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(Notes,3.14)

MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components

Y. Zhu

Thick-Wall Cylinders

Cylinders (3.14)

r

ri

pi

po

ro

l

r

Applications

pi = 0

Submarine

Vacuum chamber

Shrink fit

Buried pipe

po = 0

Gun barrel

Liquid- or gas-carrying pipe

Hydraulic cylinder

Gas storage tank

Thick-Wall Cylinders

pri

t

t

(hoop stress)

pri

l

2t

(longitudinal stress)

t

ri

p

so hoop stress (t) variation in the radial

direction is minimal

ro

the outer surface, and varies in between.

r is negligible compared to t.

3

Thick-Wall Cylinders

For thick-walled pressure vessels

pi r i po ro r i ro ( po pi ) / r

ro 2 ri 2

2

pi r i 2 po ro 2 r i 2 ro 2 ( po pi ) / r 2

t

ro 2 ri 2

ri

po

pi

ro

1

2

longitudinal stress.

pi r i 2 po ro 2

l

ro 2 ri 2

Thick-Wall Cylinders

Thick-Walled Cylinders

submarines.

Examples of open cylinders include gun barrels and shrink fits.

1 (ri 2 pi ro 2 po )r 1 ( pi po )ri 2 ro 2

ur

2

2

E

ro ri

E

(ro 2 ri 2 )r

E Young's modulus

Poisson's ratio

Thick-Wall Cylinders

ur

r i 2 pi ro 2

r i 2 pi ro 2

r 2 2 1 2 & t 2 2 1 2

ro ri r

ro ri

r

ri

pi

ro

( r ) max pi @ r ri

( t ) max

(ri 2 ro 2 )

pi 2 2 @ r ri

(ro ri )

2

2

pi r i r

ro

ur

(1 ) (1 ) 2

2

2

r

E (ro ri )

(ur ) r ri

pr

ii

E

ro 2 ri 2

r r2

i

o

2

(u r ) r ro

6

2 pi ri ro

2

2

E (ro ri )

Thick-Wall Cylinders

t/pi

Thick-Walled Cylinders

(po = 0)

(ri 2 ro 2 )

t pi 2 2 @ r ri

(ro ri )

ro ri t

t ro ri

ri 2 (ri t ) 2

(ri 2 ro 2 )

pi

t pi

(ro ri )(ro ri )

(ri t ri )t

for t ri (thin walled)

ri ri

2r

pi i

t pi

(2ri )t

(2ri )t

2

t

7

pi ri

(inside)

t

Thick-Wall Cylinders

ri

pi

ro

Thick-Walled Cylinders

Continued

2 pi ri 2

t 2 2 @ r ro

(ro ri )

ro ri t

t ro ri

2 pi ri 2

2 pi ri 2

t

(ro ri )(ro ri ) (ri t ri )t

for t ri (thin walled)

2 pi ri 2

t

(2ri )t

pi ri

(outside)

t

t same on inside and outside

ri

pi

ro

Thick-Wall Cylinders

Thick-Walled Cylinders

r o 2 po ri 2

r o 2 po ri 2

r 2 2 2 1 & t 2 2 1 2

ro ri r

ro ri r

( r ) max po @ r ro

( t ) max

2 po ro 2

2 2 @ r ri

(ro ri )

2

2

po r o r

ri

ur

(1 ) (1 ) 2

2

2

r

E (ro ri )

2

(ur ) r ri

(ur ) r ro

9

pr

o o

E

2 po ro ri

2

2

E (ro ri )

(ro 2 ri 2 )

(r r 2 )

i

o

Thick-Wall Cylinders

ri

po

ro

Example 1

Find the tangential, radial, and longitudinal stress for a pipe with

an outer diameter of 5 inches, wall thickness of 0.5 inches, and

internal pressure of 4000 psi.

10

Thick-Wall Cylinders

Example 2

Find the maximum allowable internal pressure for a pipe with

outer radius of 3 inches and wall thickness of 0.25 inches if the

maximum allowable shear stress is 4000 psi.

11

Thick-Wall Cylinders

(3.16)

MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components

Y. Zhu

12

Press together or

shrink inner

ri

p

uri

pressure only)

R

uro

ro

pressure only)

inner radius of outer member.

R is the shared radius between the two pieces before they are

pressed together.

Interference pressure will develop upon assembly.

13

pR R 2 ri 2

uri

2 2 i (inner)

Ei R ri

pR ro 2 R 2

uro

o (outer)

2

2

Eo ro R

For compatibility

uro uri

1 ro 2 R 2

1

pR 2

o

2

Ei

Eo ro R

R 2 ri 2

2 2 i

R ri

Typically, is very small, approximately 0.001 in. or less.

14

E = Ei = Eo

= i = o

2 pR 3

(ro 2 ri 2 )

2

2

2

2

(

r

R

)(

R

r

i )

o

2 pR ro 2

2

2

E (ro R )

15

Example 3

A solid shaft is to be press fit into a gear hub. Find the maximum

stresses in the shaft and the hub. Both are made of carbon steel

(E = 30x106 psi, = 0.3).

Solid

Tolerances: +2.3x10-3/+1.8x10-3 in.

Gear

16

shaft

hub

Tolerances: +0.8x10-3/0 in.

Example 4

A bronze bushing 50 mm in outer diameter and 30 mm in inner

diameter is to be pressed into a hollow steel cylinder of 100 mm

outer diameter. Determine the tangential stresses for the steel

and bronze at the boundary between the two parts.

Eb

= 105 Gpa

Es = 210 Gpa

= 0.5

radial interference = 0.025 mm

17

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