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Divine Word College of Legazpi

College of Nursing
Legazpi City

The Level of Satisfaction of DWCL BSN and HM Students to the Divine


Word College of Legazpi Canteen

In partial fulfillment
of the
requirements for the
Degree in Bachelor of Science in Nursing

Abinal, Eunice Angeline M.


April 2015
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
Introduction
One of the many things common to all schools throughout the world is the
existence of school canteens. The same is true in the Philippines and in the
province of Albay. School canteens are essential since it augment nutritional
needs of the students and school employees. Canteens have a special role to

play in education, health and well-being of the students. The school canteen is
important becauseit gives the students a taste for healthy foods; supports
nutrition messages taught in class; and, shows the students better choices for
lunches and snacks.1In addition, it may be surmised that the objective of school
canteens is: to improve the school meals so that they are fresher, flavorsome and
balanced, promote healthy food to the students and give their satisfaction.Owing
to these important roles played by school canteens, it presupposes that foods
served must be clean, healthy and well-sanitized, and its facilities must be
hygienic as well.
The preceding paragraph illustrates another important aspect of food
serving and preparations by school canteens. Food safety is especially important
in schools since children can be more susceptible to food borne illnesses. The
Philippine society registers every now and then, cases of malnutrition and at
worst food poisoning experienced by some students both public and private
brought by unhygienic foods bought in the school premises. Although most of
these cases mentioned do not involve school canteens themselves, but through
street food vendors within the periphery of the school. However, it raises some
degree of anxiety among parents regarding the health and sanitation of foods
bought by their offspring outside of their homes.
This brings one to examine the processes, working environment and
personal hygiene of canteen personnel. Working in a school canteen means one
need to keep food safety in mind at all times. To begin with, ones hygiene plays
a big role in how one keep foods safe for children to eat. Certain precautions
have to be taken in food preparations, serving and after the food had been

served. Sometimes washing ones hands thoroughly after using the toilet and
before going back into the kitchen is a good start among all other things. 2
Personal hygiene is an important step toward food safety in the food
canteen. If foods are prepared while ones hands are dirty or ill, then the health of
students will be at risk.Another aspect of food safety in a school canteen is
keeping the space itself clean and free of bacteria. Never allow the room to
become a habitat for pests of any type. They spread germs and will be attracted
to any foods that are left out or open. Food safe pest control must be used, keep
doors and windows sealed and shut and proper disposal of garbage are very
important.Chopping boards should be properly sanitized and cleaned before use.
Never use the same chopping board for meats and other foods like fruits and
vegetables. Food storage is extremely important. When foods are waiting for use,
they can be a breeding ground for bacteria if not stored properly. All items should
be kept in sealed containers and promptly refrigerated before they reach the
dangerous temperature zone.3
Foods on display for self-service should be kept in the proper heat or cold
units throughout the time that they are available. Food should never be left on a
benchtop or in an environment with no temperature control. 4Along these delicate
task of food preparations, storage and serving as an indelible aspect of canteens,
especially school canteens where students buy their foods primarily while in
school, it is quite interesting to know whether or not they observe such exquisite
tasks in order to keep the food they serve healthy, sanitized and hygienic.
In most instances, the common indicator of health and sanitation hygiene
of canteens are not measured through the compliance of canteens in the
requirements set forth by law, such as the code of sanitation in the Philippines
2

(Presidential Decree 856), since these particular requirements can be easily


complied, rather it is a matter of the direct experiences and satisfaction of the
customers, in this case the students, regarding the quality of the foods served
and sanitation hygiene of the concerned canteens. It is in this context that this
particular study is conceived. This study will attempt to determine the health and
sanitation hygiene of the Divine Word College of Legazpi Canteen in relation to
the experiences and satisfaction of the students whom the mentioned canteen
serves. The Divine Word College Canteen was chosen as the locale of this study
since the researcher is a nursing student of Divine Word College and it is in this
little way that the researcher can help the institution in elevating further its
reputation not only in the quality of education but in auxiliary services such as
food service in its canteen. This study hopes to provide further room for
improvement when necessary to the food service provided by the mentioned
canteen.
Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to determine the level of satisfaction of students on
health and sanitation hygiene of the Divine Word College of Legazpi Canteen. It
will specifically seek answers to the following questions:
1. What are the facilities of Divine Word College of Legazpi Canteen?
2. What particular kind of foods are usually served by the Divine Word College of
Legazpi Canteen?
3. What is the level of satisfaction of the students on health and sanitation
hygiene of the Divine Word College of Legazpi Canteen along:
a. Food, and
b. Facilities?
4. What problems are encountered by the students in the health and sanitation
hygiene of the Divine Word College of Legazpi Canteen along:
3

a. Food, and
b. Facilities?
5. What recommendations may be offered to address the problems encountered
in the health and sanitation hygiene of the Divine Word College of Legazpi
Canteen along:
a. Food, and
b. Facilities?
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study focused on the sanitation hygiene of the Divine Word College
of Legazpi Canteen located at the main campus at Albay District Legazpi City as
perceived by the HM and BSN students. It specifically identified the facilities
installed at the Canteen, as well as, the type of food served. It likewise
determined the satisfaction level of the students along the food and facilities of
the mentioned canteen. In addition, it also identified problems encountered by
the students along the health and sanitation hygiene of the canteen and the
identification of possible recommendations to address the problems encountered.
The data necessary for the study were gathered from a total enumeration of the
HM and BSN students of Divine Word College of Legazpi. The HM and BSN
students were selected as respondents of this study since they are the ones who
understand better about sanitation and hygiene as well as food health and
preparations since it is part of their academic training in their field of
specialization; and the DWCL Canteen was chosen as the locale of the study
since it is where these students usually dine while they are within the school
premises and it is quite helpful knowing that the canteen in which they eat their
meals is healthy and well sanitized.Other areas not mentioned shall not be

included in the scope of the study and may be a subject of concern for future
studies that may be conducted in the same vein.
Significance of the Study
This study is deemed significant to the following stakeholders:
Legazpi City Health Office this study will be a valuable aid for the health and
sanitation campaign of the City Health Office of Legazpi on school canteens
operating within the vicinity of Legazpi.
Divine Word College of Legazpi this study will be of great value to the
institution since the level of satisfaction rating of the students may be made as a
springboard for further improvement in the health and sanitation aspect of the
DWCL Canteen when necessary.
DWCL Canteen Management this study may serve as a feedback mechanism
that can serve as a basis for further improvement in the services, food, and
facilities of the canteen in which they operate.
Parents of DWCL Students this study may serve as valuable source of
information to parents of DWCL students as to the type of food, facilities, health
and sanitation hygiene of the DWCL Canteen.
DWCL Students this study shall be vital information on the health and
sanitation hygiene of the food served and the facilities of the DWCL Canteen.
DWCL Nursing Students this study shall be a catalyst for the application of
the theories they have learned in the classroom setting by having a hands-on
case of determining sanitation and hygiene of a particular entity, such as the
DWCL Canteen.
DWCL HM Students this study shall be of help to them in understanding the
satisfaction level of customers regarding a food business, which most of them, it
not all shall engage in the future.
Future Researchers this study shall be a basis for future researches in the
same vein.
5

End Notes
1
2

http://www.scribd.com/doc/47463383/importance-of-canteen
http://foodsafety.com.au/resources/guides-how-tos/food-safety-for-schoolcanteens/

Brooks, Jill.L.. How safe are the foods were eating?. Banner Publishing House.
Michigan, USA. 2012

The Code on Sanitation of the Philippines. Presidential Decree 856. Department


of Health. Manila, Philippines. 1976. Reprinted 1998.

CHAPTER II
6

RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES


This chapter presents the review of literatures and studies deemed
relevant to this undertaking, the theoretical and conceptual frameworks and
paradigm, the synthesis of the art, gap to be bridged by the study, and the
definition of key terms used.
Related Literature
Food safety is especially important in schools since children can be more
susceptible to food borne illnesses. It is definitely true that kids need to learn how
to eat healthy at a young age for a better adulthood, but they also need to be
able to eat foods in canteens without illness.There are millions of cases of food
borne illnesses the world over each year. Anyone can become ill from illnesses
associated with bacteria or viruses in foods. Some groups are much more
susceptible: the elderly, those with immune compromising diseases, and
children. Kids can be especially in danger of food borne illness, so school
canteens must take extra precautions.1
Working in a school canteen means one need to keep food safety in mind
at all times. To begin with, hygiene plays a big role in how foods are kept safe for
children to eat. Washing both hands before and after preparing meals, and after
serving them are important. A few other hygiene steps that needs to be taken
include:never prepare food if one have been ill unless a medical clearance had
been issued;do not work while ill, especially if one have a food borne
illness;Never allow hair to hang over or touch foods.; it should be tied back or
secured with a net; use proper protective clothing that is clean; and, never reuse
dirty aprons. Personal hygiene is an important step toward food safety in the food

canteen. If you prepare foods while your hands are dirty or you are ill, then you
could be taking risks with the health of the children. 2
The second part of food safety in a school canteen is keeping the space
itself clean and free of bacteria. Never allow the room to become a habitat for
pests of any type. They spread germs and will be attracted to any foods that are
left out or open. Food safe pest control must be used, keep doors and windows
sealed and shut and dispose of garbage properly.Chopping boards should be
properly sanitized and cleaned before use. Never use the same chopping board
for meats and other foods like fruits and vegetables. Even if oneis chopping
vegetables of different types, you should clean and sanitize the board between
each use.
Food storage is extremely important. When foods are waiting for use, they
can be a breeding ground for bacteria if not stored properly. All items should be
kept in sealed containers and promptly refrigerated before they reach the
dangerous temperature zone.
In the refrigerator, the meats should be sealed carefully and always placed
on the bottom shelf. Meats should never be placed on a higher shelf where juices
could drip and contaminate other foods.Food that is meant to be hot should be
kept hot the whole time it is being served. Afterwards, it should be put in the
refrigerator for storage within two hours of when it started cooling down.Foods
that are meant to be cold should always be kept cold. In fact, any cold items like
sandwiches and milk should always be kept in a display that maintains a
temperature of five degrees Celsius or below
Any foods that are on display for self-service should either be packaged in
sealed wrapping or should have proper serving utensils such as tongs or spoons.

Students should never have reason to directly touch any food in order to transfer
it to their plate. Foods on display for self-service should be kept in the proper
heat or cold units throughout the time that they are available. Food should never
be left on a benchtop or in an environment with no temperature control. 3
Many people dont thoroughly understand how to defrost foods, especially
meats, and handling items the wrong way can result in bacteria growth. You have
a couple of different options for defrosting foods. The first rule of thumb is to
never ever defrost by placing the meats in a container of hot water. The outside
edges of the food will reach the danger zone while the center is still frozen. This
will result in a bacteria breeding ground. Instead, use one of these two methods:
Plan ahead and defrost in the refrigerator. This can take at least a day depending
on the weight of the meat. It is the ideal method of defrosting since it is the
safest, but the method does require planning ahead.Use the microwave to
defrost the food. If you do this, look for the defrost setting on the machine so that
it will thaw the meat properly.
Additionally, foods should never be defrostedby leaving them out on
benchtops at room temperature. This is an almost guaranteed way of breeding
bacteria, which will lead to food poisoning. 4A school canteen must be a clean and
safe environment. Children are quite susceptible to food borne illness and one
must take the proper steps to always ensure all foods are safe for consumption.
That means practicing safe personal hygiene for all staff members, knowing how
to properly store foods, how to keep foods at the proper temperatures, and how
to maintain cleanliness.
In the events following the opening of the 2013-14 school year in the
Philippines, the Department of Education (DepEd) discouraged the sale of

unhealthy foods in school canteens as classes in public schools. Medarda B.


Galarrita, DepEd-Northern Mindanao education program supervisor and regional
information officer, said children have been continually exposed to unhealthy or
junk food that are mostly sold in school canteens and even outside school
premises.Galarrita said most of the children now are diagnosed with diabetes,
obesity, high cholesterol intake and diarrhea, hepatitis and other forms of
ailments even at a young age because of what they eat and drink.She said
further that DepEd is now implementing rules to be observed by canteen owners
especially on prohibiting the selling of junk food, soda drinks and other unhealthy
foods within the period of the school year in order to protect the children from
various ailments and diseases.
DepEd may not penalize the canteen owners but should they violate the
rule, it will be used as grounds against them the next time they bid to operate in
schools.Galarrita encouraged canteen owners to design menus and to promote
food that will provide better health, nutrition and well-being of the pupils.She also
stressed that proper sanitation must be implemented at all times especially in the
handling of food to prevent the spread of food-borne diseases brought by dirty
food.Galaritta also advised parents to discourage giving their kids money as they
will be tempted to buy unsafe food outside the school premises. 5
In August of 2013, 17 students from Camarines Sur Polytechnic College
(CSPC) were reported of having experienced vomiting and diarrhea after having
eaten pansit from their school canteen. Although there were no fatalities but it
had threatened the lives of the students. 6In the same manner that the reported
case of food poisoning of 35 elementary pupils of Antipolo, Rizal in June of 2014

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was likewise associated with the eating of foods purchased from its school
canteen.7
Related Studies
In the study of Deanila8 on the sanitation and nutritional value of the sold
products in UNC canteen, the researchercame up with the following
observations.1.) There are only few choices of food for the students in the
cafeteria 2.) The facilities like tables, chairs, utensils and plates cannot
accommodate the large population of the students, and, 3.) Most of the students
eat their lunches in the 15 eateries outside the campus. It found out that although
the sold products in the canteen are at most nutritious but students chose to eat
off campus because the sold products in the canteen are quite expensive; and,
the students are moderately satisfied with the food and services of the canteen.
As a result, the study made the following recommendations: that the canteen
considers offering their sold products at affordable price, that the canteen should
provide additional tables and chairs to accommodate more students.
In the 2012 study of Armada et al. 9 which focused on the patronizing of St.
Therese MTC-Colleges La Fiesta Canteen in Iloilo City, it was found out that the
students are very satisfied with the food and services of the mentioned canteen
for the following reasons: a.) the food are healthy, clean and nutritious; b.) the
canteen is spacious enough to accommodate its customers; c.) the utensils,
tables, chairs and

environment are clean and comfortable; d.) the staff are

courteous and customer-friendly; and, the food are served always fresh. It
concluded that the satisfaction of the students are related to the quality of food
being served, the ambience, facilities and staff.

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Solano et al.10 studied the sanitation practices of selected high school


canteens in Poblacion, Nasugbu, Batangas. It focused on the processes on how
the canteen manager, canteen staff work, perform their functions and apply
sanitation in the school canteen to achieve effective efficient and healthy food
production and services. The profile of the school canteen in term of operating
capacity, manpower requirements and facilities, the level of compliance of the
selected private and public school sanitation in terms of personal hygiene,
cleaning, etc., were likewise subject of the studys inquiry. It found out that most
of the canteens have a common practice in terms of food storage, preparation
and compliance to the sanitation standards of the Code of Sanitation of the
Philippines, save for some minor differences. Among the similarities are: a.) Daily
purchase of fresh ingredients for the meals served everyday; b.) Cleaning
practices such as, proper washing of tools, utensils and the food that are served;
c.) Daily cleanup of the entire canteen especially the floors, tables, chairs, etc.;
and, d.) the existence of a fire exit and fire extinguishers in case of fire. Among
the notable differences are: a.) the space occupied by the canteens; and, b.)
renewal of the permit for operation (some have not yet renewed their expired
permits). It concluded that the selected school canteens have passed the
sanitation requirements of the Sanitation Code of the Philippines; the foods
served are in accordance with the sanitation guidelines; and the food storage and
preparation are satisfactory.
In Obligacions11 case study, on the level of health and sanitation of the
school canteen of St. Raphael Academy High School in Legazpi City, it found out
that St. Raphael Academys school canteen has a high level of health and
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sanitation. This high level of health and sanitation is manifested through the
following: a.) compliance to the implemented health and sanitation guidelines of
the City Health Office of Legazpi; b.) quality of food stored, prepared, and served
by the canteen; and, c.) friendliness and customer centered service adopted by
the canteen. It recommended that school canteens among High School
institutions in Legazpi City in particular must make St. Raphael Academys
canteen a role model to be followed in terms of health and sanitation. It further
suggested that studies in the same concern must be undertaken especially
among college level canteens in Legazpi City.
Marollanos12 study focused on the quality of food sold along high school
premises in Legazpi City. It centered its study on the food vendors along the
premises of Legazpi High School, Pagasa National High School and Daraga
High School. It found out that food vendors located on the mentioned locales are
lacking proper food health and safety precautions in terms of food storage and
preparations. The following are the observed shortcomings of the food vendors:
a.) lack of proper storage area for the food being prepared and sold; b.) Lack of
proper coverings on the cooked food sold to patrons; c.) utensils are not cleaned
properly after every use; d.) practice of re-using materials in cooking such as
cooking oil, etc.; and, d.) lack of proper sanitary tools in preparing and cooking
food such as gloves, chopping boards, etc. It concluded that foods prepared and
served by the mentioned vendors may lack good hygiene and its health and
nutritional value are likely diminished. The study suggested that the concerned
food vendors should be required by the local government concerned to secure

13

necessary permit for operation; and that a regular sanitation inspection be


conducted by the local government unit.
Synthesis of the Art
The review of related studies revealed that there were prior studies
conducted that dealt with the same area of concern as of this present
undertaking. All the studies cited have their own unique contribution in shedding
light to the issue of health and sanitation of school canteens in some parts of the
country in general and in Legazpi City in particular.

Most of the cited studies

concerned themselves with the food, services and satisfaction rating of students
on the canteens which are the subject of their studies. Some of the studies
confined themselves to the determination of health and sanitation on food
preparation, management practices of canteen, a case study on the level of
satisfaction of high school students, and on the quality of food sold by vendors
along the school perimeter of some high school institutions. All of the studies
provided valuable information in the understanding of the issue of health and
sanitation of foods concerning students in schools whether within or outside the
school premises. This present undertaking offers another perspective of the
same issue by determining the level of satisfaction of students to a particular
canteen operating within the school premises, that is, the Divine Word College of
Legazpi Canteen, it likewise focused on the determination of problems or
inconveniences encountered by the students as well as, the determination of
possible solutions to address the problems. This is the area that this present
study wishes to provide contribution to the issue herein presented. It is what this
study strives to synthesize.
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Gaps Bridged by the Study


In the desire to make this study unique from all other previously conducted
studies, a review of studies relevant to this undertaking was instituted. The
studies were evaluated according to its focus, findings and conclusions that
contributed for a better understanding of the issue which is also the concern of
this present undertaking.
The studies conducted by Deanila conducted at the UNC-Naga Canteen
and Obligacion which was a case study conducted at St. Raphael AcademyLegazpi canteen both focused on the level of satisfaction of students on the
health and sanitation of the food and services offered by the respective canteens.
They differ in some respects however, such as Obligacions was a case study
and determined the level of health and sanitation in accordance with the
sanitation guidelines of the City Health Office of Legazpi, whereas Deanilas
study included determination of the nutritional value of the foods sold as well as
the accommodation capability of the facilities of the UNC canteen. On the other
hand, the studies conducted by Armada et al. and Solano et al., focused on the
health and sanitation value of the foods in the canteen as well as management
practices adopted in the canteen that are the subject of their respective inquiry.
Moreover, Marollanos study inquired on the quality of food sold along high
school premises in Legazpi City.
All the studies mentioned are related to this study in the sense that they all
focus on health, sanitation, level of satisfaction, and quality of foods offered in the
canteens or other locations selling food to students. However, no studies were
yet conducted, especially in the City of Legazpi that focused on the health and
15

sanitation hygiene, and level of satisfaction of the students in college instituions


in Legazpi City, especially in Divine Word College of Legazpi. This is the gap that
this study wishes to bridge.
Theoretical Framework of the Study
This study is anchored on Robert Dahl's 13constructive response theory.
The theory states that in every action that people do that affects other individuals
there is always a corresponding response from the receiver of the action. The
response may be any of the following: favorable,unfavorable or neutral.
Favorable response is expressed through praise, expression of satisfaction or
delight, unfavorable response is manifested through indifference, disgust,
condemnation, sarcasm or expression of dissatisfaction, and neutral response is
expressed through apathy, or utter disregard for the act. In any case however,
favorable, unfavorable or neutral, the doer of the action should not take the
response as a negation, rejection or destruction of the action (in cases of
unfavorable response) but it has to be taken constructively as a catalyst for
improving the action. Applying the same in business ventures, customer
comments good or bad should be taken as a constructive means to improve
goods or services in order to attain a satisfactory response from the customers.
This theory is deemed fit for this study, in the sense that, whatever level of
satisfaction the students may manifest towards the health and sanitation hygiene
of the DWCL canteen, shall be a rallying point for initiating improvements in the
canteen whether in terms of food being served or on the facilities available in the
canteen. Especially if there will be a satisfaction level that is beyond what is
expected (i.e. a not so favorable feedback), then it shall be a great help in
16

advancing further improvements in the canteen. Figure 1 illustrates the


theoretical paradigm of thestudy.

ACTION

RECEIVER
FEEDBACK

Figure 1. The Theoretical Paradigm of the Study


Conceptual Framework of the Study
The concern for the health and safety of students in buying food at school
and the issues on food safety as reported
on news media every now and then
RESPONSE
spawned the conceptualization of this study. That it may serve as a catalyst for
analysis regarding regulations on food safety and on policies that may be
enacted in the future, and on the health and sanitation of the food itself being
served to students in school canteens.The Divine Word College of Legazpi
(DWCL) Canteen shall be made as a focal point of study. This study will
FAVORABLE
particularly determine
the facilities of NEUTRAL
the DWCL CanteenUNFAVORABLE
and the type of food

usually served to its customers, the students. It shall likewise delve into the level
of satisfaction of the students on the health and sanitation hygiene of the food
17

and facilities of the DWCL Canteen. Moreover, problems that may be


encountered shall also be identified, as well as, the determination of possible
solutions to the problems encountered. In such a way, this study shall serve as a
feedback mechanism for further improvement when necessary to the DWCL
Canteen along food and facilities. Figure 2 illustrates the conceptual paradigm of
the study.

INPUT

DWCL CANTEEN

FOOD

FACILITIES

PROCESS

STUDENTS LEVEL OF SATISFACTION

Figure 1. The Conceptual Paradigm of the Study


PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED

Definition of Terms
For purposes of clarity, some key concepts of the study are herein defined

OUTPUT

both conceptually and operationally.

RECOMMENDED SOLUTIONS TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED


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Canteen refers to a place where food, drinks and small supplies are sold and
served in places of work, school, etc. In this study, it refers to the DWCL College
Canteen.
Health refers to the general condition or state of being sound of a thing, person
or entity. In this study, it refers to the state or condition of the food and facilities of
the DWCL College Canteen.
Hygiene refers to the condition or practices of cleanliness conducive to health.
In this study, it refers to the condition of cleanliness of the food and facilities of
the DWCL College Canteen.
Facilities refers to anything that is built, installed or established to serve a
particular purpose. In this study, it refers to the DWCL College Canteen and
everything within that are used to carry out its function, such as table, chairs,
floor, ventilation, counters, utensils, etc.
Food refers to anything edible that nourishes and sustains the health of living
organisms. In this study, it refers to the edibles that is sold and served at the
DWCL College Canteen.
Level of satisfaction refers to the degree of gratification or fulfillment by an
individual over a particular thing, situation or phenomenon. In this study, it refers
to the degree of gratification of fulfillment of the students of the DWCL on the
food and facilities of the DWCL College Canteen which is classified as Very
Unsatisfactory, Unsatisfactory, Slightly Satisfactory, Moderately Satisfactory, and,
Very Satisfactory.
Sanitation refers to the promotion of hygiene and prevention of disease by
maintenance of sanitary conditions. In this study, it refers to the maintenance of
sanitary condition of the food and facilities of the DWCL College Canteen.

19

End Notes
1

Annual Report 2013. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural


Organization (UNESCO). Retrieved from
http://www.unescoau.org/report/2013.html. 14 July 2014.

Guide to food safety for school canteens. Industry Education Australia Pty Ltd.
Retrieved
from
http://www.foodsafety.com.au/resources/guides-howtos/food-safety-for-school-canteens/. 15 July 2014.

Brooks, Jill L. How safe are the foods were eating?. Banner Publishing House.
Michigan, USA.2012.

Hall, Bradley K. Storing Food Efficiently. Fairmont Printers. Toronto, ON.2011.

Managbanag, Julian L. Unhealthy foods discouraged in schools. Retrieved from


http://www.sunstar.com.ph/cagayan-de-oro/localnews/2013/05/31/unhealthy-food-discouraged-schools-285080. 14 July
2012.

Rima, Mel B. 17 students suffered food poisoning. The Bicol Guardian. Issue
No. 67. Vol. 10. August 11, 2013.

TV Patrol World. (2014). ABS-CBN Broadcasting Network. Quezon City. June 6,


2014.
20

Deanila, Wennie Gale S. Sanitation and nutritional value of the sold products at
the UNC Canteen. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. University of Nueva
Caceres College of Nursing, Naga City.2011.

Armada, John P., Guilab, Karlon M., Guingon, Jeany B., & Robles, Esther J.
Patronizing of St. Therese MTC La Fiesta College Canteen. Unpublished
Undergraduate Thesis. College of Business, Administration and
Management, St. Therese MTC Colleges, La Fiesta Site Molo, Iloilo
City.2012.

10

Solano, Chloe H. Medrano, Daniel A., &Alas, Polymir M., Sanitation Practices
in Selected High School Canteens in Poblacion, Nasugbu, Batangas.
Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. College of Accountancy, Business,
Economics and International Hospitality Management. Batangas State
University, Nasugbu, Batangas.2012.

11

Obligacion, Kenny P. The Level of Health and Sanitation of the School Canteen
of St. Raphael Academy High School in Legazpi City, A Case Study.
Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. College of Nursing and Health
Sciences, Aquinas University of Legazpi, Rawis, Legazpi City.2011.

12

Marollano, Charles John M. The Quality of Food Sold Along High School
Premises in Legazpi City. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. Bicol
University College of Nursing, Bicol University, Legazpi City.2013.

13

Dahl, Robert B. Modern Political Analysis 10 th Edition. Prentice-Hall Publishing.


New York, USA.1998.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the methods and procedures that wereused in this
study. It includes the research design, source of data, data gathering procedures,
population of the study and research instrument. It also describes the research
instruments and treatment of the data.

Research Design and Methodology


The descriptive-survey methodologywas used in this study. Descriptive
method is defined as descriptive research, also known as statistical research; it
describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being
studied. The description was used for frequencies, averages and other statistical

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calculations in order to utilize the gathered data in describing, characterizing and


providing a thorough picture of the level of satisfaction of the students on the
sanitation and hygiene of the DWCL College Canteen, problems encountered
and recommended solutions to problems. Often the best approach, prior to
writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. The researcher
soughtthe cooperation of the DWCL students in answering the survey
questionnaire that helped the researcher in making a valid conclusion for the
study.

Sources of Data
The data for this study were deduced from both primary and secondary
sources. The primary data utilized in this study were gathered from the actual
responses to the questionnaire by the respondents which were the BSN and HM
students of DWCL. Other data have been obtained from secondary sources,
which comprised of documents derived from books, journals, published
materials, newspapers, websites, theses and other related sources.

Respondents of the study


The respondents of the study were the DWCL BSN and HM students.
Since the number of the mentioned students is small and manageable, the

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researcher opted for a total enumeration of all 455 HM and 36 BSN students
which summed up to 491 respondents combined.

Research Instrument
In order to meet the objectives of this research, the researcher used
asurvey questionnaire. The questionnaire is composed of four (4) parts. The first
part consist of the identification of the facilities of the DWCL Canteen; the second
part consist of the identification of the food usually served at the DWCL Canteen;
the third part consist of the determination of the students level of satisfaction of
on the health and sanitation of the mentioned canteen; and the fourth part consist
of the identification of the problems encountered by the respondents on the
health and sanitation of the DWCL Canteen. The recommended solutions to
address the problems encountered were not included in the questionnaire since
the data for this item were provided by the researcher based on the problems
encountered provided by the respondents. Upon approval of the thesis adviser
and panel of evaluators for this study, the survey questionnaire was employed to
the sample respondents, which were collated, presented, and analyzed for the
purpose of this study.

Validation of the Research Instrument

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In order to ensure that the research instrument cater to the data necessary
for this study, before it will be employed to the actual respondents the research
instrument was validated or employed to the students of DWCL, which were not
part of the actual respondents of this undertaking. The sample respondents for
validation consisted of 25 students each from the colleges of Arts and Sciences;
Education; Business Education; and Engineering, which summed up to 100
combined. Any suggestions or insights provided by the validation respondents
will all considered in the final revision of the research instrument.
Data Gathering Procedure
Upon approval of the adviser and panel of evaluators, the researcher
communicated to the President of DWCL and to the DWCL Canteen
management for courtesy regarding the study in progress. The researcher then
proceeded to the administration of the research instrument to the sample
respondents, which were done through a room to room visitation until all
respondents were accounted for. The data collected were presented in tabular
form and analyzed in this study.

Statistical Treatment
To establish the quantitative integrity of the data and to properly interpret it,
the study used the following statistical tools;

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1. Frequency - wasused in counting the responses of the respondents from


the retrieved questionnaires.
2. Percentagewas used to determine the proportion of a part of the group
for every hundred part of the whole. It was useful in determining the
scores obtained by the respondents in relation to the number of items.
3. Weighted Mean was used to determine the level of satisfaction of the
respondents on the health and sanitation hygiene of the DWCL Canteen.
Weighted Mean demonstrated the general tendency or commonality of
responses along the 5-point scale. The researcher determined the weighted
mean through the formula presented herein being:
F5 (5) + F4 (4) + F3 (3) + F2 (2) +F1 (1)
F5+F4+ F3 + F2 + F1

WM =

Where:
WM= weighted mean
F1= frequency of the respondents who answeredVery Unsatisfactory
F2= frequency of the respondents who answered Unsatisfactory
F3= frequency of the respondents who answered Slightly Satisfactory
F4 = frequency of the respondents who answered Moderately Satisfactory
F5 = frequency of the respondents who answered Very Satisfactory
For the verbal interpretation of data, the findings on the mean responses
will be verbally interpreted for discussion purposes using the following scale.
Figure 3. The 5-point Scale Used in the Study

SCALE

RANGE

DESCRIPTION
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INTERPRETATION

4.50-5.00

Very Satisfactory

81-100% fulfilment
or gratification

3.50-4.49

Moderately
Satisfactory

61-80% fulfilment
or gratification

2.50-3.49

Slightly Satisfactory

41-60 % fulfilment
or gratification

1.50-2.49

Unsatisfactory

21-40% fulfilment or
gratification

1.00-1.49

Very Unsatisfactory

1-20% fulfilment or
gratification

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