as for AIRSHIP sealed double Drawing

example, one p a t t e r n e d a f t e r t h e B Z U - a pressure and r i g i d d e s i g n having d i a p h r a g m - t y p e compartments and a wall outer h u l l . (See accompanying of t h e p r o f i l e of a i r s h i p . )

i n a gondola o u t s i d e of t h e main h u l l , i.e. The g o n d o l a i s t h e f l o o r i s a t ground l e v e l . made of a K e v l a r s k i n o v e r a Nomex honeycomb c o r e . The gondola i s f a s t e n e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e bulkhead s e a l e d diaphragm. The c e i l i n g o f t h e gondola i s a l s o made of a f i r e r e s i s t a n t honeycomb c o r e o f "Fire-Lam". I t e x t e n d s o u t beyond t h e e n t i r e p e r i m e t e r of t h e g o n d o l a (see figure). B e c a u s e of i t s h i g h p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s i n a l l directions, i t is a l s o a s t r u c t u r a l part b e t w e e n t h e h e a v y gondola and t h e l i f t i n g hull. I t s exceedingly high f i r e r e t a r d a n t p r o p e r t i e s a c t a s an umbrella holding out hydrogen f l a m e s l o n g e n o u g h f o r them t o b u r n out. The g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e of a n a i r s h i p i s t o f l y a t about 2,000 f e e t above ground l e v e l . I f f i r e b r e a k s o u t a t t h a t level, the descent need n o t be d i s a s t r o u s . There i s time t o dump f u e l and cargo. I n t h e f i n a l c r a s h , remember t h e It w i l l s t r u c t u r e a c t s much l i k e a b a s k e t . b o u n c e o n i m p a c t and n o t d i s i n t e g r a t e l i k e a n a i r p l a n e . At t h i s p o i n t t h e f i r e w i l l b e o u t and t h e r e w i l l no f u e l t o s p r a y over t h e survivors

The v e n t i l a t e d d o u b l e e n v e l o p e c u t s down o n s u p e r h e a t i n g o f t h e l i f t i n g g a s , which p r o v i d e s f o r l e s s e x p a n s i o n and t h e r e f o r e a l l o w s a h i g h e r l i f t i n g g a s volume, which i n t u r n o f f s e t s t h e a d d e d w e i g h t of t h e second envelope.
at
I

11

I 11~

.

A i r e n t e r s t h e d o u b l e e n v e l o p e space A11 ( s e e f i g u r e ) a n d l e a v e s t h e r e a r a t A t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e a t "A" s t a r t s a i r

movement r e a r w a r d l y , a n d a s e c o n d a r y s l i g h t s u c t i o n f r o m t h e r e a r a x i s p r o p e l l e r removes i t t o t h e atmosphere. The r e a r a x i s main p r o p e l l e r should be powered by a n h y d r a u l i c m o t o r , whose p r i m a r y e n e r g y s o u r c e i s a hydrogen f u e l e d combustion e n g i n e i n t h e gondola, which i n t u r n a c t i v a t e s t h e h y d r a u l i c pump. T h i s system removes any lingering hydrogen between t h e h u l l s . The r e a r a x i s m o t o r h a s no h o t e x h a u s t p i p e s t o i g n i t e any t r a c e hydrogen. The diaphragms a r e o f K e v l a r a n d s e a l e d t o t h e i n n e r envelope ( s e e f i g u r e ) . They have f i r e r e t a r d a n t p r o p e r t i e s .

.

TECTION ,SYSTEM Because of t h e hazardous n a t u r e of h y d r o g e n , p r o v i s i o n s c a n b e made f o r a g a s d e t e c t i o n system s i m i l a r t o t h a t used w i t h t h e Space S h u t t l e e x t e r n a l t a n k . During f l i g h t a m a s s s p e c t r o m e t e r i n t h e p i l o t a r e a w i l l be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h " s n i f f e r " l i n e s v i a 114" t u b e s and a vacuum pump. The system w i l l s e n s e t h e p a r t s - p e r - m i l l i o n p r e s e n c e of Hz and 02. T h e s e l i n e s w i l l f a n o u t from t h e gondola t o a l l c r i t i c a l areas.
I t t a k e s f o u r p e r c e n t oxygen i n t h e hydrogen t o become dangerous. The s y s t e m w i l l be a b l e t o d e t e c t oxygen i n t h e hydrogen c e l l s , and t h e e n t i r e arrangement w i l l w e i g h a l i t t l e o v e r one hundred pounds.

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GONDOLA

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One o f t h e d e s i g n f a u l t s o f t h e Hindenburg was t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e p a s s e n g e r area. The f l o o r was a b o u t t w e l v e f e e t above t h e lower p e r i m e t e r of t h e a i r s h i p ; a l o n g way t o jump i f y o u a r e n o t s i x t e e n y e a r s o l d . S e p a r a t i n g o n e s head and t h e hydrogen c e l l was o n l y a t h i n f a b r i c membrane. In this a r r a n g e m e n t , e v e n o n t h e g r o u n d , f i r e would g e t t o you q u i c k l y . I n a r e c e n t e x p e r i m e n t by Ciba-Geigy o n Nomax honeycomb p a n e l s c a l l e d "Fire-Lam", cube. t h e p a n e l s were assembled i n a n 8'x8'x8' I n s i d e w e r e aluminum c o t s w i t h b e d d i n g a n d clothes. I t was s a t u r a t e d w i t h n a p h t h a and lighted. The r e s u l t i n g f i r e m e l t e d t h e aluminum i n t h r e e m i n u t e s , and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e was r e g i s t e r e d a t 2000°F. However, i t took 1 4 t o 23 m i n u t e s t o b u r n t h r o u g h t h e p a n e l s . All you n e e d i s f i v e m i n u t e s f o r t h e hydrogen a i r s h i p t o burn o u t , and t h e p e o p l e a r e s a f e from f i r e burns.
I weighed a sample of t h e s e p a n e l s , a n d i t came o u t t o 1 2 o z . p e r s q . f t . The e x t r a l i f t o f h y d r o g e n o v e r helium would more t h a n o f f s e t t h i s e x t r a w e i g h t . B e s i d e s , Nomex honeycomb i s a g r e a t i n s u l a t o r a g a i n s t A r c t i c c o l d and Amazon h e a t .

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HELIUM

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COSTS

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I n t h e U.S., h e l i u m c a n be p l a c e d o n t h e job s i t e f o r a n a v e r a g e of $50.00 p e r thousand cu. f t . T h i s c o s t includes a short term l e a s e o n p r e s s u r i z e d c o n t a i n e r s . When t h e s e c o n t a i n e r s a r e t r u c k e d t o a U.S. p o r t , t h e n loaded o n a f r e i g h t e r and s e n t t o a n o t h e r c o n t i n e n t , and a g a i n r e l o a d e d on a t r u c k t o f i n a l destination, the cost i s staggering. A f t e r t h e tanks a r e used, they a r e shipped empty a t t h e same c o s t back t o Texas. I n many p l a c e s t h e t o t a l c o s t of helium, t a n k r e n t a l a n d f r e i g h t comes t o $500.00 p e r t h o u s a n d c u . f t . To f i l l a n a i r s h i p t h e s i z e o f a Goodyear b l i m p c o s t s $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 a n n u a l l y , because t h e r e i s a l s o a g r e a t d e a l of h e l i u m l o s s j u s t t h r o u g h t h e

I n t h e B U Z AIRSHIP, t h e p a s s e n g e r quarters, a s well a s t h e crew, a r e c o n t a i n e d

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