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Thick-Walled Cylinders

(Notes,3.14)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
Y. Zhu

Thick-Wall Cylinders

Cylinders (3.14)
r

ri

pi

po

ro

l
r

Applications
pi = 0

Submarine
Vacuum chamber
Shrink fit
Buried pipe

po = 0

Gun barrel
Liquid- or gas-carrying pipe
Hydraulic cylinder
Gas storage tank

Thick-Wall Cylinders

Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels (Review)


pri
t
t

(hoop stress)

pri
l
2t

(longitudinal stress)

t
ri
p

For a thin-walled pressure vessel, ri/t > 10,


so hoop stress (t) variation in the radial
direction is minimal

ro

Radial stress (r) is equal to -p on the inner surface, zero on


the outer surface, and varies in between.

r is negligible compared to t.
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Thick-Wall Cylinders

Thick-Walled Cylinders (3.14)


For thick-walled pressure vessels

pi r i po ro r i ro ( po pi ) / r
ro 2 ri 2
2

pi r i 2 po ro 2 r i 2 ro 2 ( po pi ) / r 2
t
ro 2 ri 2

ri
po

pi

ro

1
2

Maximum shear stress max ( t r )

If the ends of the cylinder are capped, must include


longitudinal stress.
pi r i 2 po ro 2
l
ro 2 ri 2

Thick-Wall Cylinders

Thick-Walled Cylinders

Examples of closed cylinders include pressure vessels and


submarines.
Examples of open cylinders include gun barrels and shrink fits.

Radial displacement of a thick-walled cylinder

1 (ri 2 pi ro 2 po )r 1 ( pi po )ri 2 ro 2
ur

2
2
E
ro ri
E
(ro 2 ri 2 )r
E Young's modulus

Poisson's ratio

Thick-Wall Cylinders

ur

Thick-Walled Cylinders (3.14)

Special case: Internal pressure only (po = 0)


r i 2 pi ro 2
r i 2 pi ro 2
r 2 2 1 2 & t 2 2 1 2
ro ri r
ro ri
r

ri
pi

ro

( r ) max pi @ r ri
( t ) max

(ri 2 ro 2 )
pi 2 2 @ r ri
(ro ri )

2
2
pi r i r
ro
ur
(1 ) (1 ) 2
2
2
r
E (ro ri )

(ur ) r ri

pr
ii
E

ro 2 ri 2

r r2
i

o
2

(u r ) r ro
6

2 pi ri ro

2
2
E (ro ri )
Thick-Wall Cylinders

t/pi

Thick-Walled Cylinders

Compare previous result with thin-walled pressure vessel case


(po = 0)
(ri 2 ro 2 )
t pi 2 2 @ r ri
(ro ri )
ro ri t
t ro ri
ri 2 (ri t ) 2
(ri 2 ro 2 )
pi
t pi
(ro ri )(ro ri )
(ri t ri )t
for t ri (thin walled)
ri ri
2r
pi i
t pi
(2ri )t
(2ri )t
2

t
7

pi ri
(inside)
t
Thick-Wall Cylinders

ri
pi

ro

Thick-Walled Cylinders

Continued
2 pi ri 2
t 2 2 @ r ro
(ro ri )
ro ri t
t ro ri
2 pi ri 2
2 pi ri 2

t
(ro ri )(ro ri ) (ri t ri )t
for t ri (thin walled)
2 pi ri 2
t
(2ri )t
pi ri
(outside)
t
t same on inside and outside

ri
pi

ro

Thick-Wall Cylinders

Thick-Walled Cylinders

Special case: External pressure only (pi = 0)


r o 2 po ri 2
r o 2 po ri 2
r 2 2 2 1 & t 2 2 1 2
ro ri r
ro ri r

( r ) max po @ r ro
( t ) max

2 po ro 2
2 2 @ r ri
(ro ri )

2
2
po r o r
ri
ur
(1 ) (1 ) 2
2
2
r
E (ro ri )
2

(ur ) r ri
(ur ) r ro
9

pr
o o
E

2 po ro ri
2
2
E (ro ri )

(ro 2 ri 2 )

(r r 2 )
i

o
Thick-Wall Cylinders

ri
po

ro

Example 1
Find the tangential, radial, and longitudinal stress for a pipe with
an outer diameter of 5 inches, wall thickness of 0.5 inches, and
internal pressure of 4000 psi.

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Thick-Wall Cylinders

Example 2
Find the maximum allowable internal pressure for a pipe with
outer radius of 3 inches and wall thickness of 0.25 inches if the
maximum allowable shear stress is 4000 psi.

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Thick-Wall Cylinders

Press and Shrink Fits


(3.16)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
Y. Zhu

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Press and Shrink Fits

Press and Shrink Fits (3.16)


Press together or
shrink inner
ri
p

uri

Inner member (external


pressure only)

R
uro

ro

Outer member (internal


pressure only)

Assume inner member has slightly larger outer radius than


inner radius of outer member.
R is the shared radius between the two pieces before they are
pressed together.
Interference pressure will develop upon assembly.
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Press and Shrink Fits

Press and Shrink Fits (3.16)

pR R 2 ri 2
uri
2 2 i (inner)
Ei R ri

pR ro 2 R 2
uro
o (outer)
2
2
Eo ro R

For compatibility
uro uri
1 ro 2 R 2
1
pR 2

o
2
Ei
Eo ro R

R 2 ri 2

2 2 i
R ri

Once is known we can calculate p, or vice versa.


Typically, is very small, approximately 0.001 in. or less.

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Press and Shrink Fits

Press and Shrink Fits (3.16)

If the materials are the same:

E = Ei = Eo
= i = o

2 pR 3

(ro 2 ri 2 )
2
2
2
2
(
r
R
)(
R
r

i )
o

If the inner member is not hollow, ri = 0.

2 pR ro 2

2
2
E (ro R )

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Press and Shrink Fits

Example 3
A solid shaft is to be press fit into a gear hub. Find the maximum
stresses in the shaft and the hub. Both are made of carbon steel
(E = 30x106 psi, = 0.3).
Solid

ri = 0 in, R = 0.5 in. (nominal)


Tolerances: +2.3x10-3/+1.8x10-3 in.

Gear

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shaft

hub

R = 0.5 in. (nominal), ro = 1 in


Tolerances: +0.8x10-3/0 in.

Press and Shrink Fits

Example 4
A bronze bushing 50 mm in outer diameter and 30 mm in inner
diameter is to be pressed into a hollow steel cylinder of 100 mm
outer diameter. Determine the tangential stresses for the steel
and bronze at the boundary between the two parts.
Eb

= 105 Gpa
Es = 210 Gpa
= 0.5
radial interference = 0.025 mm

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Press and Shrink Fits