel Hour, SVG Television, October 26, 2009
George R. Frederick, October 2009

23

Do we agree with Dr. Murray? Certainly not casually; and very likely, not even after
careful, comparative analysis of the Word of God. So why then bother to even quote his
statement?

That the objective researcher can examine the views of others whose

opinions, though we may not endorse, could cause us to look at shades of interpretations
that we may not have otherwise considered; thus strengthening a clearer perception. On
the surface, why do we disagree with Dr. Murray? Simply because Revelation says
(quoted earlier) that no one was found worthy to look into the book and open the seals
not even the writer of the Revelation. He could only weep with regret.
A COMPARATIVE LOOK AT THE CREATURES

Apart from the seals and trumpets, there are other components that carry vivid
comparisons in the documenting of the books, namely, the creatures (alias the beasts) and
the Celestial Personage; and even while looking at one Book over against another, there
are also cases where the different visions of the same Book need comparative
understanding. Case in point, in

Chapter Two

of Daniel, Nebuchadnezzars dream (often

called the image vision), runs parallel to the dream (or vision since both terms are
used interchangeably) that Daniel himself had in Chapter 7, which, because of its nature, is
usually called the beast vision.
The significance of the former vision was that God revealed a particular Course of
future history: showing that from King Nebuchadnezzars reign, of which his kingdom
(Babylon) was the head of gold, to the end of Gentile dominance on the earth. A period
we would later learn from Jesus Himself (Luke 21:24) called The Times of the Gentiles.
The latter vision, belonging to Daniel, in which he saw images of four great beasts,
that came up from the sea, diverse one from another (7:3 KJV), as was interpreted by
one of those standing at the worship center, which, in effect co-related with the former,
showing that the the four great beasts are four kingdoms that will rise from the earth.
The theology that is derived from this is that God speaks to people and through people in
their own peculiar contexts. Nebuchadnezzar, as a heathen king who put a lot of emphasis
on the economic systems that govern kingdoms, hence his dream projected his kingly

George R. Frederick, October 2009

24

disposition; while Daniel virtually dreamed the same dream, but through his prophetic
disposition, where certain animals are symbolic of represented kingdoms or nations.
Our study will later take us into a wider examination of the relevance of these images
and beasts. For the sake of comparison however, there is probably no more compelling
evidence than the Celestial Personage in both books. Its no secret that most theologians
have concluded that the supernatural being described in the vision of

Daniel 10:5-6,

corresponds to Johns vision of Jesus Christ in Revelation 1. In Lesson 4, well later revisit.
One does not have to get too emotional; but, admittedly, the description of this
heavenly Visitor does leave the reader spell-bound as we engage, with the writers, an
image (as man is best able to capture in words) of the Only Eternal Potentate. This does
nothing but raises expectations of redeemed mankind where each one of us will behold
Him with our own eyes and being enthralled by His awesome presence. There is no God
like Jehovah! And there is no necessity at attempting to re-invent the wheel, since Dr.
Westlake, Jr. ably captured the comparison of both prophets in the following figure (p
51):
Daniel

Revelation

Clothing

Item

dressed in linen

robe reaching to

Dignity

Belt
Eyes

(v.5)
gold (v.5)
like
flaming

his feet (v.13)


golden (v.13)
like blazing fire

Very Valuable
All-seeing

Lower

torches (v.6)
legs like

(v.14)
feetlike

Steadfast

Body

burnished bronze

glowing (v.15)

Voice

(v.6)
like the sound of

like the sound of

Strength

a multitude (v. 6)

rushing

Authority

bronze

waters

Meaning

and

(v.15)
(For this study) Figure 2.2

16

BY WAY OF CONTRAST
16

Westlake, Jr., p.51


George R. Frederick, October 2009

25

In our modern day jargon, we often talk of comparing apples with oranges implying
that the variables are not compatible. However, the Books of Daniel and Revelation are
so intertwined, that both their similarities and their contrasts complement each other. For
example, a look at their literary structure tells that while Daniel captures the vicissitudes
of real life story-telling even when it deals with the prophetic -, Revelation goes straight
to the apocalyptic method of thinking; forcing the reader immediately into the world of
interpretation.
As the Introduction to the Revelation in the Zondervan NIV Study Bible (Fully
Revised, 2002) says concerning the Literary Form:
For an adequate understanding of Revelation, the reader must recognize that it is a
distinct

kind of literature. Revelation is apocalyptic; a kind of writing that is highly

symbolic. Although its visions often seem bizarre to the Western reader, fortunately
the book provides a number of clues to its own interpretation (e.g., stars are angels,
lamp-stands are churches, 1:20; the great prostitute, 17:1, is Babylon [Rome?],
17:5, 18; and the heavenly Jerusalem is the wife of the Lamb, 21:9-10). 17

Daniel was a little less tedious, though equally interpretational.


Both books engaged a degree of numbers, but Revelation was particularly distinctive
in the numbers feature. The number seven is mentioned 52 times. And while Daniel was
given nearly all the interpretations of the images and visions, the Revelation lends itself
to the reader doing a series of speculations. It is often felt that interpretations of
Revelation carry at least one of four dispositions or viewpoints:
1. The Preterist, which views the prophecies of the book as having been fulfilled in
the early history of the church (therefore, we might as well not bother with
things to come).
2. The Historical, which understands the book as portraying a panorama of the
history of the church from the days of John to the end of time.

17

Zondervan, NIV Study Bible (Fully Revised), Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, 2002
George R. Frederick, October 2009

26

3. The Idealist, which consider the book a pictorial unfolding of great principles in
constant conflict, without reference to actual events (which needless to say, while
some virtue lies here, will leave a very sorry void that begs to be filled).
4. The Futurist, which views most of the book (chaps, 4 22) as prophecy yet to
be fulfilled.
Walvoord did his own analysis and response to these four aforementioned approaches.
In his Commentary he says:
Because of its unusual character, Revelation has been approached from a number of
interpretive principles, some of which raise serious questions concerning its value as divine
authoritative revelation.
The allegorical or nonliteral approach.

This form of interpretation was offered by the

Alexandrian school of theology in the third and fourth centuries. It regards the entire Bible as an
extensive allegory to be interpreted in a nonliteral sense. The allegorical interpretation of the
Bible was later restricted largely to prophecy about the Millennium by Augustine (354-430), who
interpreted Revelation as a chronicle of the spiritual conflict between God and Satan being
fulfilled in the present Church age.

A liberal variation of this in modern times considers

Revelation simply as a symbolic presentation of the concept of Gods ultimate victory.


The preterist approach.

A more respected approach is known as the preterist view which

regards Revelation as a symbolic picture of early church conflicts which have been fulfilled. This
view denies the future predictive quality of most of the Revelation. In varying degrees this view
combines the allegorical and symbolic interpretation with the concept that Revelation does not
deal with specific future events. Still another variation of the preterist view regards Revelation as
setting forth principles of divine dealings with man, without presenting specific events.
The historical approach. A popular view stemming from the Middle Ages is the historical
approach which views Revelation as a symbolic picture of the total church history of the present
Age between Christs first and second comings. This view was advance by Luther, Isaac Newton,
Elliott, and many expositors of the postmillennial school of interpretation and has attained
respectability in recent centuries.

Its principal problem is that seldom do two interpreters

interpret a given passage as referring to the same event. Each interpreter tends to find its
fulfillment in his generation. Many have combined the historical interpretation with aspects of
other forms of interpretation in order to bring out a devotional or spiritual teaching from the
book. The preceding methods of interpretation tend to deny a literal future Millennium and also
literal future events in the Book of Revelation.
The futuristic approach. The futuristic approach has been adopted by conservative scholars,
usually premillenarians, who state that chapters 4-22 deal with events that are yet future today.

George R. Frederick, October 2009

27

The content of Revelation 4-18 describes the last seven years preceding the second coming of
Christ and particularly emphasizes the Great Tribulation, occurring in the last three and one-half
years before His coming.
Objections to this view usually stem from theological positions opposed to premillennialism.
The charge is often made that the Book of revelation would not have been a comfort to early
Christians or understood by them if it were largely futuristic. Adherents of the futuristic school
of interpretation insist, on the contrary, that future events described in Revelation bring comfort
and reassurance to Christians who in the nature of their faith regard the ultimate victory as
future. The futuristic interpretation, however, is demanding of the expositor as it requires him to
reduce to tangible prophetic events the symbolic presentations which characterizes the book. 18

Conclusion
When all is said, and the various comparisons are made and the contrasts done, one
cannot help but be awed at the God of the Book, who shifts things and events to fit His
divine plan. However, while the futurist seems to be the one closest to the Biblical
intention, it behooves us to keep the dogmatic-avoidance approach in mind. As someone
rightly observed that these interpretations are certainly not the factors that determine a
persons eternal destiny. ainly not the premise

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


NAME__________________________
CLASS EXERCISE # III
18

John F. Walvoord, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, NT, Victor Books a division of SP Publications, Inc.,
Wheaton, Illinois, USA, 1986, p. 926.
George R. Frederick, October 2009

28

(1) When Daniel sought understanding of the detailed outcome of the vision in Chapter
12, what response did he receive?
_____________________________________________________________
(2) In relation to the seals, why did John do so much weeping?
_______________________________________________________________
(3)

In the Book of Daniel, King Nebuchadnezzars image vision was virtually the
same as Prophet Daniels ___________________________________________

(4) A derived theology from that is: the kings vision emphasized the economic systems
that govern kingdoms, while the prophets vision depicts what?
________________________________________________________________

(5) When dealing with matters of a prophetic nature, what are we advised to avoid?
________________________________________________________________
(6)

As a safety catch to be guarded against individuals and/or entities that would want
to run off with selective interpretations on matters of an eschatological nature, what
Scripture quoted in the Book of Proverbs guides us in this regard?

_________________________________________________________________
(7)

________________________________________________________________
What value is there to be derived by listening to those whose views on Last
Things are usually extreme?
_____________________________________________________________

George R. Frederick, October 2009

29

_____________________________________________________________
(8)

Regarding the heavenly visitations recorded in both books, and the effects they
had on the writers who encountered them, what raises the expectations of
redeemed mankind in looking to the future fulfillment of all these things?
_______________________________________________________________

(9)

What did the heathen King Nebuchadnezzar and the godly Prophet Daniel have in
common concerning activities in the night?

________________________________________________________

(10)

Name the four dispositions different theologians might interpret from the

Revelation regarding time-fulfillment?

______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

LE S SO N 4
THE NUMBER OF WAYS TO NUMBER OUR DAYS
Introduction

George R. Frederick, October 2009

30

It is a fragile theology to rely heavily on numbers to determine ones course of action


where the kingdom of God is concerned, or doing the will of God for that matter, far less
to determine the molding of ones character in matters of faith and holiness. At the same
token to ignore the glaring reality of the significant inclusion of numbers, not necessary
scattered arbitrarily, but strategically placed throughout the whole of Scripture; and
particularly in the Books of Daniel and Revelation, would be doing a disservice to the
wisdom and literary value of the Biblical text.
Having said that one cannot help but make some pertinent observations from the
general reading of Scripture that have caused many to conclude that God has some
hidden agenda in numbers. As such, they insist that:
1 (one) is used to convey the concept of unity, as there is but one God.
2 (two) can be a figure both of unity and of division; Good & Evil...
3 (three) is the No. of divinitysince it speaks of the Trinity.
4 (four) is the No. of the earthencompassing North, S., E. & W.
5 (five) is the No. of wisdom/folly; considering wise & foolish virgins.
6 (six) is the No. of man including the anti-Christ.
7 (seven) has an eminent place in Scripture completion/perfection.
Dr. Westlake, Jr. came up with his own matrix (p 79) that of combining animals and
colors, along with numbers, to form part of the study of Daniel/Revelation, as shown
below.19
Type of Symbol

Numbers

19

Symbol

Meaning

One

God

Two

Confirmation

Three

Trinity

Four

Earth

Six

Man, evil

Seven

Divine fullness, (occurs 54 times)

Ten

Political completion

Twelve

Final completion

Westlake, Jr., p. 79
George R. Frederick, October 2009

31

Animals

Colors

Lamb

Jesus

Horses

Military might

Wild beasts

Antichrist and False Prophet

Frogs

Demons

Lion
White

Jesus
Purity, ancientness

Pale

Death

Red

Bloodshed, war

Purple

Imperial luxury

Emerald green

Rest, refreshment

Black

Calamity, distress
(For this Study) Figure 3.1

Among other stated principles, Westlake, Jr. says that, as a principle, we aught to
Understand the use of signs and symbols. Many signs and symbols such as animals,
colors, numbers, and objects appear throughout the book of Revelation. They are used to
express certain meanings. According to one writer, J. B. Smith, there are forty-six
symbols the book itself interprets Numbers per se have not been given a clear
interpretation; and so, the reader is often left to depend on the Holy Spirit and do
comparative analysis.
It seems that every theologian has his own theological bias at some point on certain
issues, and notable eschatologist J. Dwight Pentecost in his well used book, Things to
Come, is part of the culture. In it he drafted in Walter Scotts stance on the numbers
issue from his treatise on Exposition of the Revelation, p.122. He notes:
The number of these elders (in Revelation 4:4) is not without its significance. Scott
comments:
But why twenty-four? The significance of the numeral must be sought for in the
first book of Chronicles 24, 25. David divided the priesthood into twenty-four
orders or courses, each course serving in turn (Luke 1:5, 8, 9). The respective elders
or chiefs of these courses would represent the whole of the Levitical priesthood.
There would thus be twenty-four chief priests and one high priest. Their varied
service corresponded to that of the elders in heaven, for the temple (no less than the
tabernacle), in structure, vessels, and services, was framed according to things in the
heavens. Gods people are termed an holy priesthood (1Pet. 2:5) and a royal
priesthood (v. 9), and in both characters they are here seen in action.
(So

Pentecost concludes :)

George R. Frederick, October 2009

32

Thus they seem to be representatives of the entire heavenly priesthood, associated with
Christ, the Great High Priest, in the unfolding of the consummation of the age.20 The
point here is not to arbitrarily deduct or make light of what Pentecost, through Scott, is
projecting. But, as he rightly concluded in his usual responsible manner, that they (the
24 elders) seem to be representatives; suggesting the absence of certainty; which is what
we are being asked to observe as we handle numbers.
However, in addition to Pentecost and Scott, if one were to notice anything that would
lend teeth to the 7-completion concept, is the fact that as Dr. K. Philipose in his book, The
Imminent Return of Jesus Christ (p 73), 21 quotes from George G. Beemer that the seven
churches in the Book of Revelation were selected from all the churches to accomplish
the following purpose:

The contemporary purpose: That Christ had a direct message to seven


literal churches existing at that time.

The composite purpose: That these messages are meant to be applied by


all churches existing in all ages.

The chronological purpose: That the characteristics of these churches


serve as a prophetical purview of the seven great period of Christendom
from Pentecost to the rapture.

He also quotes from J B Phillips The Book of Revelation, whom he says has
suggested the following outline regarding the seven churches in their chronological
purpose:
1.

Ephesus name means desirable. The Apostolic Church

(A.D. 30 -

100).
2.

Smyrna name means myrah. The Martyr Church

(A.D. 101 313).

3.

Pergamum name means marriage. The Compromising Church


(A.D. 314-590).

20
21

J. Dwight Pentecost, Things To Come, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1977, pp. 252-3
K.M. Philipose, The Imminent Return of Jesus Christ, OM-Authentic Books, India, 2007, p.73
George R. Frederick, October 2009

33

4.

Thyatira name means continued sacrifice. The R C Church (A.D.


591 1517).

5.

Sardis name means the remnant. The Reformation Church

(A.D.

1518 1700).
6.

Philadelphia name means brotherly love. The Revival Church


(A.D. 1701 - 1900).

7.

Laodicea name means peoples right. The Worldly Church (A.D.


1900 rapture). 22

Does God have something special in mind when He structures the events of things to come in
the framework of numbers? What is this admonition to count whether its the numbering of
our days aright (Psalm 90:12) to gain a heart of wisdom? Or, as David asked, to show me, O LORD, my
lifes end and the number of my days; let me know how fleeting is my life (Psalm 39:4)?

Or, the counting of the

number of the beasts name; or the number of the beast himself (which is the number of a man)
(Rev. 13:17-18)?
We can put in a demystifier and simply explain that numbers are mere practical and realistic
symbols created to put logic and order in the affairs of life, existence, and, perhaps even survival.
They virtually propel the dynamics of life. Without them, the complete cosmic disorientation
that would exist is inconceivable. So, God in His wisdom gave us these invaluable symbols. Or,
as one Math specialist contributed on Wikipedia the World Encyclopedia, that: A number is a
mathematical object used in counting and measuring. A notational symbol which represents a
number is called a numeral, but in common usage the word number is used for both the abstract
abject and the symbol, as well as for the word for the number. The study of numerical operation
is called Arithmetic.23

THE WORD OF CAUTION

22
23

J. B. Phillips, The Book of Revelation, Fontana Books, 1960


Wikipedia the World Encyclopedia
George R. Frederick, October 2009

34

Numbers at best is still loaded with problems that the Student of Scripture is advised not to
simply ignore. For example, most of the Hebrew numbers in the OT text were written in words,
as in the main figures in the Gk. Text of the NT. Numbers are also written in word form on the
Moabite Stone and the Siloam Inscription.
Tyndales New Bible Dictionary (Second Edition, 1986) documents:
The large numbers recorded in certain parts of the OT have occasioned considerable difficulties. These are
concerns chiefly with the chronology of the early periods of OT history, where the problem is further
complicated by the presence of differing figures in various texts and versions, with the numbers of the
Israelites at the time of the Exodus, and the number of the warriors in various armies, and especially of the
numbers of the slain of enemy forces. With regard to the first problem one may instance that the Heb. Text
gives 1,656 years as the time between the creation and the Flood, the LXX 2,262 years and the Samaritan
1,307. Or for the age of Methuselah the Heb. Text gives 969 and the Samaritan 720. (*GENEALOGY; *
CHRONOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.) A similar problem exists in the NT regarding the number
of persons on board the ship on which Paul traveled to Rome. Some MSS give 276 and others 76 (Acts
27:37). Again the number of the beast (Rev. 13:18) is given variously as 666 and 616.

An indication that numbers might suffer textual corruption in transmission is provided by differing
numbers in parallel texts, e.g. the age of Jehoiachin at the beginning of his reign as 18 in 2 Kings 24:8 and
8 in 2 Ch. 36:9.

Archaeological discoveries have contributed considerable background information to the age of


Exodus and the conquest of Palestine, and the contemporary population. Given that the Israelites were less
in number than the Canaanites, as may be inferred from Ex.23:29 and Dt. 7:7, 17, 22, the census numbers
of Nu. 1 and 26 which imply a population of 2-3 million require investigation.

(pp 841- 844) 24

The caution therefore is necessary, for the simple reason that a person can unwittingly
formulate a doctrine based on conviction derived from certain numbers in a particular texts or
series of texts, only to discover, after careful textual analysis is done, the numbers can discover
to be faulty, or, not having the level of theological significance as was originally thought.

24

Tyndale, New Bible Dictionary (Second Edition), Tyndale House Pub., USA,1986, pp.841-844
George R. Frederick, October 2009

35

Conclusion
Bearing in mind, the above is not intending to throw a damper on ones enthusiasm for
pursuing a theology that is projected through numbers; for as one scholar says, and there is great
merit in his statement, that God has spoken extensively but He has not spoken exhaustively. An
open and honest approach is necessary so that no attempt is made to stifle spontaneous and lively
research and to offer the opportunity to view God for Who He is a God of infinite variety. So
the God of numbers says that He is so involved with us at such an intimate level that according
to Matt. 10:30, even the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Then in the very next verse,
He affirms the value He has put on His children by telling them not to be afraid because we are
more valuable than sparrows.

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


NAME__________________________
CLASS EXERCISE # IV
(1)

What would be considered fragile theology in anyone attempting to do Gods


will, or in the molding of ones character?
__________________________________________________________

(2)

The admonition to count the number is intended for more than just Arithmetic;
what do the following Scripture verses expect us to derive from the counting exercise:

George R. Frederick, October 2009

36

Psalm 90:12? _______________________________________________

39:4? ________________________________________________

Rev. 13:17-18? ______________________________________________

(3) We have to admit, since God is a God of infinite variety, and we are cautioned not to
either build doctrine based on numbers alone on the one hand, or stifle spontaneity on
the other hand; what should our approach be?
_______________________________________________________
(4)

Numbers, no doubt, have systematic value; do you see any significant value in the
numbering of the 5 wise, visa vise, the 5 foolish virgins in Matthew Chapter 25?
(This is a personal answer) _____________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
George Beemer feels that the seven churches in Revelation were selected to
accomplish specific purposes; what were they? Write out your corresponding answer
to the next three prompted questions:

(5) The

contemporary

purpose:

______________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
(6)

The composite purpose:

____________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________
_
(7) The chronological purpose: ____________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

George R. Frederick, October 2009

37

(8)

Among the commendations and rebukes the church at Ephesus received in its letter,
what was the main command given to it (Rev. Chapter 2), if it were to redeem itself?

____________________________________________________

(9) What of the church in Philadelphia (Rev. Chapter 3)?

___________________________________________________
________________________________________________

(10)

What of the church in Laodicea (Rev. Chapter 3)?

_______________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

LE S S ON 5
BITING THE ESCHATOLOGICAL BULLET
Introduction
The Books that presently engage our attention, like the wider study of Eschatology The
Doctrine of Last Things from which they find their most associated identity, plunge us into a
vast sea of what might seem like a theological milieu, where at times we can find ourselves
seemingly gasping for the air of clarity. And thats not just trying to be very colourful in

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38

language; that is the stark reality as we seek to embrace the great theological divide on this
delicate area of Biblical teaching. We have already alluded to the difficulty highlighted by
Morris in Lesson II, but that would come about if we refuse to explore the depth of the
implications involved these fascinated books.
For instance, just the very mention that eschatology, and its study, engages one in a type of
literature that is apocalyptic in nature; and a great number of persons have not yet distinguish it
from the near sounding apocrypha. The former, which is our present concern, as articulated by
R. J. Bauckham, University of Manchesters lecturer, that: the word designates both a genre of
literature (the Jewish and Christian apocalypses) and also the characteristic ideas of this
literature. Within the Canon apocalyptic is represented especially by the books *Daniel and
*Revelation, but there are many other apocalypses from the intertestamental and early Christian
periods.25
On the other hand, the latter, has been defined by textual criticism specialist, J. N. Birdsall,
professor of New Testament of the University of Birmingham, as: The term apocrypha (neuter
plural of the Gk. adjective apokryphos, hidden) is a technical term concerning the relation of
certain books to the OT Canon, signifying that, while they are not approved for public lection,
they are nevertheless valued for private study and edification. The term covers a number of
additions to canonical books in their LXX form.26 That, of course, is a study in itself; because,
generally, in evangelical circles, the idea of apocryphal writings does not have a positive ring. So
an id-depth study will put one on a balanced, conceptual footing.
One case in point is where both Daniel and John had experiences with celestial beings (Dan.
7:9-10; 8:15-16; 10:5-12; cf. Rev. 1:10-19; 21:3 22:7; 22:8-10). There is no doubt that some
of these encounters were with God Himself (the Ancient of Days), the Pre-Incarnate Christ, and
the Glorified Lord of the Church. However, both prophets, at some point were not able to
distinguish between a manifestation of God in His glory and a visitation from an angelic
messenger. At one time Daniel was so overwhelmed by the presence of an angel (Dan. 10:10-

25
26

R. J. Bauckham, New Bible Dictionary, pp. 54-56.


J. N. Birdsall, New Bible Dictionary, pp. 56-58.
George R. Frederick, October 2009

39

12), having just encountered the awesome presence of deity (v 5-6); he described the effects by
saying A hand touched me and set me trembling on my hands and kneesI stood up trembling.
John, in similar fashion (Rev. 22:8-9), was about to succumb to the worship of a visitor, who
had to instantly rebuke him and put in a disclaimer to deity. As a matter of fact, it was not even
an angel as he had thought; for the visitor said that he was of the brethren the prophets, and of
them which kept the sayings of this book: worship God (KJV). The lesson emerging here is that
even the Biblical prophets could be wrong in their identity of persons.
Lets go back to Daniels (10:10-12) encounter, and almost immediately, many scholars
parallel that to Johns in Rev. 1: 10-19 and conclude that Christ is the Person in both visits:

The silence of Charles C. Ryrie on the issue is very noticeable.

J Dwight Pentecost holds a view that the mentioned personalities in Chapter 10:512 of Daniel are one and the same Gabriel who previously had been sent by God
to reveal truth to Daniel (8:16), probably Gabriel was also the visitor on this
occasion. He further feels that angels who dwell in the presence of God who is
light, are themselves clothed with light, and Daniel saw something of heavens
glory reflected in this one who visited him (10:5-6). He argues:
Some Bible Students say that the man was the pre-incarnate Christ because of
(a) the

similarity of the description here of that of Christ in Revelation 1: 13

16; (b) the response of Daniel and his friends (Dan. 10:7-8), and (c) the fact that
this Man may be the same as the Son of Man in 7:13 and the Man in 8:16.
On the other hand, in favor of this messenger being an angel is the improbability
of Christ being hindered by a prince (demon) of Persia (10:13) and needing the
help of the angel Michael, and the fact that the person is giving a message from
heaven. (The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Victor Books 1978, USA, pp 1365
- 66)27

27

Dwight J. Pentecost, Bible Knowledge Commentary, OT, Victor Books, USA, 1978, pp.1365-66
George R. Frederick, October 2009

40

Lets not lose objectivity here, but while Dr. Pentecost is, by reputation, a very
thorough scholar, could he be missing something? Are we not dealing with two distinct
individuals: one in 5-6 (deity), and another in 10-12 (a messenger)? It simply served as a
reminder of how fragile (or delicate) is the matter of Last Things we are dealing with. It
may be tough, but someone has to bite the bullet; and by that we mean, look at the issue
at hand and definitively address the difficulties without going off on a limb; and yet be
faithful to Scripture.
DISTINGUISHING THE CATEGORIES
God does not speak in ambiguities; neither is He the author of confusion (1 Cor.
14:33). Even though He may choose different vehicles of communication, the message
must be consistent. He is the Father of Lights (James 1:17). We may have difficulty
unraveling the symbols, parables, types, forms, shadows, imagery, etc; but thats for us to
prayerfully and patiently wait for His illumination and guidance.
There is a part we can all play besides being a passive by-stander. A good admonition
to follow is that similar to Gideons. When he tried to ask about the plight of Israel under
Moabs oppression, seeing he was in his own sight, an insignificant pawn on this seeming
cosmic chess-board of rebellion and retribution; and hoping that repentance would bring
a restoration, he was told: go in the strength you haveand save Israel (Judges
6:14). So, lets go in the strength we have separating certainty from uncertainty,
from that which is totally off-key. We can for all intents and purposes call them the Solid,
the Soft and the Subtle.
THE SOLID, THESOFT and the SUBTLE
1. There are areas that are Solid, Settled and Sealed: - There are passages in both
Daniel and Revelation that interpret themselves right in the said passage so there
is no need for guessing. We know that the lion-image in Daniels dream in chapter
7:4 is one of four kings (v 17), who unmistakably correspondents to Nebuchadnezzar,
king of Babylon. He however, has nothing to do with the Lion of Judah (in Rev. 5:5),

George R. Frederick, October 2009

41

Who is none other than Jesus Christ Himself, the prevailing Son of God, worthy to
open the scrolls and look into the seals - though they are both lion-like.
That both authors were dealing with issues and events that related both to their
time and more-so to the future beyond their time. In Daniels case, he was clearly
told that the visions and visitation were intended to show matters that were yet to take
place. The very construction of his grammar is seasoned with Future Tense Verbs:
kingdoms that will rise (Dan. 7:17), Then I heard a holy one speaking and
another holy one said to him, How long will it take for the vision to be
fulfilled?..It will take 2,300 evenings and mornings; then the sanctuary will be
re-consecrated (Dan. 8:13-14); there will be seven sevens, and sixty-two
sevens. It will be rebuilt with streets and a trench, but in times of troublethe
Anointed One will be cut off and will have nothing. The people of the ruler who will
come will destroy the city and the sanctuary (Dan. 9:25-26); Now I have come to
explain to you what will happen to your people in the future (Dan. 10:14), etc. etc.
The Revelation is no less saturated with Future Tenses. Right from the inception
(Rev. 1:8) Jesus Christ is being revealed with his signature: I am the Alpha and the
Omega, says the Lord God, who is, and who was, and who is to come, the
Almighty. Then John was given his written assignment in capsule: what you have
seen, what is now and what will take place later. So, there are issues that are settled
and their understanding sealed and placed in the archives of things to be unchanged
and un-tampered with.
2.

There are some areas that, to us, are Soft, Slender and Slippery: These Adjectives are designated to particular aspects of apocalyptic writings for the
simple reason, that unlike those that are solid, settled and sealed, some prophecies
carry dual interpretations where some pivotal personage are pre-figured in other
lesser important characters. For example, the person of the Antichrist, who, by all
evidence, is predicted to tarnish the eschatological landscape, is believed by most to
have been prefigured in the Grecian character, Antiochus Epiphanes, in Daniel 11:2135. However, like the Book of Ezekiel (Chapters 27-28), where the writer speaks of

George R. Frederick, October 2009

42

the natural king (ruler) of Tyre, who seemed to have possessed certain characteristics
similar to that of Satan the spiritual ruler of Tyre, then begin to talk about things
that could apply to either the king or Satan, to be followed by things that could only
have applied to Satan, but, at times could leave the reader wondering when does the
information on the king ends and Satans picks up. In the same way, one at times is
left to wonder when does the Grecian leader ends, and Antichrist begins (Dan. 11:3645)? Hence, understandably, it is easier for a Student of the Word to slip overboard
because of the slender nature of these prophecies.
That of course, is not intended to give license to indulge in theological skydiving.
Its just that one has to be more guarded when dealing with teachings that are not as
definitive in their statements. From Revelation 7, John said he saw four angels,
poised at the four corners of the earth, while they were holding the four winds from
creating havoc until the 144,000 servants of God 12,000 from the 12 tribes of
Israel are sealed (v 1-8). Then in V 9, he says he saw a great multitude that no one
could countstanding before the throne and in front of the Lamb. There are many
who state, categorically, that this innumerable multitude is composed of many racial
and geographic groups who will be redeemed during the Tribulation period (The
Ryrie Study Bible, p 1729), using V 14s explanation as to who these are: they
come out of the great tribulation; they have washed their robes That seems
reasonable enough. But are we dealing with semantics here? We note that the KJV
does not carry the definitive article the in V 14 as found in the NIV, which would
most definitely affect the likely understanding as to who the these really are. What
puts that in the group of the soft, slender and slippery is if that interpretation is
correct (and it probably is), it begs further explanations: Among them, is it a correct
Biblical concept that during the great Tribulation, countless Gentiles are going to be
saved? No mischief is intended here, but if Gentiles who are being saved now can be
counted, and this is the Era of Grace, how come countless will be saved outside of
Grace?

George R. Frederick, October 2009

43

3.

Then there are areas that are Subtle, Seductive and Synthetic: - The
language is strong - and thats not by accident; for it is from the Word of God comes
these serious indictments in relation to events of the last days:

Jesus said, For false Christs and false prophets will appear and perform
signs and miracles to deceive even the elect if that were possible (Matt.
24:24).

Paul also says, The Spirit clearly says that in the later times some will
abandon the faith and follow deceiving spirits and things taught by demons
(1 Tim. 4:1).

Peter is no less firm: But there were also false prophets among the people,
just as there will be false teachers among you. They will secretly introduce
destructive heresies, even denying the sovereign Lord who bought them bringing swift destruction on themselves (2 Peter 2:1).

John added his bit: Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits
whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the
world (1 John 4:1 KJV).

It would help if we understand what we are up against; that there are spirits let loose,
whose intent, in addition to widespread fear, is to create an environment of whole scale
deception, and consequently mistrust, so that people would not be able to easily discern
truth. Though vaguely put, Daniel portrays a bizarre picture that shows even to the
time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall increase (Dan. 12:4
KJV).
As an ironic twist of fate, though knowledge shall increase, Paul says, men will be
ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth (2 Tim. 3:7 KJV).
Hence the ground is ripe for all types of synthetic messages messages that could
carry a form of Godliness, yet deny Gods power (2 Tim 3:5). Then running to and fro
pictures an age of gross instability; and in unstable conditions, people are very vulnerable
to any teaching particularly teaching that is seductive in nature and preys on peoples

George R. Frederick, October 2009

44

emotions. The admonition therefore, is for us to be able to distinguish the message of


Messiah the Prince (with a capital P) (Dan. 9: 25 KJV - Who is Prince Jesus), from
the prince (common p) that shall come (V 26 who is, the Antichrist).
Conclusion
It is so interesting to note, that in that same last noted verse, both princes (KJV) are
cited. Could one deduct from that the reality that truth and error walk so close together?
That light is just a flick-of-a-switch away from darkness? That right is a split-second
decision away from wrong? That the solid doctrine has but a slender margin of
interpretation from the subtle heresies? One would therefore have to be always sober
and exercise eternal vigilance when seeking to establish sound doctrine.

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


NAME__________________________
CLASS EXERCISE # V

(1)

In relation to the heavenly visitations, what problem both prophets (Daniel and
John) experienced at some point?

George R. Frederick, October 2009

45

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

(2)

God does not speak in ambiguities, and, also, according to 1 Corinthians 14:33,
what else? _______________________________________________________

(3)

Some things in the study of Eschatology are certain; some uncertain; and some
are way-off; how has this study otherwise classified them as?
_____________________________________________________________

(4)

Give a short and simple example of:

A Solid view: ___________________________________________

A Soft view:

A Subtle view___________________________________________

________________________________________

Continuing the Solid, Soft, and Subtle approach, in the following statements, please
identify at the end of each which category the particular statement falls under, and
why:
(5) God is the eternal, everlasting and unchanging Sovereign Lord of the universe:

__________________________________________
(6) Because God is a holy God, He does not hear when sinners pray:
__________________________________________________

George R. Frederick, October 2009

46

(7) Jesus is due to return when all start walking in full righteousness, and there is
absolutely no sin in their lives.
______________________________________________________________

(8) Christ is coming for the Church, but Michael, the archangel, who protects the Jews,
according to the messenger in the Book of Daniel, is coming to take the Jews to their
eternal home:
____________________________________________________________________

(9) The 144,000 servants of God mentioned in Revelation 7 are the only righteous people
who will get save during the Great Tribulation; doing so by their own blood.
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
(10)

Unto those who look for Him (thats Jesus), He will appear a second time but

this time not for dying for their sin, but to deliver them from the Wrath to come.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

LE S SO N 6
IN ALL THE DRAMA, WHERE IS THE CHURCH?
Introduction
Over three decades ago, a then popular preacher, prophet and writer, David Wilkerson,
stated in his book, Racing Toward Judgment: Our Future is Now: There is a new flood of
visions, dreams, predictions, dire warnings, and prophecies. Ministers and mystics alike are now jumping on
the apocalyptic bandwagon, and the result is an avalanche of fear mongering and false hope.
Through all true visions, prophecies, or warnings, this message must come through clear and certain:
God has everything under control, and His people have nothing to fear. Those who know where they

George R. Frederick, October 2009

47

stand with the Lord can rejoice with every trumpet sounding. And as the events begin to unfold as
prophesied, they look up and rejoice, because they are already redeemed by faith

(Racing Toward

Judgment, Spire Books, 1976, New Jersey, USA, p 140).28 Though many are of the view
that Wilkerson has not always been consistent in his own utterances in the subsequent
decades, his statement then still has some value to which the modern eschatologist should
take heed; especially against the backdrop of a barrage of conflicting information,
parading itself on the theological stage each vying for more than mere recognition -,
which we will now examine.
One such person is another visioneer, Rick Joyner. A man known for his eccentric
style of writing from the often visions he claims to receive. In his 1999 book, A Prophetic
Vision

FOR THE

21ST CENTURY (p 26), He says the mark of the beast is an economic

mark and to worship the beast is when we put our trust in money. Joyner thinks, too,
that it is a clear indication that we (the church) may be taking on the mark of the
beast.29 The main reason he projects this is that the church itself is part and a heavy
reflection of financial debt. While the debt aspect, regrettably, cannot be denied, to
equate that situation with the church taking the mark of the beast is more than just
bordering heresy.
One must, at all cost, seek to avoid an approach to the Scriptures that borders
paranoia. Yet, in all fairness, even the most objective thinkers would find it a serious
challenge to stay focused on the area of the Church and last day events. To say, on the
one hand, that all the varying views forwarded by the pre-tribulationists, midtribulationists, post-tribulationists, and one can apply the same prefixes to the
millennialists, throwing in dispensationalism in the mix, are downright unacceptable,
since the Bible cannot possible be saying different things at the same time, could give off
an air of arrogance. Yet, to hold to a particular view so exclusively, without hearing what
is said in the other camps, could sound like bigotry. So it is as if one is virtually saying
that, not to appear to be an extremist on the issue, one should embrace an eschatology
that is relativistic in nature.
28
29

David Wilkerson, Racing Towards Judgment, Spire Books, New Jersey, USA, 1976, p. 140.
Rick Joyner, A Prophetic Vision for the 21st Century, Nelson Pub., Nashville, USA 1999, p.26
George R. Frederick, October 2009

48

The matter is so far-reaching, that much widely but balanced reading is recommended
on the issue, so that at the end of the day, the Student doesnt find himself locked in a
narrow cage of denominational exclusivism. Among the recommended books that
would not necessarily compromise a persons view, but serve to widen it is Millard J.
Ericksons Contemporary Options in Eschatology - A Study of the Millennium, 1977,
Baker Book House, USA.30 In it he notes James Orr, 19-Century scholar and educator as
saying that the peculiar interest of the modern age is eschatology, the one remaining
undeveloped topic of theology (p 11, quoting from The Progress of Dogma, 1901 pp. 29-30).31
And even as Orr refers to it as a theology that is undeveloped, we are compelled to
recall the words of 2 Peter 1:16, 19 We did not follow cleverly invented stories when we told
you about the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of
his majesty. And we have the word of the prophets made more certain (Emphasis added).
So the undeveloped may be in our theology, but certainly not in the Word of God.
In attempting to unravel this seeming colossal jigsaw puzzle, we should keep in mind
that Daniel was told clearly that he was being given understanding as to what will happen
in the future to his people (the Jews) (Dan. 9:24; 10:14). Then by extension, he was given a
panoramic sweep of Gentile domain. John, who was himself a Jew, would have spent
time with the Master learning about the kingdom of God; yet as a Jew, he, and the other
apostles, were so obsessed with Jewish eschatology, that at the time when Jesus was
about to ascend to the Father, the question that occupied them was when would the
restoration of the kingdom to Israel take place (Acts 1:6).
Erickson in his comparative analysis work, when he examines the Pre-tribulation
tenet quotes:
Gordon Lewis took the argument one step further and contended that the
passages we have just considered (Matthew 24:31; Mark 13:27) actually support a
pretribulational rapture of the church; they refer, he pointed out, only to the Jews.
30

Millard J. Ericksons, Contemporary Options in Eschatology, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Mich. USA,
1977, p.11.
31
James Orr, The Progress of Dogma, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1901, pp. 29-30.
George R. Frederick, October 2009

49

Note the context of Matthew 24. The disciples had asked the Lord for a sign of His
coming and of the end of the age. The question, like the one in Acts 1:6 (Lord, will
you at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?) was asked within the frame of
reference of Jewish concerns, and Christs answer was in terms of the Jews future.
It is Jews who are pictured as present during the tribulation. To take the passage
out of its context and apply it to all believers is to do violence to Scripture. When
seen in this light, the interpretation of the passage becomes easier. After the initial
signs the Jews will see in the temple the desolation sacrilege spoken of by Daniel the
prophet. The time of Jacobs trouble will be shortened for the sake of the elect
(Israelites). Following the tribulation the Son of man of whom Daniel spoke will
come in the clouds of heaven and gather His elect.

Jesus statement that this

generation would not pass away until all of these signs were fulfilled was a promise
that the Jewish race would not disappear until all of these events pertaining to its
restoration occurred.32

All of that is pointing to a serious aspect of theology the theology of the Church. We
should remember that to Israel, the Church is a virtual unknown. No offence to the
apostles, but while they walked with Jesus, they were so steeped into Judaism, that when
Jesus made statements to the effect that there are many sheep that are not of this fold;
them I must also bring (John 10:16), and that theyll come from the east and west and south
and flock the kingdom of God, but many of those whose see themselves as having a right
to it will be cast out (Luke 13:29), didnt quite reach home to them. So its not bias, but
safe to say that a lot of what Jesus said to His trainees at that time concerning the last
days would have more application to people of Israel than to the Gentile/Jew Church. The
Church has been Gods mystery hidden throughout the ages (Eph. 3:1-6).
Unless the connection between Israel (the natural branch Romans 11:21) and the Church
is not clearly defined, one can see why it is easy for some to think that the Church will be
part and parcel of the Great Tribulation. Notable theologians, like Professor George Ladd
(The Blessed Hope p. 11)33, are of that persuasion. Then, in a seeming ambivalent sense,
Erickson advises that It is important first to observe the relationship between this
32
33

Erickson, p.135
George E. Ladd, The Blessed Hope, Wm. B. Erdmans Pub. Co., Michigan, USA
George R. Frederick, October 2009

50

eschatological position and the general theological system known as dispensationalism. In


practice they are almost invariably wedded to one another, yet logically they are somewhat
independent. All dispensationalists are pretribulationalists for pretribulationism is a part
of the full system of dispensationalism but not all pretribulationalists are
dispensationalists. The pretribulational rapture may be based upon independent exegetical
grounds, rather than inferred from dispensational premises (p 125).34

There is really no end to this theological battle, and the intent of this study is certainly
not just to add to the fray. However, as was stated earlier concerning the multitude of
counsellers where one finds safety (Prov. 11:14 KJV), it would be helpful to get into
the department of analysis, where some of the highly respected and keenest minds meet
on the subject. Ladd is regarded as an authority in his field and one of the most prolific
proponents of the Church-going-through-the-Tribulation teaching. Professor John
F.Walvoord, did, what I consider, a deep, yet gentle respectful and responsible critique on
Ladds Blessed Hope. One wishes that the entire work could have been quoted here, but
thats neither practical nor realistic; so here is a segment of Walvoords review:
Dr. George E. Ladd, Professor of New Testament History and Biblical Theology at Fuller
Theological Seminary, in this his second book in the field of eschatology, ably presents a spirited
defense of posttribulationism. According to Dr. Ladd himself, The central thesis of this book is that
the Blessed Hope is the second coming of Jesus Christ and not a pretribulation raptures
A number of important assumptions are basic to the point of view presented. While Dr. Ladd
plainly champions posttribulationism, he explicitly assumes the premillennial interpretation of
Scripture. This is clear from this volume (cf. p. 13), as well as from his earlier work, Crucial
Questions about the Kingdom of God. The principal appeal is made to the Scriptures themselves
which are everywhere considered infallible and authoritative. Dr. Ladd stands with the
conservative theology of orthodoxy, and it would be most unfair to charge him with theological
liberalism. It should be obvious that liberal scholars do not debate pretribulationism versus
posttribulationism. Though the premillennial point of view is assumed, the dispensational
interpretation of Scripture is rejected. The view is advanced that the promises given to Israel in the
Old Testament have a dual fulfillment, i.e., both in the church and in Israel. In this regard, his point
of view is similar to covenant theology in its definition of the kingdom of God and the church. In
contrast to covenant theology, however, the futuristic interpretation of the Book of Revelation is
34

Ericksons, p. 125
George R. Frederick, October 2009

51

held which, Dr. Ladd states, was promoted by Darby and his Plymouth Brethren associates after
centuries of neglect. His rejection of a clear distinction between Israel and the church as well as
opposition to other dispensational teachings undoubtedly is a major causal factor in his rejection
of pretribulationism. This is recognized by the fact that the author spends an entire chapter
refuting dispensationalism as a step in his argument against pretribulationism.
The arguments for posttribulationism are presented on a high level of courtesy to opponents. This
is quite in contrast to Alexander Reeses The Approaching Advent of Christ, and some other
posttribulational books, which heap invectives upon pretribulationists. Dr. Ladd almost overdoes
his courtesy to opponents, going so far as to omit references to persons and works with which he
disagrees, thereby making impossible any tracing of quotations or allusions. A few unfortunate
quotations fall below this standard of courtesy. Though less comprehensive than some older
works and tracts, this volume, nevertheless, provides a solid basis for examination of the
posttribulational view. It is evident that the author is concerned with the charge sometimes made
by pretribulationists that posttribulationism is a departure from true Biblical interpretation. He
endeavors to demonstrate instead that posttribulationism is a time-honored doctrine dating from
the early fathers and held by men of God through the centuries. His point is that pretribulationism
is an unproved innovation based upon inference alone.
The author states as his purpose in writing the book: this book is sent forth with the earnest
prayer that it may be used by the Holy Spirit to bring a better understanding to a difficult subject
and to promote Christian liberty in the interpretation of prophetic truth (pp. 13-14).
The first third of the book is devoted to the historical argument for posttribulationism, somewhat of
an anomaly for a work featured as a Biblical study. He endeavors to prove that a posttribulational
return of Christ was the historic hope of the church from the beginning. An extended chapter
devoted to The Rise and Spread of Pretribulationism traces pretribulationism to the Plymouth
Brethren movement in the early nineteenth century. The argument is designed to prove (1) that
pretribulationism was unknown until the nineteenth century; (2) that honored men of God have
been posttribulationists; (3) that pretribulationism started as a heresy and not through sound
Biblical studies. The familiar point is made, with thorough documentation from eight of the early
fathers or writings, that pretribulationism was unknown in the early church and never appeared in
any form until it was made known in a special revelation given to an erratic individual, Edward
Irving, about 1826. Dr. Ladd claims that it was immediately accepted by Darby and his associates
and widely proclaimed.35

35

A Review of The Blessed Hope by George E. Ladd, by J. F. Walvoord, bible.org/article/review-itheblessedhopei-george-e-ladd, Dallas, Texas, USA. Posted with permission of Galaxie Software.
George R. Frederick, October 2009

52

Extensive, yes! And the motive behind it is so that we can get a feel of the enormity
of the controversy that exists on the subject. And that the varying opinions are not just
flirting, willy-nilly, among those perceived as un-schooled on the subject. It requires
prayerful, in-depth study and analysis. However, in fairness to Walvoord who did the
review, some space should be given for his personal input, and thats what is now
submitted:
It is the reviewers opinion that the main reasons for pretribulationism are practically untouched
by this volume, but it is nevertheless the best posttribulational book to appear for some time. Dr.
Ladd is to be especially commended for the high standard of courtesy which characterizes the
volume. The reviewer continues to believe that the blessed hope is the imminent return of Christ
for His church, not the hope of resurrection after martyrdom in the great tribulation. The daily
expectation of the Lords return for His church is a precious hope for those who love his
appearing.36

This may require a biting of the bullet; for it is evident that neither God nor His
Word, not even logical thinking would give us the okay to sit on a theological fence and
merely observe the unfolding drama without us understanding where we are positioned.
To intelligently respond to those who say that the Church will be in the great tribulation,
is first to know and understand the nature of the great tribulation a time and event that
is unequalled and unparalleled in all of earths history. That while tribulation in general, is
the language the Church has been acquainted with (Matt. 13:21; John 16:33; Acts 14:22; Rom.
5:3; 12:12; 2Cor. 1:4; 7:4; Eph. 3:13; 2 Thess. 1:4; Rev. 1:9)

throughout its existence, that should

never be confused with what Daniel 9:25-27; 11:36-45 predicted and Jesus in Matthew
24 re-affirmed that has been assigned a specific time period in the future as is pictorially
displayed in Revelation 4 -20. Dr. Pentecost distinguishes the tribulations by referring to
the former (general) as in the non-technical and non-eschatological sense; whereas
when used in the technical and eschatological sense it is used in reference to the whole
period of the seven years of tribulation (p 170).37

36
37

Ditto
Pentecost p. 170
George R. Frederick, October 2009

53

He insists, and rightly so, that the characterization of that period, according to
Scripture, is described by such words as wrath, judgment, indignation, trial, trouble,
destruction. This essential characterization (would have to) be denied by (those who)
adhere to (a different) position. When the pretribulationalist affirms with Paul (in
1:10)

1 Thess.

that we should wait for Gods Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead

Jesus, who rescues us from the coming wrath, George Ladd says that we are indulging in
inferences when we associate that wrath with the Tribulation. It may be inference,
admittedly, when we observe that Revelation 1-3 deals with the church while it is on the
earth. After that, it is seen before the throne and before the Lamb ( 4); is it unreasonable
to think that that is because it would have been removed from the earth that being before
the untold woes begin poured out?
Pentecost, who is a proponent of the church being raptured before the Tribulation, was
refuting a view that purports that the elders in heaven represent the whole heavenly priesthood that is, all the redeemed who have died in the past, or shall be living at the Lord
return. He says:
While this view is less objectionable than the first view, there seem to be
reasons for rejecting the interpretation that Israel is a part of the scene here. In
the first place, this view is based on the assumption that Israel and the church are
both resurrected at the time of the rapture and translated together into the
heavenliescertain Scriptures (Dan. 12:1-2; Isa. 26:19; John 11:24) indicate
that Israels resurrection is to be connected with the advent of Messiah on the
earth. Thus Israel could not be translated. In the second place, the rapture is the
program for the church that brings the church into her eternal blessing. The
program with Israel is entirely distinct, taking place with different subjects at a
different time. Israel could not be resurrected and rewarded until the close of her
age 38
As earlier implied, the churchs entry on the bigger landscape of the kingdom of God
was a mystery as is borne out in
38

Eph. 3:1-11.

Its existence is a mystery at least to Israel in

Pentecost, pp. 254-5


George R. Frederick, October 2009

54

whom blindness in part is happeneduntil the fullness of the Gentiles be come in (Rom.
11:25 KJV). And,

in true fashion, its exit from this earths scene will equally be a mystery, as

is so clearly articulated by Paul: Behold, I shew you a mystery; we shall not all sleep, but
we shall all be changed, In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye (1 Cor. 15:51-52). This
point is far too essential to miss; because herein lies the bone of contention: The Church is
not the general consideration of natural theology.
Natural theology, in this context, is the theology that deals primarily with borders and
boundary lines, geographic landmarks, territorial landscapes, physical and material
possessions, time-frames, natural wars, battles and battle-zones, practical, tangible
promises, sages, earthly kings and kingdoms, etc. Now, that is not to suggest by any
stretch of the mind, that the Church is not to be the recipient of physical blessings. On the
contrary, the Church can also embrace those natural blessings. However, its focus is by
far a higher possession. We seek a city that has foundations, whose builder and maker is
God (Heb. 11:10).
We must also consider the theology of the imminent return of the Lord Jesus. How can
one come away from Scripture and not sense that there is an event that will take place,
that no man, not even the angels, or the humanity of Jesus, knows the day nor the hour
(Matt. 24:36 ) when it will happen? That there is a moment, a twinkling of an eye (1 Cor.
15:52)

when we who are alive and remain shall be caught up (literally snatched) together

with them (those of the first resurrection) in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air (1 Thess.
4:17).

That imminent return should not be confused with His glorious coming where every
eye shall see him and (those also who) pierced him (Rev.

1:7).

For as the lightning

(comes) out of the east, and (shines) even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the
Son of man be (Matt. 24:27). That would be panoramic indeed; and there is no secrecy in
that appearance. That glorious coming, which Daniel said comparatively little about, will
be preceded by certain predicted events.

George R. Frederick, October 2009

55

He (Daniel) was given the future insight by the angel Gabriel ( Daniel 9:20-27), specifying
what has become the proverbial Seventy Weeks That would be weeks of years; thus
totaling 490 years, sub-divided into seven weeks and sixty and two weeks (leaving the
final 70th week separate and distinct from the 69 weeks or 483 years). What is significant
to note is that that distinction of the 483 years would be up to the time when the Anointed
One (the Messiah) shall comeand shall be cut off (a euphemistic expression of the
crucifixion of Christ). That leaves the last Week, or seven years that became the focal
point spoken of in both Daniel and Revelation and referred to as the period of the Great
Tribulation. It is at the end of the period that culminates in the Battle of Armageddon, the
Lord Jesus Christ would return in all His glory, and we shall be like him (1John 3:2).

Conclusion
Many writers unwittingly embrace, what someone has termed, an illusion of
knowledge (I humbly trust that this writer is not adding to the numbers), thinking that
what they purport is the only frame of reference through which an issue must be seen;
hence we call it an illusion. We acknowledge the presence of certain difficulties, even
in the Hermeneutics of certain passages. But we must step back and see the bigger
picture: God cannot be saying several conflicting things. The problem has to do with our
interpretation of the body of evidence that is put before us. To suggest that people who
say that the Church will be removed before the great tribulation are simply hoping for an
easy way out is an unfair accusation.
The Revelation portrays little about the Church at least not much after the
Laodicean church in chapter 3. It probably would not be an over-statement to say that
there is little theology of the Church in the body of Revelation; not ignoring the fact in the
final chapter (22:17) the bride (the Church) joins the Holy Spirit in the eternal appeal to
the non-believer (by deduction) to come! Is it surprising?

It shouldnt be, if we

understand that the Church is mystery mystery at entrance, existence and exit levels.

George R. Frederick, October 2009

56

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


NAME__________________________
CLASS EXERCISE # VI
(1) Rick Joyner says that we (the church) may be taking the mark of the beast
Given that a statement should be taken in its stated context; are there any Biblical
grounds for anyone to make such a statement?

If so, what are they?

__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
George R. Frederick, October 2009

57

(2)

Still the churchs position/location in what is often called the last days is not one
that is easily identified, even from the sharpest minds and those we perceive as
authority on the subject, so an attitude not of theological ambivalence but of
Christian tolerance is needed to be deployed. In a short statement, and in your own
words, why is this so?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

(3) What is there to suggest that, according to Acts 1:6, even the Jewish believers
had/have missed the Gods purpose for the church?
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
(4) In relation to the Churchs entry on the physical and spiritual landscape, Jesus
gives the geographic picture from the areas where its people will come. Where
are those areas (Luke 13:29)? _________________________________________

(5) In relation to the Churchs existence, some are temporarily blind, according to
Romans Chapter 11; to whom is this existence a mystery?

____________

___________________________________________________________________

George R. Frederick, October 2009

58

(6) When the Church makes its exit from this worlds scene, how did Paul describe it
in the resurrection passage in 1 Corinthians 15? _________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(7) According to the historic Christian hymn by Samuel John Stone, what is the
Churchs One Foundation? __________________________________________
(8) At the blast of Gods trump of the archangels, who will comprise the Church?
_____________________________________________________________________
(9) What is the intimate or marital terminology used in Scripture to describe the
Church?
___________________________________________________________________
(10)

The theology of the church would lend itself to a simple statement that

would indicate that it has been, and continues to be surrounded in mystery. That
mystery is the main bone of contention in Jewish Eschatology.

On one sheet,

write a response to this statement (Specify the Scriptural passages to uphold your
response).

LE S S ON 7
GATES OF WRATH: BEASTS, BATTLES & BURNINGS
Introduction
There is a level of fascination that captures the minds of Believers and Non-Believers
alike when terms such as Tribulation, Armageddon, and Antichrist etc. are being used; but
there is a culture of descriptions that depicts both Daniel and Revelation, and more so

George R. Frederick, October 2009

59

the latter. While angels images, visions and beasts are heavily reflected in both,
living creatures, dragon serpent locusts frogs and Lamb are the unique
addition to the Revelation. These are representations or symbols of either beings or
spirits. In very picturesque language, author, J. Narver Gortner, in a 1948 sequel to his
Studies in Daniel, Studies in Revelation (GOSPEL PUBLISHING HOUSE, Missouri,
USA, p122),39 says:
The last three of the seven trumpets (Rev. 9:1-12) are the woe
trumpets. This, as we have seen, is indicated by the thrice pronounced
woe of the eagle of verse 13 of the preceding chapter. The fifth trumpet,
the first woe, consists of the Demon Locusts, the Infernal Cherubim; the
sixth trumpet, the second woe, of the Infernal Cavalry; and the seventh
trumpet, the third woe, of the seven vials filled with the seven last plagues
in which is filled up the wrath of God (15:1) (emphasis added).
The Pivotal Picture
Perhaps the most relevant symbolism that brings to bear on the issue, putting Daniel,
Jesus, Paul and John on the same eschatological page, would be the Seventieth Week (of
seven years) (Dan. 9:24-27; Matt. 24:15; 2 Thess. 2:3-4; Rev. 13) that is considered
pivotal. And then in true eschatological perspective, the Book of Revelation should likely
be the one to have the final say, since it covers the picture historically and in the future.
Westlake, Jr. paints the chart of Revelation chapters 4 - 22 with a broad brush.40
Instantly one would see that he subscribes to the (Church being raptured before the
Tribulation) pre-tribulationists position, with other theological dynamics included:
RAPTURE

MIDTRIBULATION
RAPTURE OF TRIBULATION SAINTS
3 YEARS

THE SECOND COMING


ARMAGEDDON

3 YEARS

1000 YEARS

42 MONTHS
TIME, TIMES AND
DIVIDING OF TIME
39
40

SATANS
REVOLT
ETERNITY
NEW HEAVEN
AND
NEW EARTH

J. Narver Gortner, Studies in Revelation, Gospel Publishing House, Mss., USA, 1948
Westlake, Jr., p. 192
George R. Frederick, October 2009

60

1ST 6 SEALS
7 TRUMPETS 7 BOWLS
MILLENNIUM
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________
________________
MIDDLE OF 7 YEARS
GREAT WHITE THRONE
SCROLL OPENED
144, OOO SEALED
JUDGMENT
ANTI-CHRIST KILLED
ABOMINATION OF
ANTI-CHRIST
DESOLATION SET UP
THE LAKE OF FIRE
RESURRECTED
RAPTURE OF THOSE
2 WINESSES KILLED
SAVED IN 1ST 3 YEARS

Figure 6.1

It is very difficult, though not impossible, to make a simple, one-line statement to


describe the Book of Revelation; and thats because it is so saturated with strange,
interpretational material material that inundates us with wonder, amazement, curiosity
and dread, all at the same time. The theological giants of the Doctrine of
Dispensationalism, such as H. A. Ironside, J. N. Darby, C.H. Mackintosh, C. I. Scofield,
C. C. Ryrie, who are serious proponents of the literal interpretation of the Bible (a
teaching to which this writer subscribes),41 had to approach Revelation with caution; for
the stated reason that much of it is symbolic in nature. And if one were to stick to that
hard-line position, one would have to believe that creatures, several times the size of
Godzilla, will emerge out of either the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean. After the dealings
with the churches in the first three chapters, including the awesome, manifested
presence of the eternal Alpha and Omega, in chapter one, the scene in chapter four of
the One seated on the throne, surrounded with the finest minerals imaginable, taking the
breath of the twenty-four elders away, is indescribable.
The fifth chapter seems intended to show up mans moral limitations as being unable
open up and look into eternal matters all on his own; then presents the Lion of the tribe of
Judah, yea, the Lamb that was slain, to whom all the nations, races, languages and
peoples burst into spontaneous praise and worship. Then as though all hell breaks loose
in chapter six as the first six of the seven seals are being open and the tale of the worlds
woes begin to unravel with the symbolic horse-and-riders, in the colours that depict their
destiny. Westlake, in explaining the scene of Christ the lamb as He opens those first six
seals, says: As He does so, one of the four living creatures says Come. The word
translated come in verses 1, 3, 5, and 7 can also be translated go. It appears that go is used
41

Erickson, , p 113-115
George R. Frederick, October 2009

61

here because go shows more clearly that nothing can move in heaven without
permission.42 The identity of the rider on the white horse has also been a subject of
interpretation.

The pretribulationist (generally) believe it is Christ Jesus, while the

posttribulationist would generally see him as the Antichrist.


The sealed ones in chapter seven are protected from the four angels of destruction,
preceding the opening of the seventh seal in chapter eight that heralds the sounding of
the seven trumpets. Each trumpet announcing the unleashing of untold wrath and
suffering of mankind for their un-repented behaviour.
Some are of the view that when one seeks to expound on the Revelation, that a
measure of flirting with the human imagination takes place. But in defense of literary
integrity, we need to bring to bear the wide spectrum of documented writings; pulling
history, literature, language, even science, sacred writings, myths and fantasies, and, at
the end of the day, come up with a literary skill as to how we decipher fact from fiction,
myth from reality, and truth from error. There is no fossil evidence to bring certitude on
future predictions. But what we have is a body of material which, in addition to
instructions on how to live, contains some of the most bizarre incidents like the
resurrection of Jesus Christ - that were not only witnessed by many and varied
contemporaries (including those who would wish they could have hidden or explain them
away), but are found in the historical documents of different cultures. This then leads to
the conclusion that creatures living in the dark Abyss in chapter nine, with all their
foreboding descriptions, and firing their woes of excruciating pain on people carrying the
mark of the beast, believable.
As these creatures and the woe that they bring pass, making way for the two other
woes (that) are yet to come (V 12), and mankind is struck by plagues of fire, smoke and
sulfur (V 18), yet he does not repent of the work of (his) his hands; (nor) did not stop
worshipping demons (V20). That, in conjunction with chapter 16:9, 21, is the true
reflection of the attitude of un-regenerated mankind during the Tribulation. It is for this
42

Westlake, p. 180.
George R. Frederick, October 2009

62

reason we are implored upon to avoid treating this period that Jesus said (in Matt. 24:21)
there was never a time, and there never will be time like it, lightly. By lightly, we mean,
punctuating our theology with religious inferences, innuendoes and sweeping statements
that suggest that after the Church is raptured, which we understand theologically, that
that would mark the full number of the Gentiles (as having) come in (Rom. 11:25), that
Gentile nations and individuals will be saved in countless numbers. And bearing in mind,
one is not ruling out the possibility that such could very well be the case; but, if being
preached or taught should be done so with a temperate spirit.
From the seals came the trumpets; and following the trumpets are the bowls or vials of
wrath. While scholars differ as to the full time-frame, they are almost unanimous that this
period of wrath is that epochal, strategic segment of eschatology the OT writers called the
Day of the Lord. And per chance illusions are being secretly cherished, it would be
noteworthy that the picture painted by those writers is generally not a fanciful. Amos in
particular, lays it on with brutal frankness: Woe to you who long for the day of the
LORD! Why do you long for the day of the LORD? (Amos 5:18) Then he went on to
describe it by saying That day will be darkness, not light (V 19), and filled with
insecurity everywhere. So the bowls contain painful sores (Rev. 16:2), it poisoned sea (V
3) that reached the rivers (V 4), followed by the sun (being) given power to scorch
people (V 8), then darkness (V 10), drought (V 12) and widespread destruction (17-21).
Pentecost was unambiguous in his treatment on the subject. In reference to the
numerous OT quotes on the issue, he says:
These passages reveal that the idea of judgment is paramount in all of them.
This is so clearly brought out in Zephaniah 1:14-18. This judgment includes not
only the specific judgments upon Israel and the nations at the end of the
tribulation that are associated with the Second Advent, but, from a consideration
of the passages themselves, includes judgments that extend over a period of time

George R. Frederick, October 2009

63

prior to the Second Advent. Thus, it is concluded that the Day of the Lord will
include the time of the tribulation (Things to Come, p 230).43
Conclusion
So, in fairness to the ardent seeker for that vein of consistency concerning these
gates of wrath that surround the tribulation, its infamous character, the Antichrist (also
known as the beast) and his accomplice, the false prophet (called, on occasions, the
second or another beast), and that mystical time-slot in which a man thinks he is God,
and mankind tries to defy God, while a nation experiences its wake-up call as to its true
God, we purposefully behold the light at the end of the tunnel. The tribulation is Israels
acid test (and punishment) for rejecting Gods Messiah. Jeremiah describes it as a time of
trouble for Jacob (30:7). Undoubtedly, this is both an unparallel and an unenviable period
for all of humanity.

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


NAME__________________________
CLASS EXERCISE # VII
(1)

On the relevance of symbolism contained in the whole thrust of Eschatology, what


is that single symbol that puts the prophet Daniel, Jesus Christ, Paul the apostle, and
John the divine on the same page?
_________________________________________________

43

Pentecost, p. 230
George R. Frederick, October 2009

64

(2)

Though as a rule of the thumb, the Word of God should be approached with a literal
interpretation, why should one employ an approach of caution when dealing
particularly with the Book of Revelation?
____________________________________________________

(3)

What in the Fifth Chapter of the Revelation would trigger off a burst of
spontaneous praise and worship of all the nations, races, languages, and peoples?
________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

(4)

The Book of Revelation is one that allows the reader to flirt with imaginings,
fantasies, and every mental idiosyncrasy; how do you respond?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

(5)

Taking to consideration all the Greek syntax in Chapter 6: 1, 3, 5 & 7 where the

word come can also be translated go, what does go then show more clearly?
____________________________________________________________________
(6) There are two distinct interpretations of the rider on the white horse (Chapter 6)
that emerge from two schools of thought. What are those schools and who do they say
the rider is?

_________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
(7)

There are two distinct sets of people in the Revelation: one is sealed (Chap.7),
the other is marked (Chap. 13); what is the fate of each?

___________________________________________________________________

George R. Frederick, October 2009

65

(8)

What makes the bizarre creatures (Chap. 9) coming out of the dark Abyss,

almost defying description, and inflicting excruciating pain on those carrying the mark of
the beast, believable?

_________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__
(9)

Many assume that these foreboding creatures will spell so much dread on mankind
that they will automatically force men to repent and turn from their wicked ways.
What is there in Chapter 9 to indicate otherwise?

(10)

While scholars differ on the time-frame of certain Tribulation events, they are

almost unanimous that the Day of the Lord is that very strategic segment of Last Days
that will signal unparallel dread for the dwellers on the earth at that time. What does
Amos 5:18-19 say about that? ____________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

LE S S ON 8
THE SOVEREIGN LORD - THE ULTIMATE FOCUS
Introduction
Much can be said about the literary style of the books of Daniel and Revelation. As
hinted earlier, Daniel himself brings to bear on his account the idiosyncrasies of the
Hebrew Language: grammatical structure, story-telling, parallelism (4:3; 9:27), among
others. He punctuates his writing with his own prophetic uniqueness and decorates the

George R. Frederick, October 2009

66

chapters with an ambassadorial flare, reflective of the privileged positions he would have
held in the various kingdoms. Though, of course, there are those who are convinced that
Daniel, the prophet, was not himself the penman of the book that bears his name. One of
the reasons forwarded is the presence of several Third Person pronouns when referring to
Daniel himself.

Dr. Hendriksen is one such person. 44

Even Dr. Westlake, in his

compendium remains uncommitted. He says: Very little is known about the author of this
remarkable book.

He did insist though, that emerging from the Mark 13:14 passage which

focused on Daniel 9:27, Our Lord thus confirmed the book as prophecy and the author as a
prophet.45

While there is unquestionable virtue in those projections, we must not be side-tracked


by the secondary arguments that textual criticism of offer. There is too much at stake in
coming to grips with Gods plans for the present and the future for one to get lost in
details. The prophet presents a picture of unassailable victory for the cause of God and
for the people of God.
John the Divine, on the other hand, while a functional prophet, colours his writing with
apostolic tenderness. Though his authorship did come up for some scrutiny, where some
compare his style in the previous writings is contrastingly different. Hendriksen says:
The author tells us his name is John (1:1, 4. 9; 22:8). The question is: Which John? The
apostle or another? Some deny that John, the beloved disciple, wrote the Apocalypse. They point out
a striking difference between the grammar, the style, and the general tone of Johns Gospel and the
Epistles on the one hand and Revelation on the other. These differences must be admitted. But does
this mean that John the Apostle did not write the Apocalypse? In our opinion, it does not46

(I

particularly underscored the word our in the quote, because Dr. Hendriksen did not, in
his book, indicate if he was writing the opinion of his and other contributors, or that of
Calvin Seminary of which he was a professor of New Testament. So, it remains unsure
who elses opinion he was forwarded but his most definitely.

44

Hendriksen, p. 307.
Westlake, pp. 22-23
46
Hendriksen, p. 438.
45

George R. Frederick, October 2009

67

The style of Revelation however, does differ different from his Epistles and the Gospel
that bear his name. The fact that what was written would have come from a vision he
would have received, and him being confined to the Isle of Patmos as a prisoner. The
letters to the churches were written with deep care, yet they embody the prophetic
seriousness and authority (Chapters 2 - 3). So, I, too, would credit him as the penman.
However, above and beyond the peripherals and styles and genre, is the compulsion of
the books to point their readers to the God of the Universe Who not only created but
controls and sustains all things - geographically, astronomically and historically by his
powerful word (Hebrews 1:3). The Books directly and indirectly call attention to the
One who orchestrates the affairs of humanity seemingly from behind the scenes. He
manipulates the laws of nature so that they unflinchingly obey his command.
So while the books initial purpose was not necessarily to establish the fact that God
efficiently superintendents and, for His glory, manipulates the dynamics of all things
living and non-living -, they nevertheless present a comforting picture that tells us we are
in safe hands.
THE SOVEREIGN BIO-NUTRITIONIST
The case for instance, that Daniel and his other three Hebrew friends were so confident
in their God to show up for them that they gave the guard (Eunuch, Chapter 1) the
assurance to feed them only with vegetables and water for ten days and then compare their
physique with those of the other kings table-eating candidates, and see who best fit the
bill. The results: At the end of the ten days they looked healthier and better nourished
than (the others) (Dan. 1:15). God sovereignly worked through the metabolism of the
Hebrew Boys bodies to effect those outcomes; and that has nothing to do with fanaticism.

THE LORD OF THE CONSCIOUS AND THE SUB-CONSCIOUS

George R. Frederick, October 2009

68

Look at the outcome of the fiasco with Nebuchadnezzars dream and his group of
magicians, astrologers and soothsayers. Whether their performance generally fell within
the ambits of illusions, spurious miracles or deception is debatable. What was clear is that
the methods in which they trusted and depended on for their career sustenance and
reputation had reached the level of their incompetence. They were unable to decipher
what the kings dream was all about, far less try to interpret it. Nevertheless, Daniels
God came to the rescue and saved the day. At this point, our prejudice goes towards the
KJV of Daniel 2:28: there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets, and maketh
known what shall be

WHETHER CELSIUS OR FAHRENHEIT, GOD IS A CONSUMING FIRE


If the first two were personal or private, this third incident is perhaps the crme de la
crme; for it stunned all and sundry. The rage of an angry, egotistical dictator, consumed
in his own vanity, defying anyone who dared not to bow down to his monumental, selfprojecting image, which was un-nerving to say the least, was on display (Chapter 3).
Nebuchadnezzars image was only a faade of his deeper, twisted self-perception, where
he thought himself a god. But the horror of his fiery furnace, with an applied heat so
intense that the soldiers manning it were instantly exterminated; yet the only true God
shows up in the hellish furnace to protect His children. No fire is too hot for God, Who
Himself is a Consuming fire (Deut.4:24); for Him to get into to deliver those who are
His. Thats the Yahweh of Judah; and the focus is all about Him.

HE WILL BE PROVEN LORD OF ALL


When that said heathen king could conclude from his various, bizarre encounters,
including humiliation of the worst sort, that the Most High is sovereign over the
kingdoms of men and gives them to anyone he wishes (Dan. 4:32), indicates that at some

George R. Frederick, October 2009

69

point, the One true God will be recognized. He further added, I praised the Most High; I
honored and glorified him who lives forever (V. 34).

HE IS THE ULTIMATE KING OF THE PARTY


As fickle and unreliable as dreams can be, or as erratic and unstable as the human
emotion of anger can get, everything eventually will focus back to God. And that was
further seen even at the height of debauchery and frivolity; when a hedonistic King
Belshazzar, who seemed to show little care for laws, rules or regulation, and would turn
the kingdom into a bacchanal and liquor party, as man is forced to focus on Gods
inscription on the wall, fore-telling his fate (Chapter 5).

HE CONTROLS THE ANIMAL KINGDOM AND OVER-RULES


THE ANIMAL IN MAN
The magnificent deliverance in the lions den (Chapter 6) only serves to sharpen our
focus on the Mighty Deliverer. This was when human envy and jealousy of the personality
and success of Daniel and his Hebrew friends by the other diplomats had surfaced. They
more or less tricked the king into saying no one should pray to any god but him. One
therefore can deduct that the God Who divinely superintend the outcome of earthly drama
uses these known to prepare and transport us into the realm of the unknown.

The

unknown of course, is only to us, because the Omniscient God, on Whom all creation
focuses, says that He makes known the end from the beginning, from ancient times, what
is still to come (Isaiah 46:10).
So when Daniel sailed into the world of visions, and symbols and images (Chapters 7
- 12), he understood that the revelations and prophetic utterances that were given to him
were not intended to pamper his vanity; rather, that God was taking him into his trust;
disclosing to him what the program of the ages would be.

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The writer of the Revelation too, would have had his personal one-on-one training
experience. From the reputation of a son of thunder (Mark 3:17) and the urgings of a
mother who sought exalted positions (Matt. 20:21), to a disciple who experienced the
Mount of Transfiguration (Mk. 9:2) and shared in the privileged knowledge of his Master
(Jn. 13:21 - 26), John was groomed for the task. He was very prepared to receive the
vision (Rev. 1:13) of One like a son of man dressed in His High Priestly robe and the
paraphernalia of the Judge of all the earth.
Particularly referring to the Revelation, Hendriksen, in comment on the short-lived
jubilation of the Wicked in Rev. 11:7b 10, he points out and further shows who the real
victors of the End-Times are, when he says:
But this rejoicing is premature. In reality it is the believer who triumphs:
But after the three days and a half a breath of life from God entered them, and they
stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon those who saw themthe dominion over
the world has become the dominion of our Lord and of his Christ; and he shall reign
forever and ever (11:11, 15b).

Throughout the prophecies of this wonderful book the Christ is ever pictured as
the Victor, the Conqueror (1:18; 2:8; 5:9ff.; 6:2; 11:15; 12:9ff.; 14:1, 15:2ff.; 19:16;
20:4; 22:3). He conquerors death, Hades, the dragon, the beast, the false prophet, the
men who worship the beast, etc. H is victorious; hence, so are we even when we seem
to be hopelessly defeated!47
These two men were well schooled for their assigned tasks. They knew to whom the
focus belonged that God does not share His glory with another (Isaiah 42:8). That
means, whether it be a Babylonian, Medo-Persian, Grecian or Roman or Modern
Confederacy, He is the only King eternal, immortal, (and) invisible (1 Tim. 1:17) Who
rules over nations and kingdoms.
Whether it be Nebopolazzar, Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar, Cyrus, Artaxerses,
Alexander the Great, Antiochus Epiphanies or Anti-Christ, every knee shall bowand
47

Hendriksen, p. 436-7.
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every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord (Phil. 2:10 11) to the glory of Glory
of God the Father.
Whether the event be narrative, descriptive, argumentative, factual or opinionistic,
historical, current or futuristic, God sits enthroned above the circle of the earth, and its
people are like grasshoppers (Isaiah 40:22). There is no department in life that is
foreign to God. He dispenses knowledge as liberally as He gives grace (Titus 2:11) and
wisdom (James 1:5) to anyone who is willing to seek Him for it.

CONCLUSION: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER


Taking all the prophetic projections and declarations concerning the ultimate and only
sovereign Lord together; that means taking the enormous, dazzling statue, awesome in
appearance (Daniel 2:31) that Nebuchadnezzar saw in his dream that collapsed after it
was struck by a rock that was cut out, but not by human hands (v 34) that later
became a huge mountain and filled the whole earth (v 35), merging it with the falling
of the great dragon,that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan(Rev. 12:8-9)
was hurled to the earth, making way for coming of the salvation and the power and
the kingdom of our God and the authority of his Christ(v 10), and one cannot but
conclude what was prophesied by Paul in Eph. 1:10, That all God has purposed in
Christto bring all things in heaven and on earth together under one head, even Christ
fulfilled.

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LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


NAME__________________________
CLASS EXERCISE # VIII
(1)

How would the writings of Daniel be charged with prophetic urgency and at the
same time, colored with ambassadorial flare?
______________________________________________________________

(2)

Though a rather serious book indeed, how did John in the Revelation differ in his
style from that of Daniel?
___________________________________________________________________

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(3)

The Books of Daniel and Revelations both have a primary and ultimate thrust. Its
not about us simply trying to know the future, or attempting to establish whether the
Pre-tribulationist or the Post-millennialist, or those in between, have the correct
view. The focus is wholly and ultimately about?
____________________________________________________

(4) Daniel and his friends went of a ten-day vegetable diet in obedience to God and, very
likely, in defiance of the kings wishes. What were the results of that action?
_________________________________________________________________
(5) What, according to Daniel 1:20, was the added value to that act of obedience?
_____________________________________________________________________
(6) When Nebuchadnezzars dream was being unraveled by Daniel, what did the wise
men and magicians and others had to settle for (Dan. 2:28)?
_________________________________________________________________

(7) Revelations pictures were more than scary, to say the least; but what in the final
analysis is there to suggest that Jesus Christ, ultimately, is the Champion (Rev.
11:15)?
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

(8)

What is earmarked to happen to the devil at the end of the apocalyptic era as that
1000 years of Millennium peace is about to usher itself in (Rev. 20)?

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________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

(9) From the same chapter, what would eventually happen to Satan at the end of those
1000 years?

(10)

_______________________________________________________

In your own words, in what way, if any, has this study affected or influenced

your perception of things relating to present and future events? __________________


_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX I

ADDITIONAL RESEARCH
INTRODUCTION TO
THE BOOK OF DANIEL
(Extracted from the Charles Ryrie Study Bible)
AUTHOR: Daniel

The Prophet

DATE: 537 B.C.

Daniel, whose name means God is my judge, was a statesman in the court

of heathen monarchs. Taken captive as a youth to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar in 605, he


spent the rest of his long life there as a government official and as a prophet of the true God.
He claimed to have written the book (12:4), and Jesus Christ identified him as a prophet
(Matt. 24:15; Mark 13:14). Since he did not occupy the prophetic office, the book is found in
the third division of the Hebrew Bible, the Writings, rather than in the second, the Prophets.
Throughout his life he was uncompromising and faithful to his God.
Date

The first attack on the traditional sixth century B, C. date for the composition of the

book came from Porphyry (A. D. 232-302), a vigorous opponent of Christianity, who
maintained that the book was written by an unknown Jew who lived at the time of Antiochus

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Epiphanes (175-163 B. C.). This view was widely promoted by scholars of the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries for the following reasons: it is alleged that Daniel could not have made
these predictions, since they were accurately fulfilled and could therefore have been written
only after the events occurred; Persian and Greek words used in the book would have been
unknown to a sixth century Jewish author; the Aramaic used in 2:4-7:28 belongs to a time
after that of Daniel; and certain alleged historical inaccuracies. In answer we observe that
predictive prophecy is not only possible but expected from a true prophet of God. Since
Daniel lived unto the Persian period he would have known Persian words. The presence of
Greek words is easily accounted for, since one hundred years before Daniel, Greek
mercenaries served in the Assyrian army under Esarhaddon (683) and in the Babylonian
army under Nebuchadnezzar. Recent discoveries of fifth century B. C. Aramaic documents
have shown that Daniel was written in a form of Imperial Aramaic, an official dialect known
in all parts of the Near East at that time.

Alleged historical inaccuracies are fast

disappearing, with the information provided by the Nabonidus Chronicle as to the identity of
Belshazzar (5:1) and with evidence that identifies Darius the Mede with a governor named
Gubaru (5:31).
In addition, how can the use of relatively few Greek words be explained if the book was
written around 170 B. C., when a Greek-speaking government had controlled Palestine for
160 years? One would expect the presence of many Greek terms.

Also, the Qumran

documents (Dead Sea Scrolls), dated only a few decades before the alleged second-century
writing of Daniel, show grammatical differences that indicate they were written centuries, not
decades, after Daniel. Further, the scrolls of Daniel found at Qumran are copies, indicating
that the original was written before the Maccabean era.
The Times

In 605 Nebuchadnezzar took Daniel and others as captives to Babylon (see

Introduction to Jeremiah). Because of the events recorded in chapter 2 of the book, Daniel
was given a place of prominence and responsibility in Nebuchadnezzars kingdom. After the
kings death, Daniel apparently fell from favor, but was recalled to interpret the writing that
appeared at Belshazzars feast (5:13). He was made one of three presidents under Darius
(6:1) and lived until the third year of Cyrus (536). His ministry was to testify, in his personal
life and in his prophecies, to the power of God. Though in exile, the people of Israel were not

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deserted by God, and Daniel revealed many details about his plan for their future. He also
traced the course of Gentile world powers from his own day to the second coming of Christ.
Contents

Important prophecies in the book include: the course of Gentile kingdoms (the

future of Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome, chaps. 2 and 7), details concerning MedoPersia and Greece (chap. 8), more details concerning Greece (chap. 11), the prophecy of the
seventy weeks of years (9:24-27), and the activities of Antichrist (11:36-45). Among the
doctrines mentioned in the book are: personal separation (1:8; 3:12; 6:10; 9:2-3; 10:2-3);
angels (8:16; 9:21; 10:13, 20-21; 11:1); resurrection (12:2); Antichrist (7:24-25; 9:27; 11:36).
Favorite stories include those of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego (chap. 3), and the lions
den (chap. 6).

APPENDIX II
Notes on Millard J. Ericksons (1977 BAKER HOUSE)
CONTEMPORARY OPTIONS in ESCHATOLOGY
He quotes James Orr whom he said, at the end of the 19 th C., made the observation that
Christian doctrine received special attention, and developed at different periods in the history of
the Church. Case in point: 2nd C. the emphasis was APOLOGETICS; 3rd & 4th C. it was DOCTRINE
of GOD; early 5th C., MAN and SIN; 5th 7th C., The PERSON of CHRIST; 11th C., The ATONEMENT; 16th
C., Application of REDEMPTION (JUSTIFICATION etc.); Modern Age, ESCHATOLOGY- The one remaining
undeveloped topic of theology.

Consider the plethora of Church fathers, thinkers, writers, theologians, scientists, philosophers
and historians who, in the past, would have both impacted and influenced us (some to our
development; others to our detriment) one way or another, we should consider the survival of the
Church nothing short of a miracle. Some made Christianity largely of ethics; others ( like Friedrich
Schleiermacher) made it primarily a matter of feeling (p 18). From one department we received the
element of Consistent Eschatology (Johannes Weiss & Albert Schweitzer), which infers that Jesus, in His
teaching, was purely futuristic. While from another (Charles H. Dodd) we got Realized Eschatology,
a teaching that lends itself to the preterist view out of which the New Age Movement was born.
There was (Rudolph Bultmanns) Existential Eschatology that thrust us in the three-story
universe the top (heaven) has God and angels, the middle (earth) has men and animals, and
the bottom (hell) has the devil and demonic spirits (p 35). That simplistic concept of up and down
was split open by the Copernican revolution, which also revealed that diseases are not caused by

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demons, but by bacteria, viruses and other organisms. Bultmann had problems with the history of
the Gospel recordings: bottom-line, he inferred that they were lacking in literary integrity,
because they were written by men who (simply) wanted people to become committed Christians
like themselves. He said that we cannot determine whether Jesus actually was crucified or
resurrected (p 38). (Thats the nature of Existentialism authors inference).
A Theology of Hope entered the scene ( with the arrival of Jurgen Moltmann) (p 44) and with sound,
Biblical exposition, put back some sense into Christian Thinking authors opinion. Christ is the
anticipation of the future of God (Eschatology in a single statement) (p 48).
POSTMILLENNIALISM (In Essence)
1. The kingdom of God is primarily a present reality not future.
2. All the nations will be converted prior to Christs return (p 55).
3. The millennium is expected to be a long period of earthly peace. They are not literalistic
about the length of the millennium, and therefore, not necessarily one thousand years (p 56).
4.

It will be gradual and the M. is qualitative not quantitative (p 57).

5.

At the endthere will be apostasy

6.

Its culmination is with the bodily return of Christ. (Tyconius, Augustine & Lutherans

subscribe.)
AMILLENNIALISM
1. They affirm that there will be no earthly 1000-year reign of Christ (p 73).
2. This posture is difficult to distinguish from Postmillennialism thus blurring occurs.
3. With P., they share the same feature that the 1000 years in Rev. are symbolic.
4.

All As are not unified in their views of the 2 resurrections with the intervening 1,000-

year.
PREMILLENNIALISM
1. A rather popular view in conservative circles, with 2 distinct varieties (p 91).
2.

Both: an earthly reign of Christwhere the will of God is done on earth.

3.

One: the literal 1,000 years will b exact; other: less literal- an extended period of time.

4.

Both: The M. will arrive dramatically & cataclysmically ushered by Christ 2nd Coming.
DISPENSATIONALISM

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1. This became the virtual official theology of fundamentalism which some have made a
test of
orthodoxy; regarding those who fail to fail to hold it as denying Scripture (p 109).
2.
A literal interpretation of Scripture. A slogan D. would gladly endorse is: When the
plain sense makes good sense, seek no other sense (p 115).
3.
Ds. distinguish 2 kingdoms: the kingdom of heaven (Matt.13), & the kingdom of God
(p 121).
PRETRIBULATIONISM
1. This is almost married to Dispensationalism. However, while all dispensationalists
are pretribulationists for the latter is a part of the full system of the former -, not all
pretribulationists are dispensationalists.
2. The Pre-T rapture may be based upon independent exegetical grounds, rather than
inferred (p 126).
3.

The church will be taken out of this world before the Great Tribulation begins.

4. John F. Walvoord puts the argument this way: Why should a child of Gods grace who
is saved by grace, who is kept by grace, who has all the wonderful promises of God be forced
to go through a period which according to Scripture is expressly designed as a time of judgment
upon a Christ-rejecting world? (p 153 - 154).

1.

POSTTRIBULATIONISM
The church will be spared from the wrath of God but not from the tribulation (p 152).

2.

Greek words were used to explain concepts that would otherwise have escaped us.

3.

It is indistinguishable from Amillennialism (p 161).

4. Gorge E. Ladd, an ardent propounder of this view has given much explanation on it (p
151-158).
MIDTRIBULATIONISM
1. In practical terms, this position seeks to mediate between Pre and Post-T. Church will
be present on earth during, and a portion of the tribulation, but will be removed before the worse
occurs (p 163-165).
2. Partial-rapture view sees one segment of the church being raptured before the tribulation
and another segment remaining on earth throughout. Thus the rapture is Pre-T. for some and
Post-T. for others.
3. Tribulation should not be confused with the wrath of God (Matt. 24: 29; Mk. 13:24-25;
Luke. 21:25-26)

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LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON LESSONS
LESSON #1
(1) The meaning of the name Daniel has several variants; list at least two of them:
A, God is my Judge
B, God is Judging
C, Judgment of God

(2) The name Belteshazzar was given to Daniel by king Nebuchadnezzar, what did it
mean? It meant Bels Prince -_ a name after a Babylonian god
(3) Give another legitimate name for the Book of Revelation:
The Revelation of Jesus Christ or The Revelation of John

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(4) Daniels style of writing paints future events with broad brush; how does that
differ from the style of writing about the future in the Revelation?
A, It deals with details and fills gaps that were previously created
B, It tends to open seals that were previously sealed

(5) As was seen resulting from Israels unrestrained idolatry, what has become
synonymous with apostasy?

Gods Judgment"

(6) In avoiding errors that result from excessive religious zeal, over-dogmatizing, etc.,
what approach in studying Daniel and Revelation is considered the best way to go? A
prayerful, objective, honest and open approach

(7) What was primarily responsible for Israels captivity in Babylon that eventually led
to all the drama in the Book of Daniel?
It was primarily their idolatry and apostasy
(8)

John was also in confinement, a type of captivity, on the Isle of Patmos; not for

disobedience or any other negative reason. What that reason?


He was in confinement because of the Word of God
and the testimony of Jesus Christ
(9)

Emerging from questions 7 & 8, and their respective answers, what lesson can one

learn from these two similar, yet contrasting scenarios?


That calamities that appear similar in nature can happen to both the disobedient,
who walk after their own way (Israel), and the obedient, who seek to please God in
their daily walk (John).

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(10) What in the character of both books, Daniel and Revelation, that suggests they be
studied together?
By virtue of the fact that they both complement each other.

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON LESSONS
LESSON #1I

(1) False as it may be, in this day and age, what gives people a feeling of authenticity?
Their Credentials
(2)

The structure of the Book of Daniel is dubbed by some as a history of moral


conflicts; from the text, give another view others might prefer to see it as:
Gods Providence verses Gentile paganism

(3) In the Revelation, how many messages and to whom was John given them to
deliver?

(4)

To the seven angels of the seven actual (local) churches

State at least one fact about the geographical Babylon of Daniels time?

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Its hanging gardens made it one of the 7 Wonders of the ancient world.
(5)

State one historical fact about Babylon of Daniels time?


It was an empire that emerged about 626 B.C. under Nabopolassar.

(6)

State another historical fact about the said Babylon?


Babylon defeated Egypt in the battle of Carchemish in 605 B.C.

(7) The 12 Chapters of the Book of Daniel could be divided into two main parts; the
first part (1 6) being filled with dramatic incidents that reflect a history of moral
drama. What does the second part (7 12) show us?
The second part shows us the prophetic path.
(8)

Though it borders opinion somewhat, in what way would you say that John the
apostle was more privileged than Daniel the prophet, in the context of their
writing?

That during his tenure on earth, he had the distinct honor of seeing, hearing and
touching the very Word of Life Jesus Christ. Also being so close to the Master, he
would have learned things first-hand what a privilege!

(9) What was the primary ingredient (or the base) of the character of both authors of
Daniel and Revelation that virtually qualified them to be assigned the task of
writing Scripture? Their Faith (in God) or Their Faithfulness (to God)
(10) Last Days or no Last Days, what does that say about the type of person I aught to
be (This answer is rather personal; and as such, has no right or wrong component
to it)?

Example: My life, as a child of God, is motivated by the unconditional

love He has first extended to me, which was ultimately demonstrated in the
sacrificial death of Christ on Calvary. Living for Him in total obedience is my
highest aim and ambition. The fact of His return for His people and to judge

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the world serves as added benefits. I want to be a person whose life reflects
values that are anchored in Gods Word.

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON LESSONS
LESSON #1II
(1) When Daniel sought understanding of the detailed outcome of the vision in Chapter
12, what response did he receive?
What seemed like a partial scolding: Go your way, Daniel, because the
Words are closed up and sealed until the time of the end v. 9

(2) In relation to the seals, why did John do so much weeping?


Because no one , except the Lion of the tribe of Judah
(Jesus), was found worthy to open the seals
(3)

In the Book of Daniel, King Nebuchadnezzars image vision was virtually the
same as Prophet Daniels

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Beast vision

84

(4) A derived theology from that is: the kings vision emphasized the economic systems
that govern kingdoms, while the prophets vision depicts what?
Depicted by certain animals that is symbolic of represented kingdoms
(5) When dealing with matters of a prophetic nature, what are we advised to avoid?
We are advised to avoid too much dogmatism
(6)

As a safety catch to be guarded against individuals and/or entities that would want
to run off with selective interpretations on matters of an eschatological nature, what
Scripture quoted in the Book of Proverbs guides us in this regard?

Proverbs 11:14, Where no counsel is, the people fall: but in the multitude of
counsellers there is safety (KJV).
(7)

What value is there to be derived by listening to those whose views on Last


Things are usually extreme, and even sometimes seemingly way-off?

So that the objective researcher can examine the views of others, whose opinions
could cause us to look at other shades of interpretations.

(8)

Regarding the heavenly visitations recorded in both books, and the effects they
had on the writers who encountered them, what raises the expectations of
redeemed mankind in looking to the future fulfillment of all these things?

The expectation that our eyes shall behold Him (the Lord) and be enthralled by His
awesome presence.

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(9)

What did the heathen King Nebuchadnezzar and the godly Prophet Daniel have in
common concerning activities in the night?
They both had dreams of eschatological significance

(10)

Name the four dispositions different theologians might interpret from the

Revelation regarding time-fulfillment?


(1) The Preterist believing that all have already been fulfilled
(2) The Historicaltaking a panoramic view of the church from John to the end of
time.
(3) The Idealist sees all things as merely the unfolding of great principles in conflict;
and as such, there are no real or actual events to be considered.
(4) The Futurist - sees Chapters 4 22 as yet to be fulfilled.

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON LESSONS
LESSON # IV
(1)

What would be considered fragile theology in anyone attempting to do Gods


will, or in the molding of ones character?
It would be considered fragile theology to rely heavily on numbers

(2)

The admonition to count the number is intended for more than just Arithmetic;

what do the following Scripture verses expect us to derive from the counting exercise:

Psalm 90:12? ____ To gain a heart of wisdom______

39:4? _____ To know how fleeting life is_____

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Rev. 13:17-18? ___ To know the number of the beast-man______

(3) We have to admit, since God is a God of infinite variety, and we are cautioned not to
either build doctrine based on numbers alone on the one hand, or stifle spontaneity on the
other hand; what should our approach be?
____________ An open and honest approach__________
(4)

Numbers, no doubt, have systematic value; do you see any significant value in the

numbering of the 5 wise, visa vise, the 5 foolish virgins in Matthew Chapter 25? (This
is a personal answer) _____________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

George Beemer feels that the seven churches in Revelation were selected to
accomplish specific purposes; what were they? Write out your corresponding answer
to the next three prompted questions:
(5)

The contemporary purpose: That Christ had a direct message to seven literal
churches existing at that time

(6) The composite purpose: That these messages are meant to be applied by all
churches existing in all ages
(7) The chronological purpose: That the characteristics of these churches serve as a
political purview of the seven great periods of Christendom to the rapture.
(8) Among the commendations and rebukes the church at Ephesus received in its letter,
what was the main command given to it (Rev. Chapter 2), if it were to redeem itself?
Repent and do your first works.

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(9) What of the church in Philadelphia (Rev. Chapter 3)?

No rebuke; but admonished to hold on to what you have, so that no one will take
your crown.

(10) What of the church in Laodicea (Rev. Chapter 3)?


Only rebukes; plus warnings; plus threats

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON LESSONS
LESSON # V
(1)

In relation to the heavenly visitations, what problem both prophets (Daniel and

John) experienced at some point?


They both, at some point, confused the person and
the presence of the one in the visitation.
(2)

God does not speak in ambiguities, and, also, according to 1 Corinthians 14:33,
what else? ______ That God is not the author of confusion___________

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(3)

Some things in the study of Eschatology are certain; some uncertain; and some
are way-off; how has this study otherwise classified them as?
The Solid, the Soft, and the Subtle

(4)

Give a short and simple example of:

A Solid view: __ Christ Jesus is Coming a Second Time_____

A Soft view:

A Subtle view The Church alone can usher in the coming of Christ

His Coming is for only those who are really ready

Continuing the Solid, Soft, and Subtle approach, in the following statements, please
identify at the end of each which category the particular statement falls under, and
why:
(5) God is the eternal, everlasting and unchanging Sovereign Lord of the universe:
SOLID: All Scripture accords to that truth

(6) Because God is a holy God, He does not hear when sinners pray:
SOFT give or take For God to respond to a Sinners cry, He must first hear him.
(7) Jesus is due to return when all Christians start walking in full righteousness, and there
is absolutely no sin in their lives.
SUBTLE: To subscribe to that would be living in denial, because Christians live
in the presence of sin daily; and that would be until we are glorified.
(8) Christ is coming for the Church, but Michael, the archangel, who protects the Jews,
according to the messenger in the Book of Daniel, is coming to take the Jews to their
eternal home:
SUBTLE: The Church is one new man of Jews and Gentiles saints; there is no
tribe or race separation when Christ returns.

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(9) The 144,000 servants of God mentioned in Revelation 7 are the only righteous people
who will get save during the Great Tribulation; doing so by their own blood.
SOFT: There are indications in Scripture that, depending on ones interpretation,
others, apart from the 144,000 will also be saved. However, one should thread
softly with the numbers.
(10) Unto those who look for Him (thats Jesus), He will appear a second time but this
time not for dying for their sin, but to deliver them from the Wrath to come.
SOLID: There is absolutely no doubt in Jesus statement: if I go I will come
again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there you may be also
(Jn.14:3 KJV).

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON LESSONS
LESSON # VI
(1)

Rick Joyner says that we (the church) may be taking the mark of the beast
Given that a statement should be taken in its stated context; are there any Biblical
grounds for anyone to make such a statement? If so, what are they?

Im sorry,

but there are no Biblical grounds for anyone to make such a statement, simple
because all who take the mark of the beast would have sealed their eternal doom.

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(2) Still the churchs position/location in what is often called the last days is not one
that is easily identified, even from the sharpest minds and those we perceive as authority
on the subject, so an attitude not of theological ambivalence but of Christian tolerance
is needed to be deployed. In a short statement, and in your own words, why is this so?
Thats because some things in Scripture are not so easily unraveled; and a person
can genuinely, without ill-intent, come away with an inaccurate interpretation on
an event of the Last Days though if we search carefully, and prayerfully, well
find it
(3) What is there to suggest that, according to Acts 1:6, even the Jewish believers
had/have missed the Gods purpose for the church?
Because, even after the crucifixion and the resurrection, they still didnt get it. At
that crucial point, they asked if the kingdom was going be restored to Israel!

(4) In relation to the Churchs entry on the physical and spiritual landscape, Jesus
gives the geographic picture from the areas where its people will come. Where are those
areas (Luke 13:29)? ___________________________________________________

(5) In relation to the Churchs existence, some are temporarily blind, according to
Romans Chapter 11; to whom is this existence a mystery?

_________________

___________________________________________________________________

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(6) When the Church makes its exit from this worlds scene, how did Paul describe it in
the resurrection passage in 1 Corinthians 15?

_______________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

(7) According to the historic Christian hymn by Samuel John Stone, what is the
Churchs One Foundation? ______________________________________________
(8) At the blast of Gods trump of the archangels, who will comprise the Church?
_____________________________________________________________________
(9)

What is the intimate or marital terminology used in Scripture to describe the

Church?
___________________________________________________________________
(10) The theology of the church would lend itself to a simple statement that would
indicate that it has been, and continues to be surrounded in mystery. That mystery is the
main bone of contention in Jewish Eschatology. On one sheet, write a response to this
statement (Specify the Scriptural passages to uphold your response)

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON LESSONS
LESSON # VII
(1)

On the relevance of symbolism contained in the whole thrust of Eschatology, what


is that single symbol that puts the prophet Daniel, Jesus Christ, Paul the apostle, and
John the divine on the same page?
_________ The symbol of the Seventieth Week_________

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(2)

Though as a rule of the thumb, the Word of God should be approached with a literal
interpretation, why should one employ an approach of caution when dealing
particularly with the Book of Revelation?
For the single reason it is so filled with symbols and other figures of speech

(3)

What in the Fifth Chapter of the Revelation would trigger off a burst of
spontaneous praise and worship of all the nations, races, languages, and peoples?

When the realization that no man was found worthy to open the seals and look into
them except the Lion of the tribe of Judah the Lamb that was slain
(4)

The Book of Revelation is one that allows the reader to flirt with imaginings,
fantasies, and every mental idiosyncrasy; how do you respond?

The answer to this would emerge from the Students grasp that the
literary structure of the Revelation is filled with images, symbolic
language, personifications and many other picture-forming means
of communication. So while, per se, it does lend itself to ones
imagination, that is not one that would lead the reader to a path or
ignorance and error. After all, our ability to imagine is a gift from
God to enhance, not destroy our lives.

(5)

Taking to consideration all the Greek syntax in Chapter 6: 1, 3, 5 & 7 where the

word come can also be translated go, what does go then show more clearly?
It shows that nothing can move in heaven without permission.
(6)

There are two distinct interpretations of the rider on the white horse (Chapter 6)

that emerge from two schools of thought. What are those schools and who do they say
the rider is?

The pretribulationists, they generally believe the rider to be Christ;

while the posttribulationist generally believe him to be the Antichrist.

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(7)

There are two distinct sets of people in the Revelation: one is sealed (Chap.7),

the other is marked (Chap. 13); what is the fate of each?


The sealed ones are divinely protected, while the marked ones are destined for doom.
(8)

What makes the bizarre creatures (Chap. 9) coming out of the dark Abyss,

almost defying description, and inflicting excruciating pain on those carrying the mark of
the beast, believable?

Because we have body of information that has been

historically proven and validated, including the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the
dead.
(9)

Many assume that these foreboding creatures will spell so much dread on mankind
that they will automatically force men to repent and turn from their wicked ways.
What is there in Chapter 9 to indicate otherwise?

The people that were not killed by these creatures, according to verses 20 and 21,
behaved in grossed rebellion and were un-repented.
(10)

While scholars differ on the time-frame of certain Tribulation events, they are

almost unanimous that the Day of the Lord is that very strategic segment of Last Days
that will signal unparallel dread for the dwellers on the earth at that time. What does
Amos 5:18-19 say about that?

Woe to you who long for the day of the LORD! Why

do you long for the day of the LORD? That day will be a day of darkness, not light

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON LESSONS
LESSON # VIII
(1)

How would the writings of Daniel be charged with prophetic urgency and at the
same time, colored with ambassadorial flare?
Because he functioned as a prophet while being a top-ranking ambassador

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(2)

Though a rather serious book indeed, how did John in the Revelation differ in his
style from that of Daniel?
His writings, while equally prophetic, had an apostolic care to it

(3)

The Books of Daniel and Revelations both have a primary and ultimate thrust. Its
not about us simply trying to know the future, or attempting to establish whether the
Pre-tribulationist or the Post-millennialist, or those in between, have the correct
view. The focus is wholly and ultimately about?
The Sovereign Lord of the universe and His plan for it

(4) Daniel and his friends went on a ten-day vegetable diet in obedience to God and, very
likely, in defiance of the kings wishes. What were the results of that action?
At the end of the ten days they looked healthier and better nourished

(5) What, according to Daniel 1:20, was the added value to that act of obedience?
The king found that the Hebrew boys were also 10 times better than all the magicians

(6) When Nebuchadnezzars dream was being unraveled by Daniel, what did the wise
men and magicians and others had to settle for (Dan. 2:28)?
That there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets (KJV).
(7) Revelations pictures were more than scary, to say the least; but what in the final
analysis is there to suggest that Jesus Christ, ultimately, is the Champion (Rev.
11:15)?

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When the kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of
his Christ, and he will reign for ever and ever.
(8)

What is earmarked to happen to the devil at the end of the apocalyptic era as that
1000 years of Millennium peace is about to usher itself in (Rev. 20)?

He would be apprehended by an angel from heaven, bound, and cast into the Abyss,
otherwise known as the Bottomless Pit (vv. 2-3).

(9) From the same chapter, what would eventually happen to Satan at the end of those
1000 years?

(10)
your

He will ultimately be thrown the lake of burning sulfur (v. 10)

In your own words, in what way, if any, has this study affected or influenced
perception

of

things

relating

to

present

and

future

events?

(This response is very personal)__________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


5-MINUTE CLASS PRESENTATION
Select any one of the listed topics and prepare a response to be orally presented. Also
prepare for class interaction on your presentation:

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Eschatology is purely an academic component of Christian theology and


has nothing to do with ones moral character.

Since my great grand-mother was a child they told her that Jesus is
coming again; whats the big deal with us today?

Someone says to you: Im convinced that the present Pope is the


Anti-Christ. What do you say to that person?

Haitis recent devastating earthquake is a definite sign that the end is


near. How do you respond to that?

A preacher shouts: Jesus cant come now because Armageddon has


not yet taken place! Did you say Amen! to that? If so, why? Or, why
not?

Dragons! How is Satan referred to as a dragon when there is no


fossil evidence to suggest that there were actual dragons on the face
of the earth?

What is the fundamental difference (if any) between the individual


who clings to the Pre-tribulationist view as against another who holds
the Post-tribulationist view?

LIGHT IN THE SHADOW OF THE APOCALYPSE


FINAL EXAM - RESEARCH PAPER
[Those in the Bachelors Program are required to complete a 5 to 6 page, double-spaced paper.
Those in the Masters will complete a 10 to 12 page double-spaced paper. In either case, those
numbers include both your cover page and Bibliography.]

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Option 1. You are permitted to use your Class Presentation material in an expanded version. Or,
put another way, your Class Presentation could more or less be a condensed version of your
research paper. That means therefore, that you stick with the same topic you would have chosen.
Or,
Option 2.

Select any one of the following topics:

Wars and rumors of wars How does a Christian get beyond the mere
clich and present the true-to-life picture of the end times?

If Jesus is soon to return, why am I even bothering to study Eschatology,


or any study for that matter; shouldnt I be more involved in something
more productive?

Most Christians believe that there will be a rapture of the church from the
earth, some say before the Tribulation, some say after the Tribulation. But
the anti-rapture theory says that the word rapture is not even in the Bible.
How do you settle this tension?

Pre-millennialists insist that the Bible makes it clear that it is through


much tribulation we shall enter the kingdom; so why are Christians still
insisting that they would not be experiencing great tribulation? How do
you respond?

BIBLIOGRAPHY
(1.)

Bauckham, R. J., New Bible Dictionary, Second Edition, Inter Vasity Press, Leicester,
England, 1986.

_______________ A Lecturer in the

History of Christian Thought at the reputable University of Manchester. Held in very


high regard.

George R. Frederick, October 2009

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(2.)

Birdsall, J. N., New Bible Dictionary, Second Edition, Inter Vasity Press, Leicester,
England, 1986.

__________________ A Professor of

New Testament and Textual criticism at the renowned University of Birmingham. Hes
among those as a point of reference.
(3.)

Ericksons, Millard J., Contemporary Options in Eschatology, Baker Book House,


Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, 1977.

___________________ A most

prolific and accomplished writer, known for his analytical proficiency, and is unintimidated with the varying schools of thought.
(4.)

Gortner, J. Narver, Studies in Revelation, Gospel Publishing House, Mss., USA, 1948.
-

___________________ Though he

may not be among the contemporary writers of the day, his careful, deep and responsible
approach to the study and teaching of Gods Word still helps and blesses many seminaries
today.
(5.)

Hendriksen, William, Survey of the Bible, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids,
Michigan, USA, (Fourth Revised Edition, Second Printing) 1978.
_

___________________Dr.

Hendriksen has been characterized this way: A conservative theologian who is openminded and fair, yet who never departs even by a hair-breadth from the position of
absolute fidelity to Scripture as Gods infallible Word.
(6.)

Homer Kizer Ministries, On-line Bible Study, 2009


___

________________ This source

comes via the information highway. Its reliability has to be treated with that context,
and therefore cannot be vouched for.

George R. Frederick, October 2009

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(7.)

Henry, Matthew, One Volume Commentary on the Whole Bible, 1960 Edition, Eastern
Press Ltd., London and Reading, Great Britain, OT and NT.
_

__________________ to many in

the Christian arena, he represents that of an icon in the department of Bible Commentary.
Matthew Henry is one of those must read. Admittedly though, with advancing
knowledge, and a wide panel of Expositors on the Christian Landscape, with so much
insight, one would be hard pressed to hug around him alone.
Joyner, Rick, A prophetic Vision For the 21st Century, Nelson, Nashville, USA, 1999.

(8.)
_

_________________ One is

not doubting the genuineness of Ricks experiences and visions, but one has to be very
careful to keep in mind that Gods Word, including prophecies and visions, and dreams, is
never of any private (or selective) interpretation, regardless to how distinct the prophet
might think himself to be. Prophecies need confirmation perhaps even before they are
uttered.
(9.)Ladd, George E., Blessed Hope, Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., Michigan, USA, 1956
________________ This is a writer, teacher, professor of deep conviction he believes
what he propounds. As such, one can rely on his responsible approach to Gods Word.
Keeping in mind, that deep conviction, however, does not exempt us from our own bias.
So, like anyone else, his work must be also read prayerfully and analytically.
(10.)

Morris, L. L., New Bible Dictionary, Second Edition, Inter Vasity Press,

Leicester, England, 1986.


____

George R. Frederick, October 2009

_________________ This former

100

Principal and Lecturer of Ridley College in Melbourne, Australia, and also the Canon of
the Melbourne Cathedral, has been engaged with the study and teaching of Gods Word
for many years.
(11.)

Murray, Arnold, Shepherds Chapel, SVG Television, October 26, 2009.

_____

____________________ This contributor

has with him over half-a-century of Radio and Television teaching and several more years
as a seminarian; however, his views seem not opened to scrutiny. So, he teaches just
about whatever comes to his head, or his denominations stand, opening up himself for a
barrage of unsubstantiated dogma.
(12.)

Orr, James, The Progress of Dogma, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1901.

_____

___________________ A keen scholar of

great repute and respect. Much of his books may not be around now. But many
theological books would constantly refer to his works.
(13.)

Pentecost, J. Dwight, Bible Knowledge Commentary, Victor Books, USA, 1978.

____

___________________ the author has

contributed to one of the finest Commentaries available today. And


, as one will observe, he is very well read; and therefore should be read.
(14.)

Pentecost, J. Dwight, Things to Come, Zondervan Pub. House, USA, 1977.

____

______________ this book is in

the category of the crme de la crme of works done in the field of eschatology. Hes
deep, balanced and practical.
(15)

Philipose, K., The Imminent Return of Jesus Christ, OM-Authentic Books, India,

2007.

George R. Frederick, October 2009

________________ Since the

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subject of eschatology is a dynamic one, and information is constantly being viewed in light
of current affairs, one should always seek to keep abreast with the varying perspectives; not
for any new revelation, of course, but to see what we might have missed in the process, and
Philipose book facilitates that process.
(16.)

Phillips, J. B., The Book of Revelation, Fontana Books, London, England, 1957.

__

_________________ What is there to

be said of John Bertram Phillips that is not already known? This outstanding scholar, writer,
and, perhaps for what he is best known, a Bible Translator, when home to meet His Lord in
July of 1982. However, the spiritual and intellectual legacy he has left behind, including the
mentioned book, still continues to be a source of guidance to churches, colleges and
seminaries today.
(17.)

Ryrie, Charles C., N. I. V. Study Bible, Moody Press, Chicago, USA, 1986.

__

_________________ When someone assumes a responsibility to complete a Study Bible, is a


clear indication of the spiritual depth of such an individual. Countless thousands have been
helped in ways more than one by this dear servant of God. Having said that, he too, does not
escape the grid of the analyst in the views he projects.
(18.)

Tyndales New Bible Dictionary, Second Edition, Tyndale House Pub. (1962), Carol

Stream, Illinois, USA, 1986.

_____________ This

work of Dr. Kenneth N. Taylor, which he founded in 1962, has been an extremely helpful aid
to many a researcher. He has been able to harness a long list of Christian intellectuals in the
documentation of his work.
(19.)

Westlake, Jr., George W., Text book on Daniel & Revelation, ICI University,

Colombia, USA, 1999.

George R. Frederick, October 2009

_________________ Coming

102

from a background of many years of pasturing, Bible College teaching thats several places
across the Continents, in addition to 14 years in radio and television ministry, his work is
perhaps most easily readable on the matter of Daniel and Revelation.
(20.)

Wilkerson, David, Racing Toward Judgment, Spire Books, New Jersey, USA, 1976.

________________ Wilkerson

was the hero of a different era. But since Christianity is not a popularity contest, we can
gracefully surrender the things when we were young. Some invaluable insights can be
gleaned from the book, but, for the authors sake, he needs to tone down some of his
religious rhetoric.
(21.)

Wiseman, D. J., New Bible Dictionary, Second Edition, Inter Vasity Press, Leicester,

England, 1986.

__________________ Wiseman

hails from a network of prestigious academics who have committed themselves to the
maintenance and integrity of Biblical data; and in that network, iron sharpens iron. As such,
the information is usually reliable and credible.
(22.) Wuest, Kenneth S., Expanded Translation of the Greek New Testament, Wm. B.
Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, 1959.
__

____________________ Wuest is a breath

of fresh air for one attempting to correlate the Language of todays Scripture with the
original Greek; and he does it both with simplicity yet with full authority. Any serious
Student of the Word should ensure his works on the NT is on their shelf.
(23.)

Zondervan, NIV Study Bible (Fully Revised)), Zondervan Publishing Co., Grand

Rapids, USA, 2002.

George R. Frederick, October 2009

____________________ The Zondervan

103

Publishing House is probably the perceived encyclopedia in Christian intellectual material of


any written form. One is made richer by far if one has been available to their works.
(24.)

En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel&Revelation.

__________________ Gratitude is

expressed for the availability of a world of information via the internet and super highway.
All Scriptural quotations are from the New International Version of the Bible, or otherwise
the King James Version, when so indicated.

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