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The

Role of
Public
Health
and
Social
Care in
UK
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document. Type the abstract of the document here. The
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Contents
Introduction................................................................................................................ 1
LO 1 Understand different strategies and approaches used to measure, monitor, and
control the incidence of disease in communities........................................................1
1.1 Explain the roles of different agencies in identifying levels of health and
disease in communities........................................................................................... 1
1.2 Epidemiology of infectious diseases and non infectious diseases:....................2
1.3 evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches and strategies to control
the incidence of disease in communities.................................................................2
LO 2 investigate the implications of illness and diseases communities for the
provision of health and social care service.................................................................3
2.1 Asses government health priorities since 2010.................................................3
2.2 Explain the implications of obesity or diabetes on the National Health Service
provision.................................................................................................................. 4
2.3 Discuss the connection between obesity and lifestyle choices and evaluate
factors influencing priorities for the future health and care provision at national
level........................................................................................................................ 4
LO3 Understanding the factors influencing health and well being of individuals I
health or social care setting....................................................................................... 5
3.1 The health and wellbeing priorities for individuals in a particular health or
social care setting:.................................................................................................. 5
3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies, systems and policies in a health or
social care setting:.................................................................................................. 6
3.3 Discuss changes that could be made to improve the health and well being of
individuals in UK...................................................................................................... 7
Conclusion:................................................................................................................. 7
References.................................................................................................................. 9

Introduction
Public health and diseases are very common aspects in every country. The governments role to
provide healthcare and promoting healthy life is significant. In this assignment, the role of
international, national and regional agencies to identify diseases and their strategies to prevent
these diseases is discussed with statistical data in the perspective of United Kingdom.
Government responses and priorities on healthcare provision are also discussed. Lifestyle and
food habit impacts on diabetes and obesity and its prevention is discussed with the informative
data.

LO 1 Understand different strategies and approaches used


to measure, monitor, and control the incidence of disease
in communities
1.1 Explain the roles of different agencies in identifying levels
of health and disease in communities
The people of UK suffer from many common diseases with a low variety of uncommon diseases
in the last ten years. There is a severity of alcohol diseases in this time. Lifestyle of people has
changed a bit and it has a significant effect on the diseases of UK. International agencies as well
as national and regional agencies are working on public health. Identifying diseases is the very
common task of World Health Organization (WHO). It works on how new diseases incur in
human body and how it spreads in the locality. The response to Ebola virus was very quick in
UK. UKs public health department is working sincerely to diagnosis diseases on the spot and
immediate cure is ensured by this department. It publishes different articles on various diseases
people faced with and conducts a wide range of research on how to reduce its effects from public
health. Regional offices of UKs public health department play an important role to serve people
in remote area. They goes to this people and aware them about the daily diseases and the
instructions to maintain a healthy and sound life. It has a quick response on the sudden spread
out of different diseases. It goes to the spot and immediate cure is provided to the affected
people. Public health is much more vulnerable after going to a natural disaster. In this stage
medicines and good support for a healthy life is provided by the public health department. The

role of national, international and regional agencies is very significant to provide a healthy life to
people from all classes (Pitt, 1988).

1.2 Epidemiology of infectious diseases and non infectious


diseases:
The epidemiology of an infectious disease needs important disease syndrome analysis. The
methodologies are nomenclature, definition, observing outbreak and surveillance disease.
Infectious diseases are dangerous and can outbreak rapidly. Some examples of infectious
diseases are TB, influenza, bronchitis recently invented Ebola etc. They are generally genetic
diseases; non infectious diseases are those that do not spread through touch of affected person.
For example, cancer, diabetics etc. The consequences of an infectious disease are more severe
than a non infectious disease. The data of UK infectious diseases are found that tells that in 2011,
the number of new tuberculosis patients was 10528 while the numbers of salmonella patients
were 51887, the number of new meningococcal cases was 759 and the number of Lyme disease
patient was 33097. In this period, 23.6 million people visited physicians for infectious diseases.
In hospital outdoors, the number of patients visited for infectious diseases were 3.2 million
(Babbie, 2010). Cancer is a non infectious disease which has a tremendous effect on human
body. Victims suffer from a wide range of other disease which eventually occurs as cancer
instigates other diseases to attack. Statistics shows that cancer rate was highest among black
men. In the second place white men are affected by cancer. Third and fourth goes too
respectively for Hispanic and Asia pacific. Among women highest rate of cancer was in white.
Blacks were in the second position to be affected by cancer. Third and forth goes for the
Hispanic and for the Asia pacific. Death from cancer was highest among the Black. White men
were in second in respect of dying from cancer. The death rate was then gradually high among
the Hispanics and among the American Indian. For women death rate was highest among the
Blacks. Then death rate was gradually high among the White, Hispanic and American Indian
respectively.

1.3 evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches and


strategies to control the incidence of disease in communities
Evaluating the effectiveness of disease control approaches is complex and difficult to determine.
Controlling disease in a community, especially in case of infectious disease, it is very difficult to
control the disease in a community. In these cases, patients should be made separate from others

and special care is needed in these cases (Wise, 2009). The national health care of UK has a well
functioned community disease control systems. The UK health and social care system works in
local, zonal, state and territory levels to prevent diseases. It has health care centers in every
community. As well as giving treatment, these health care centers spread awareness about
healthy living. They promote healthy food habit, hygienic living style, child and teenage care etc.
In the case of infectious diseases, UK follows evidence based strategies, provision for disease
control and country support system. These strategies are effective because the number of severe
spread of communicable diseases is low in the area. The strategies vary for different diseases. In
case of certain diseases, NHO provide safe water, health education, filters, volunteer for every
communities etc. They also took monthly report from the representatives in each area. It is
difficult to reduce cross border risk although NHS has taken adequate steps.

LO 2 investigate the implications of illness and diseases


communities for the provision of health and social care
service
2.1 Asses government health priorities since 2010
Government believes that the future of the country depends on the future of the people. It has
developed its health policy to provide a sustainable healthy life to everyone. The health policy by
the UK government was to reduce the time lag in getting the hospital treatment as well to ensure
patient safety and promoting healthy life. Government was more concerned to promote a healthy
and better life to the mass people. The awareness campaign was high to encourage people to
reduce alcohol drinking and low smoking was welcomed in the policy. Public health department
is working with a focus to give a good support to the aged people. This year government gives
the priority to the life of aged people so that they can get a good treatment in their hazardous.
Government wants to make the country best in the world by providing a healthier to the old. The
concept of growing the country older is connected with the life of old people. Preventing
diseases and poor health improvement is ensuring by reforming social care, integrating health
and care, and improving care for people with dementia. Government takes the initiative to
upgrade health care service by this time. Everyone is treated with compassion and respect.
Government wants to be prepared for the future. So it gives the priority to ensure long term
sustainability in public health and thereby attaining a healthy country. Marinating quality,

working effectively and responding quickly are three common keywords which are directed to
maintain in all stages of providing health care to the people (Health and Social care, 2010). The
standard of peoples health in rural area are getting more emphasize and trying to enhance their
lifestyle.

2.2 Explain the implications of obesity or diabetes on the


National Health Service provision
United Kingdom is the fattest country in Europe. One of five people is overweight and it may
increase alarmingly in coming years. More than three million people suffer from diabetes in UK.
It is direct reason for other disease. Ensuring good health and promoting healthy life is the main
task of public health department of UK. But now public health is in vulnerable situation because
diabetes and obesity is extremely high. The main concern of public health department is to
provide a better life for the adults. For this purpose they have researched on different reasons of
obesity and provide the outcome to everyone. Diabetes UK has published a leaflet on how
diabetes cares to expect. This leaflet is provided to the people so that they can be self prepared
for the cure of diabetes in a very early stage. It also provides the advice and suggestions for the
diabetes affected people. The two phase of preventing diabetes is identified (Health Knowledge,
2010). One is the pre stage period and the other is post stage. Pre stage is very much important
because it provides the guidelines about food habits, physical activity level to keep away from
diabetes. It is the individual level liability to follow this guideline. In the after stage the
healthcare team provides the medicines and support to control diabetes. First phase is basically
related to obesity control. To encourage self care and self management victims are treated with
respect and dignity. High quality treatment and clinical and psychological needs are fulfilled by
the healthcare team. It provides information and structured education about diabetes
management. Patients are encouraged to follow a balanced diet and to maintain a variety of light
exercises. Regular check up is mandatory to evaluate the improvement and to prevent anything
hazardous. Daily review of diabetes level is welcomed and self monitoring and self management
is very good. Public health department accumulates everything to provide advice, care and
psychological support to control diabetes in national level by all individuals.

2.3 Discuss the connection between obesity and lifestyle


choices and evaluate factors influencing priorities for the
future health and care provision at national level
Obesity is the major problem in UK. It is growing very high day by day. Unhealthy diet and
physical inactivity increases the risk of obesity. For a healthy life one has to work for at least 150
minutes similar to walking and running. Walking and cycling is very effective for reducing
obesity. Sedentary behaviors in adults determine the level of physical activity. Consumption
habit affects the level of obesity. Adult people are in high risk of obesity because they cannot
keep them aside from the rich food. People maintaining a low calorie food, low fat, green
vegetables, fruits, whole grains, lean meat and fish have no risk of obesity (Greenhalgh, 2005).
Everyone has to maintain a proper diet and an adequate level of physical activity. A basic range
of exercise should be regularly maintained to be back in obese free healthy life. UK health
department gives the guideline to the adult how to reduce obesity from life and reduce diabetes
risk. Obesity is the direct reason for so many diseases and it instigates other diseases indirectly.
The National Health Service provides all logical support including medicines and prescription in
thus issue. It carries out campaigns throughout the country with its staffs to aware people to leave
the unhealthy food habits. People having obesity problem gets a good cure from it and also gets a
good psychological support as well. National Health Service encourages individuals to follow
the instructions to reduce obesity. A good balanced diet, a required level of physical activity and
a self assessment system helps to reduce the risk of many diseases.

LO3 Understanding the factors influencing health and well


being of individuals I health or social care setting
3.1 The health and wellbeing priorities for individuals in a
particular health or social care setting:
Healthcare and wellbeing are highly related with each other. According to WHO, health has a
significant influence on the economic development of a country as healthy population lives long,
more productive and can save more. The health care setting of a country depends on many
factors including poverty, communication, donation and social services. Living standard of a
person largely depends on how much healthy life they are spending. Individual countries of UK
provide different health care services separately. Each country provides public health care

services that are different in both the structure and the way of providing service because
priorities and policies differ in each region. Scotland, Ireland, England and Wales have their
separate health care service. Priorities are also different for each region. WHO recognized the
health care of UK 18th in the world and 1st in Europe. Commonwealth fund recognized UK health
care 2nd among top 11 countries on the basis of quality of service, access to service and efficiency
in their most recent reports although the private expenditure on health care in UK is considerably
less than France, Germany and USA (Nhs.uk, 2014). Although each countries health care service
has some common features, individual priorities may vary. Among different national health care
services in UK, an individual can choose according to his/ her need. Priorities may vary
according to their specific needs and demands and some other factors like distance, accessibility,
field of specialization etc. There is a website of national health care in UK that provides recent
information about health services like newly open clinic, there exist doctors who provide service
24 hours on line. There is a box in which an individual can insert his/ her location to find nearest
clinic for emergency. The website is available at www.nhs.uk.

3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies, systems and


policies in a health or social care setting:
Evaluating health research is a controversial issue and complex to describe. A lot of work is
required for evaluating the effectiveness of health care strategies and policies. Improvement of
health is a long term process. A health care system has to use multiple methods to be effective to
meet several needs of patients. Combining multiple sections of health care is very complex. It is
difficult to gain efficiency in all sectors simultaneously. National health care system, which is the
health care system of UK, is recognized as worlds best health care system by some groups of
experts (Campbell and Watt, 2014). Commonwealth fund also appreciates the statement. UK
spends much money on health care and responds very quickly in newly emerged threats like
Ebola. The strategies of UK health care are effective that could gain more accessibility, more
responsiveness and responsibility. The commonwealth fund study found UK in the top in their 11
assessment criteria. It prove effectiveness by ranking one in patient centered care, coordinating
care, safety and effective care. Commonwealth also recognized NHS for efficient use of
resources and accessibility for service. However, this effective system is now threatened by
increased pressure of patient, lack of stuff and scarcity of fund. The reason for this condition is
poor funding in comparison with other countries. Some experts claim that the stuffs work hard to

serve patients but their payment is low. Despite this things NHSs strategies and policies are
overall good and recognized by many countries and organizations throughout the world
including WHO. Precautions should be taken by UK authorities against emerging disputes. They
should consider carefully the problems identified by the researches; otherwise, this highly
recognized health care system will lose its position.

3.3 Discuss changes that could be made to improve the health


and well being of individuals in UK
UK health care system, NHS, is a worldwide recognized system and appreciated by many
organizations. But time is not constant and there is the presence of changing policies to adapt
with new situations. Newly invented virus can threat the health of people, trend of diseases may
change and continuous research is needed to invent new medicines that were not available
before. Changing policies is also needed to cope up with the rest of the world. Recently, some
critics have identified the problems of NHS (Content, 2014). If UK does not take proper steps
now, the problems may turn into threats in near future. The problems are increasing patients,
fewer staffs and less funding in health care. To solve these problems, NHS should change some
of its policies and modify its strategies. Solving problems in a large and sensitive sector like
health care is complex and needs much attention otherwise the total thing may act in a reverse
direction. Increasing number of patient is very normal, because the population is increasing and
new types of diseases are emerging every day. Solving the problem needs huge efforts. The
number of health care should be increased in order to provide more services. This solution is
linked up with the second problem as more health care centers need more doctors and staffs to
serve increasing patients. This needs more medical students. The govt. should establish more
medical colleges and more vocational training centers and nursing centers. More education and
health care subsidy is needed to improve these sectors. More staffs should be appointed and more
staff training is needed in this regard. The govt. of UK must spend more money in health care
and social welfare sector to sustain the reputation of this sector.

Conclusion:
A very important part of living standard is having proper health care. Not only during disease,
before and after disease has a patient needed some care. Vaccination program, awareness
program, information sessions, free medicine distribution etc. all are a governments

responsibility towards general people. A countrys economic condition and health of people is
highly related. The reputation of a country is highly dependent on it. Mental health and family
planning are also some major concerns in todays world. UK has a reputation of providing good
health and social care. WHO and commonwealth fund have recognized it highly. Some problems
like increasing patient, less number of stuff then required and less funding are also found which
are threatening NHC of UK. Necessary steps should be taken quickly to avoid future major
future problem in health and social care sector.

References
Campbell, D. and Watt, N. (2014). NHS is the world's best healthcare system, report says.
[online] the Guardian. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jun/17/nhshealth [Accessed 17 Nov. 2014]
Contents. (2014). Operations Research for Health Care, 3(2), p.iii
Greenhalgh, T. (2005). Diffusion of innovations in health service organisations. Malden, Mass.:
Blackwell
Health and social care: plans, priorities and performance. (2010). Research and Library Service
Research Paper, 20
Health Knowledge, (2010). Evaluation of health promotion, public health or public policy
interventions. [online] Available at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-healthtextbook/disease-causation-diagnostic/2h-principles-health-promotion/health-promotionevaluation [Accessed 17 Nov. 2014]
Nhs.uk, (2014). NHS Choices - Your health, your choices. [online] Available at:
http://www.nhs.uk/Pages/HomePage.aspx [Accessed 17 Nov. 2014]
Patti, R. and Ezell, M. (1988). Performance Priorities and Administrative Practice in Hospital
Social Work Departments. Social Work in Health Care, 13(3), pp.73-90
Wise, J. (2009). NHS exceeds targets on MRSA, waiting times, and GP opening hours, says
annual report. BMJ, 338(may26 1), pp.b2114-b2114
Babbie, E. (2010). The Nature of Diseases, 12th Edition, Belmont, Wadsworth Cengage Learning