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4.

CGD VALUE CHAIN

4.1 INTRODUCTION
CGD represents the last mile in the gas value chain and gas is supplied at low / medium pressure
to Residential, commercial consumers and small industrial consumers (PNG) and Transportation
segment as vehicle fuels (CNG).
CGD network involves movement of small volumes of gas through small diameter medium to
low pressure distribution pipelines by a local distribution company to a large number of retail
consumers. It is an integrated network of steel, poly ethylene (PE) and medium density
polyethylene (MDPE) pipelines along with CNG dispensing stations. (Chandra, 2013)

Fig 4.1 CGD Value Chain


Source: American Gas Association

4.2 VALUE CHAIN


4.2.1

Gathering Lines

Gathering lines collect crude oil and raw gas from producing areas.
4.2.2

Gathering Station

The gas produced from the wells has enough pressure to enter gathering lines directly without
compression. Sometimes compressors are added to boost the pressure to overcome other
Gathering lines pressure. These stations are called gathering station. (Dubey, 2011)
4.2.3

City Gas Station

The natural gas that is received at the city gas station is mostly passed through a cleaner to
remove liquids and dust. The primary function of the city gas station is to measure the amount of
incoming gas. It is generally measured through orifice meters. Another function is to reduce the
pressure of the gas to be sent for distribution, as the distribution system requires much lesser
pressure than that in long distance transmission. Mechanical devices called pressure regulators
lower the gas pressure and helps to control the flow rate to maintain desired pressure level
throughout the distribution system with the reduction in pressure the natural gas also becomes
cooler so sometimes it has to be heated up in regions where the temperature is below zero
degree. Last but not the least, at the city gas station the odorization of the natural gas takes place.
Different types of odorants are used so that the smell makes the presence of escaping unburnt
gas recognizable at very low concentration. This serves as a warning well before the gas
accumulates to hazardous levels; a mixture of air and natural gas are explosive over the range of
5% to 15% natural gas. To ensure safety, odorized natural gas is detectable at concentration of
just 1%. (Anonymous, 2011)
The main components of City Gate station are
a. Gas filtration skid
b. Pressure reduction skid
c. Flow metering skid

4.2.3.1 Gas filtration skid


This skid has been designed in such a way as to accept a single stream only. High efficiency filter
separators are used for the removal of liquid and solid particles from the incoming gas stream
over the entire operating range. The gas outlet from the processing industry is cautiously
maintained at free of impurities; the filtration skid ensures the pure gas distributed to the line .the
filter is normally designed to withstand a pressure in the range of 30-49 bar.
4.2.3.2 Pressure Reduction Skid
The pressure reduction skid is installed to reduce the pressure of the incoming gas form the
source from the pressure of 37 bar to 27 bar. Mainly creep relief valve is being installed in this
skid which maintains the downstream pressure.
4.2.3.3 Flow Metering Skid
Flow meters are installed to for a single stream. The normal flow meters used in the CGS is
orifice plates. Orifice flow meters find its use as a large pressure drop is required. The various
parameters such as temperature in the various sections of the line pressure at the inlet & outlet
joints, flow inlet & outlet are controlled by SCADA system in the control room.
4.2.4

District Regulation System

DRS is a device used to reduce the pressure from 27 bar to 4 bar. It is the interface between the
steel grid network & the medium pressure network. The locations the DRS mainly depends on
the requirements of the area i.e., the type of customers to the company.
The various components in the DRS include the following,
a. Slam shut valves for controlling the flow
b. Filtering skid
c. Pressure reduction skid

d. Odorizing Unit
Odorizing unit is highly essential to ensure the safe distribution of the both CNG and PNG. The
odorants mainly include the mercaptans. These odorant is injected in to the natural gas to detect
leaks if any. The odorants used is Ethyl Mercaptan.
e. Metering System
Pipeline customers demand to know they receive the same amount of oil or gas they put in.
pipeline companies generally use direct volume meters or inference meters. Some types are as
follows
1. Positive displacement meters
2. Turbine meters
3. Orifice meters
4. Ultrasonic meters
5. Coriolis meters (Dubey, 2011)
4.2.5

Piping system

Pipeline network consists of steel pipeline & polyethylene pipeline. A typical CGD network
should consists of the following:
(a) Primary Network
A medium pressure distribution system comprising of pipelines, gas mains or distribution mains
normally constructed using steel pipes and connects one and more transmission. Pipeline to
respective CGS or one or more CGS to one or more DRS.
(b) Secondary Network
A low pressure distribution system comprising of gas mains or distributions mains usually
constructed using thermoplastic piping (MDPE) and connects DRS to various service regulators
at commercial, industrial and domestic consumers.

Fig 4.2 Main Gas Transmission Pipeline


Source: Chandra, 2013

(c) Tertiary Network


A service pressure distribution system comprising of service lines, service regulators and
customer/consumer meter set an assembly constructed using a combination of thermoplastic
(MDPE) piping and GI/copper tubing components. The connection between consumer meter set
assembly and gas appliance (provided by consumer) may be made by GI pipes or copper tubing
or steel reinforced rubber hose. (Anonymous, 2011)

Fig 4.3 CGD Pressure Regimes

4.2.6

Piped Natural Gas (PNG)

District regulation station are installed where the distribution is to be done like in the industrial
area and commercial segment. Gas to the various consumers is transferred after being maintained
at a pressure of about 4-5 bar. Then the gas is transmitted to single stream regulator through 4 bar
medium pressure PE pipelines. SR further reduces the pressure from 4 bar to 100 mbar. From SR
the gas is supplied through a 10 mbar low pressure PE pipeline to a G.I. riser isolation wall.
From this valve the gas is carried through a G.I. (Galvanized Iron) 10 mbar pipelines to end user.
The control valve is placed at the height of 5 ft which controls the flow. Then a regulator are
installed which rings down the pressure to 21 mbar for home users. A meter is installed which
tells the amount of gas being used depending on which they are charged. (Prasad, 2011)

Fig 4.4 Gas Transmission and Distribution system


Source: Mahanagar Gas

4.2.7

CNG Infrastructure

4.2.7.1 Mother Station


Mother stations are connected to the pipeline & have high compression capacity. These stations
supply CNG to both vehicles & daughter stations (through mobile cascades). The Mother station
requires heavy investment towards compressor, dispensers, cascades, pipelines, tubing etc.
4.2.7.2 Online Station

CNG vehicles storage cylinders need to be filled at a pressure of 200 bars. Online Stations are
equipped with a compressor of relatively small capacity, which compresses low pressure
pipelines to the pressure of 250 bar for dispensing CNG to the vehicle cylinder. The investment
in an online station is midway between daughter station & mother station.

Fig 4.5 CNG Stations

4.2.7.3 Daughter Station


The Daughter Stations dispense CNG using mobile cascades. These mobile cascades at
daughter stations are replaces when pressure falls & a depleted mobile cascade is refilled at the
Mother Station. The investment in a daughter station is least among all types of CNG stations.
There is reduction in storage pressure at daughter stations with each successive filling. Once the
storage pressure drops, the refueling time increases, while the quantity of CNG dispensed to
vehicle also decreases.

4.2.7.4 Daughter-Booster Station


Installing a booster compressor can eliminate drawbacks of daughter stations. Daughter booster
(compressor) is designed to take variable suction pressure & discharge at constant pressure of
200 bars to the vehicles being filled with CNG. The investment in daughter booster station is
higher than that of daughter station. (Das, 2011)

References
American Gas Association. (2014) How Does the Natural Gas Delivery System Work? Available
from: http://www.aga.org/Kc/aboutnaturalgas/consumerinfo/Pages/NGDeliverySystem.aspx
[Accessed: 12th Nov 2014]
Anonymous. (2011) CGD Introduction report.
Chandra P. (2013) City Gas Distribution: Coming Out of the Woods. Dolat Capital. Jan 2013
Das A.T. (2011) Report on CGD Business in India. School of Petroleum Management,
Gandhinagar
Dubey S. (2011) City Gas Distribution. School of Petroleum Management, Gandhinagar
Gas transmission and distribution system. (March 2010) Mahanagar Gas Limited, Mumbai.
Available from: http://www.mahanagargas.com [Accessed: 15th Nov 2014]
Operation and Maintenance Manual, 3rd edition, Gandhinagar: GSPC GAS
Prasad S. (2011) Overview of CGD Business in India. School of Petroleum Management,
Gandhinagar