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DOI 10.1007/s00170-006-0659-3

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

rectangular cups

Fuh-Kuo Chen & Shih-Yu Lin

Received: 9 February 2006 / Accepted: 9 May 2006 / Published online: 26 August 2006

# Springer-Verlag London Limited 2006

Abstract The effects of process parameters on the formability of the deep drawing of rectangular cups made of

SUS304 stainless steel were investigated by both the finite

element analysis method and the experimental approach. A

statistical analysis was employed to construct an orthogonal

chart which reflects the effects of the process parameters

and their interactions on the formability of rectangular cup

drawing. The material properties and the forming limit

diagram (FLD) of SUS304 stainless steel were obtained

from the experiments conducted in the present study and

were employed by the finite element simulations. In the

finite element analysis, the strain path that led to fracture in

the drawing process was examined and the failure modes

caused by different process parameters were also identified.

With the help of statistical analysis, a formability index for

the deep drawing of SUS304 stainless steel rectangular

cups was constructed and the critical value of the

formability index was determined from the finite element

simulation results. The actual drawing processes of rectangular cups were also performed in the present study. The

validity of the finite element simulations and the formability index were confirmed by the good agreement between

the simulation results and the experimental data. The

formability index proposed in the present study provides a

convenient design rule for the deep drawing of SUS304

stainless steel rectangular cups.

Keywords Rectangular cup drawing . Process parameters .

Finite element analysis . Statistical analysis . Formability

index

F.-K. Chen (*) : S.-Y. Lin

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

National Taiwan University,

Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

e-mail: fkchen@ntu.edu.tw

1 Introduction

Recently, deeply drawn rectangular cups have been widely

applied to the electronics industry, such as for lithium

battery cases. Different materials have been selected for the

applications. Among them, stainless steel is most often used

due to its superior corrosion resistance property, though the

formability of stainless steel is not so preferable to other

metals. Although the geometry of a rectangular cup is

simple, the material flow pattern during the drawing

process is quite complicated. There are many process

parameters that may affect the material flow in the

rectangular cup drawing, such as material properties and

the geometry of the sheet blank, punch radius and die

corner radius etc. For some deeply drawn cups, more than

one drawing process to produce the parts may be needed.

Hence, in the process design of a rectangular cup with

given dimensions, a formability index which can predict

whether the cup can be successfully formed by one single

drawing process is always desired.

A lot of research effort has been made to investigate the

deep drawing of rectangular cups. Kuwabara et al. [1]

examined the effects of the cup geometries on the

formability of the deep drawing of square cups. They

analysed the failure modes and suggested an optimum

design to prevent to drawn cup from fracture. Mori and

Marumo [2] investigated the material flow pattern in the

square cup drawing process with different lubrication

conditions and cup geometries. Danckert [3] performed

different experiments to measure the strain distribution in a

square cup drawing process. Since the finite element

method was widely applied to the analysis of metal-forming

processes in 1980s [4], the material flow in the forming

process could be predicted easily from computer simulations. Chung et al. [5] analysed the effect of planar

Tensile tests were performed to determine the stressstrain

curve and hemi-spherical punch drawing tests were conducted to construct the FLD for SUS304 stainless steel. In

the tensile tests, the specimens made of 0.61-mm-thick

SUS304 sheet were prepared according to the ASTM

standards. The specimens were cut along planes coinciding

with the rolling direction (0) and at angles of 45 and 90

to the rolling direction. The cut edges were polished to

avoid fracture occurring at an undesired location of the

specimen. The average flow stress A calculated according

to A A0 2A45 A90 =4 was used to establish the

stressstrain relations, where 0, 45 and 90 are the stresses

obtained from the specimens cut in the rolling, 45 and 90

directions, respectively. Since true stresses and true strains

are used in the finite element simulations, the measured

stresses and strains were converted to true stresses and true

strains, the relations being plotted in Fig. 1.

Since Keeler and Backofen [7] introduced the concept of

FLD in 1963, it has been a widely adopted criterion for

fracture prediction in sheet-metal forming. To determine an

FLD, stretching tests were performed for sheet specimens

with different widths ranging from 20 mm to 140 mm in

increments of 20 mm, using a semi-spherical punch of

1200

using the finite element method. Chen and Chuang [6]

performed finite element simulations to study the blank

design for the deep drawing of square cups. However, very

few literature is found regarding the formability index

mentioned above and, to date, such a formability index has

not been well defined either theoretically or empirically.

In the present study, the three-dimensional finite element

method and the experimental analysis were conducted to

study the effects of process parameters on the formability of

the deep drawing of rectangular cups made of SUS304

stainless steel. In order to facilitate the study, the material

properties and the forming limit diagram (FLD) of SUS304

stainless steel were obtained from experiments and were

then employed by the finite element simulations to study

the material flow and failure modes in a rectangular cup

drawing process. A statistical analysis was also employed

to establish the interactive relationships among these

process parameters and to construct an empirical formability index for the deep drawing of rectangular cups made of

SUS304 stainless steel. In addition, the actual drawing

processes of rectangular cups were performed to validate

the finite element simulations and the formability index,

and the experimental data were compared with the

finite element simulation results both qualitatively and

quantitatively.

879

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

true strain

Fig. 1 Stressstrain relation for SUS 304 stainless steel

78 mm in diameter. The specimens were first electrochemically etched with circular grids that would be deformed

into ellipses after being stretched. The engineering strains

measured in the major and minor axes of the ellipse are

termed the major strain and minor strain, respectively.

They are also the principal strains on the planes where the

strains are measured. The major and minor strains measured

in the location closest to the fracture for each specimen

were recorded and were then plotted against one another

with the major strain as the ordinate. The curve fitted to the

strain points was defined as the forming limit curve, also

termed the failure curve. Considering the safety factor for

the design purpose, a 10% off-set downward of the failure

curve is adopted as the design curve. For the finite element

simulation purpose, the engineering major and minor

strains were converted to true major and minor strains,

and both the failure curve and the design curve are plotted

in Fig. 2. The design curve was used as the failure criterion

for the prediction of the occurrence of fracture in the finite

element analysis.

In the present study, the tooling geometries were constructed by the CAD program PRO/Engineer and were then

converted into the finite element mesh, as shown in Fig. 3,

using the program DeltaMESH. The material properties and

FLD obtained from the previous tests, a punch velocity of

5 m/s and coefficient of Coulomb friction of 0.1 were

adopted in the finite element simulations, the blank-holder

force being varied depending on the blank size. The finite

element software PAM_STAMP was employed to perform

the analysis and the four-node shell element was used in the

simulations.

The three-dimensional finite element simulations were

first performed to examine the effects of process parameters

on the formability of the deep drawing of rectangular cups

880

(FLD) for SUS 304 stainless

steel (t=0.61 mm)

1.2

major strain

1

0.8

Failure Curve

0.6

0.4

Design Curve

0.2

0

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.1

0.2

minor strain

and the major process parameters that affect the formability

the most were identified. The process parameters analysed

in the present study include punch radius (Rp), die radius

(Rd), die corner radius (Rc), die gap (c) and the length-towidth ratio (a/b), as shown in Fig. 4. One process parameter

was analysed at a time while the other process parameters

remained the same. In each simulation, the rectangular cup

was drawn to the presence of fracture according to the FLD

constructed in the previous experiments, and the drawn

depth (H) was used as the index for comparison. In

addition, the low-level and high-level values of each

process parameter to be used in the statistical analysis were

also determined from the finite element analysis. Based on

both the statistical analysis and the finite element simulation results, a formability index was proposed for the deep

drawing of rectangular cups made of SUS304 stainless

steel.

The relationships between the punch radius and the

drawn depth obtained from the finite element simulations

are shown in Fig. 5, with the punch radius and drawn depth

being normalised by the sheet thickness (t). As expected, a

smaller punch radius induces an early fracture and results in

a smaller drawn depth. The low-level and high-level values

of 3t and 15t, respectively, were chosen for the statistical

analysis according to Fig. 5. To examine the failure mode,

the major strain and minor strain paths tracing the fracture

points in the drawing process using punches with radii of

2.01 mm and 8.04 mm are shown in Fig. 6a,b, respectively.

It is seen in both figures that the fracture of the sheet is due

to biaxial stretching, since both the major and minor strains

are positive. It is also noted in both figures that both the

881

radius (Rp) and drawn depth (H)

35

30

H/t (mm/mm)

25

20

15

10

0

0

10

12

14

16

Rp/t (mm/mm)

1.5

major strain

1.2

0.9

Rp=2. 01

0.6

Rp=8. 04

rupture point

0.3

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

time (sec)

(a) major-strain path

0.30

0.25

minor strain

minor strain paths for the drawings with different punch radii.

a Major strain path. b Minor

strain path

0.20

Rp=2. 01

Rp=8. 04 mm

rupture point

0.15

0.10

0.0 5

0.00

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

time (sec)

(b) minor-strain path

4.0

5.0

882

35

H/t (mm/mm)

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0

10

12

14

16

Rd/t (mm/mm)

Fig. 7 Relation between die radius (Rd) and drawing depth (H)

smaller punch radius than those with a larger punch radius.

This implies that the smaller punch profile restrains the

material from being stretched in both directions, resulting in

higher strains.

The effect of die radius on the formability of rectangular

cup drawing is shown in Fig. 7. Compared with Fig. 5, the

effect of the die radius is less significant than that of the

punch radius. It is also noted that the drawn depth varies

insignificantly for die radii larger than 7.5t. The low-level

and high-level values for the statistical analysis are chosen

to be 3t and 12t, respectively.

Unlike the monotonically increasing curves shown in

Figs. 6 and 7, the relations between the die corner radius

and the drawn depth have a reflection point, as shown in

Fig. 8, with the die corner radius and drawn depth being

normalised by the cup width (b). It implies that there exists

an optimum die corner radius for the drawing of rectangular

cups. The locations of fracture for different die corner radii

are also varied, as indicated in the finite element simulation

results. For the die corner radius of 0.5 mm, the fracture

point is located at the punch corner, as shown in Fig. 9a,

indicating a stretch failure mode, while the fracture point

moves to the side of the punch, as shown in Fig. 9b, for the

Fig. 9a, b Location of fracture points for different die corner radii

(Rc). aRc=0.5 mm. bRc=8 mm

stretch failure mode to the plane strain failure mode. Since

the relationships between the die corner radius and the

drawn depth are not represented by a monotonically

increasing curve, the statistical analysis should be performed for the increasing region and the decreasing region

separately. According to Fig. 8, the curve can be separated

into two regions of 0.05 to 0.18 and 0.18 to 0.32 in the Rc/b

axis. However, only the region of 0.05 to 0.18 is discussed

in this paper, since this region is more favourable in the

process design, though the method of analysis is similar for

the other region.

The effect of the die gap on the formability of the deep

drawing of rectangular cups is not significant, as shown in

Fig. 10. The strain paths of the fracture point are also

almost identical in the drawing processes with various die

32

0.34

31

H/t (mm/mm)

H/b (mm/mm)

0.32

0.3

0.28

0.26

30

29

28

27

26

25

0.24

24

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

R c/b (mm/mm)

Fig. 8 Relation between die corner radius (Rc) and drawn depth (H)

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

c/t (mm/mm)

Fig. 10 Relation between die gap (c) and drawn depth (H)

1.7

883

length-to-width ratio (a/b) and

drawn depth (H)

H/b (mm/mm)

0. 8

0. 7

0. 6

0. 5

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

a/b (mm/mm)

effect of the length-to-width ratio (a/b) on the formability is

also insignificant, as shown in Fig. 11. Similar strain paths

of the fracture point were also observed in the drawing

processes with different values of a/b.

According to the finite element analysis, the punch

radius and the die corner radius are the major process

parameters in a rectangular cup drawing process. The lowlevel and high-level values for each process parameter

suggested by the finite element simulation results will be

used in the following statistical analysis.

on the finite element simulation results. The coefficient of

each term in the linear equation represents the weight of

that term affecting the result. The larger the coefficient, the

more significant the effect that term has on the result. The

linear equation generated by the software is given by:

4 Statistical analysis

smaller than 0.1. Hence, it can be determined from Eq. 1 that

the most important process parameters are B(=Rc/b) and C

(=Rp/t), and the interactive effects of the combination of

process parameters on the formability of rectangular cup

drawing can be ignored. The parameters Rc/b and Rp/t as

are normalised by suitable dimensions and are denoted by:

A=a/b, B=Rc/b, C=Rp/t, D=Rd/t and E=c/t. The low-level

and high-level values of each process parameter chosen for

the statistical analysis are summarised in Table 1, as

suggested by the finite element analysis. In order to

understand how the process parameters and their interactions affect the formability of the deep drawing of

rectangular cups, an orthogonal chart based on the lowlevel and high-level values was established as listed in

Table 2 to perform the finite element simulations in a

systematic way. According to Table 2, there are 16

simulations to be performed. In each simulation, the lowlevel and high-level values of each process parameter listed

in Table 1 were used as the input data, and the maximum

drawn depth (H) without the occurrence of fracture was

recorded. The statistical analysis software Design-Ease

2.0.11 was employed to generate a linear equation in terms

Table 1 Low-level and high-level values of the process parameters

Low

High

a/b

Rc/b

Rp/t

Rd/t

c/t

1

3

0.05

0.18

3

15

3

12

1.05

1.5

H

0:4515 0:0044A 0:1059B 0:3006C

b

0:0333D 0:0137E0:0528AB . . .

0:0006ABC . . . 0:0051ABCD . . .

0:0046ABCDE

Run

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

: low level

+: high level

884

corner radius (Rc)

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

Rc/b

to be =2, =1 and =0.25, and the proposed formability index has the form:

s

t

H2

K4

3

Rp Rc b

index. Since the software can only provide a linear equation

to illustrate the weight of effect of the process parameters, it

is not sufficient for constructing the formability index, which

may be a nonlinear function. An iterative approach was then

adopted to develop the formability index. To start the

iteration, a power form consisting of the selected process

parameters was proposed for the formability index (K), as

given by:

Rp

H

Rc

K

2

b

t

b

with Rc/b as the abscissa, using the finite element

simulation results as the base data. It is seen in Fig. 12

that the values of K are in the range from 0.9 to 2.5, except

those with Rc/b<0.1. The values of K calculated from Eq. 3

with Rp/t as the abscissa are also plotted and shown in

Fig. 13. It is noted that most values are in the range from

1.0 to 2.2, except those with Rc/b<0.1, which give much

higher values. It suggests that the critical value of K for the

deep drawing of SUS304 stainless steel rectangular cups

may be chosen as 2.2 for Rc/b>0.1. That is, for a SUS304

rectangular cup, if its dimensions result in a value of K

being larger than 2.2 according to Eq. 3, it may not be

successfully formed by one drawing process. The proposed

formability index will be validated by the experiments

described below.

for the statistical analysis were used as the base data to

determine the values of , and . Based on the weights of

the process parameters in affecting the formability, initial

values of , and were tested to fit the above-mentioned

data according to Eq. 2. The errors were then estimated and

a new set of values was assigned to , and for a

subsequent trial. This trial-and-error method was repeated

until an optimum set of values for , and was

determined. In the present study, these values were found

Fig. 13 Values of K versus

punch radius (Rp)

16

K from Rp/b

Rc/b <0.1

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

R p /t

10

12

14

5 Experimental validations

In order to validate the finite element analysis and the

proposed formability index, six sets of tooling were manufactured to conduct the rectangular cup drawing tests. The

dimensions of the tooling geometries were selected to be the

same as those adopted in the finite element simulations and

within the range between the low-level and high-level values

sets for the statistical analysis. The punches used in the

drawing tests are shown in Fig. 14. The SUS304 stainless

steel sheets, of 0.61 mm and 0.72 mm in thickness, were cut

to the designed blank sizes and lubricated with oil for the

of drawn cup geometries

obtained by experiment and

simulation. a Drawn-cup shapes.

b Projections

885

shape, locations of fracture, major and minor strains,

thickness distribution and the K values were compared with

those obtained from the finite element simulations for all six

sets of tooling. Since the comparison of the finite element

results and the experimental data shows a consistent trend

for all six sets of tooling, only the test results of the selected

tooling are demonstrated in this paper.

The drawn-cup shapes and their projections of a

rectangular cup obtained from the experiments and the

finite element simulations are shown in Fig. 15a,b,

respectively. It is seen in Fig. 15a that both drawn-cup

shapes are in a good agreement with each other and so are

the projections shown in Fig. 15b. In addition, both the

experimental and the finite element simulation results

indicate that the fracture occurs at the punch corner for a

smaller punch radius. The major and minor strains of the

drawn rectangular cup are compared in Fig. 16a,b,

respectively. Both strains are measured along the diagonal

from the centre of the drawn cup. As seen in both figures,

the finite element simulation results agree well with the

experimental data both in trend and in magnitude, though

an insignificant difference in magnitude is noted. In order to

measure the thickness of a drawn cup, a 3-mm-wide strip

was wire-cut along the diagonal of the cup and the

thickness was measured with a micrometer. The measured

thickness distribution of a square cup (a/b=1) was com-

886

Fig. 16a, b Major and minor strains measured from experiments and simulations. a Major strain. b Minor strain

as shown in Fig. 17. Both the experimental data and the

finite element simulation results indicate that the thinnest

portion is at the punch corner and the sheet at the flange is

thickened. The thickness distribution predicted by the finite

the experiment, as shown in Fig. 17.

The above comparisons have demonstrated the accuracy

of the finite element analysis performed for the deep

drawing processes of rectangular cups. The experimental

0.8

thickness (mm)

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

simulation

experiment

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

Fig. 17 Thickness distribution along the diagonal of the drawn cup

70.0

887

proposed in the present study. The major process parameters affecting the formability of the deep drawing of

rectangular cups are identified to be the punch radius and

the die corner radius, according to the finite element

simulations results and the statistical analysis. The statistical analysis also indicates that the interaction of the process

parameters has an insignificant effect on the formability of

the deep drawing of rectangular cups.

The finite element analysis reveals that there exists an

optimum die corner radius for the rectangular cup drawing

process. The formability is improved with the increase of

die corner radius up to an optimum value and then becomes

worse when the die corner radius increases further. The

failure mode analysis shows that the fracture point moves

from the punch corner to the side of punch for a die corner

radius larger than the optimum value, representing a change

from the stretch failure mode to the plane strain failure

mode, which is more prone to fracture. Hence, a favourable

process design for the rectangular cup drawing should

avoid a die corner radius larger than the optimum value.

data were also employed to validate the proposed formability index. The maximum drawn depth, the sheet

thickness and the associated tooling dimensions of each

drawing process were substituted into Eq. 3 to calculate the

K value. The experimental K values are plotted in Fig. 18

with Rp/t as the abscissa. It is seen in Fig. 18 that all of the

K values are within the range from 1.1 to 2.1, which are

close to those predicted by the finite element simulations

but with a smaller maximum value of K. It indicates that the

formability index given by Eq. 3 is a valid form and the

critical K value can be set conservatively as 2.0 for the deep

drawing of SUS304 stainless steel rectangular cups. The

experimental results confirm the validity of both the finite

element simulations and the statistical analysis.

6 Concluding remarks

The experimental results have validated the finite element

simulations performed for the deep drawing of rectangular

cups made of SUS304 stainless steel and have also

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

0

Rp/t

a/ b=1 ,Rc/b=0.1 ,Rp/t=8.2,Rd/t=8.2,c/t=1.31,t=0.61

a/b=1,Rc/b=0.1,R p/t=6.94,Rd/t =6. 94,c/ t=1.11, t=0.72

a/ b=1 ,Rc/b=0.2 ,Rp/t=8.2,Rd/t=8.2,c/t=1.31,t=0.61

a/b=1,Rc/b=0.2,R p/t=6.94,Rd/t =6. 94,c/ t=1.11, t=0.72

a/ b=1 ,Rc/b=0.2 ,Rp/t=4.1,Rd/t=8.2,c/t=1.31,t=0.61

a/b=1,Rc/b=0.2,R p/t=3.47,Rd/t =6. 94,c/ t=1.11, t=0.72

a/ b=2 ,Rc/b=0.2 ,Rp/t=8.2,Rd/t=8.2,c/t=1.31,t=0.61

Fig. 18 K values calculated from Eq. 3 using experimental data

888

provides a convenient design rule for the deep drawing of

SUS304 stainless steel rectangular cups. If the value of K

calculated from Eq. 3 with the given rectangular cup

dimensions is larger than a critical value, fracture is likely

to occur before the cup is completely drawn, and multiple

drawings may be required to produce a sound rectangular

cup. The critical K value for SUS304 stainless steel has been

determined in the present study by both the finite element

analysis and the experimental approach. It should be noted

that both the form of the proposed formability index and the

critical value of K may be varied for other materials, since

the material properties are not considered in the proposed

form. However, the method of approaches to construct the

formability index can be applied to other drawing processes

with different materials. The formability index proposed in

the present study provides a convenient design rule for the

deep drawing of SUS304 stainless steel rectangular cups.

Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the National

Science Council of the Republic of China for financially supporting

this research under contract no. NSC 89-2212-E-002-147, which

makes the experimental work possible. They are also grateful to ESI in

running the PAM_STAMP program.

References

1. Kuwabara T, Akiyama K, Nakayama Y (1993) Square shell

drawing characteristics of aluminum alloy sheet A5182-O. J Mater

Process Technol 38(4):737749

2. Mori T, Marumo Y (1990) A systematic approach to improve

square shell drawability. Adv Technol Plastic 3:1532

3. Danckert J (1995) Experimental investigation of a square-cup deepdrawing process. J Mater Process Technol 50(1):375384

4. Toh CH, Shiau YC, Kobayashi S (1986) Analysis of a test method

of sheet metal formability using the finite element method. J Eng

IndTrans ASME 108:38

5. Chung WJ, Yang DY, Kim YJ (1990) Analysis of deep-drawing of

circular and square cups considering planer anisotropy. Adv

Technol Plastic 3:11351142

6. Chen FK, Chuang CK (1997) Blank design for the deep drawing of

a square cup. Bulletin of the College of Engineering, National

Taiwan University, Taiwan

7. Keeler SP, Backofen WA (1963) Plastic instability and fracture in

sheets stretched over rigid punches. Trans Am Soc Met 56(1):

2548

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