Power flow

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Power flow

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EXPERIMENT 2

1. AIM:

With the aid of the PowerWorld Simulator program, the objectives are:

To investigate voltage regulation via transformer tap changing or using shunt

capacitance compensation.

To study the effects of transformers or transmission lines in parallel.

To perform contingency analysis.

2. BACKGROUND:

Power flow analysis is a fundamental requirement for study of power systems. Successful

power system operation under steady-state conditions requires:

Bus voltage magnitudes are close to rated values.

Generators operate within specified real and reactive power limits.

Transmission lines and transformers are not overloaded.

Power flow program such as the PowerWorld Simulator is the tool for investigating these

requirements. It computes voltage magnitude and angle at each bus. As a by-product, real and

reactive power flows and power losses in equipment (transmission lines, transformers) can

also be computed. The solutions require the use of iterative numerical techniques such as the

Gauss-Seidel method or the Newton-Raphson method to solve a set of nonlinear nodal

equations of the network.

Voltage regulation refers to the requirement of maintaining voltages within an acceptable level

at any point in the network. This can be achieved by various methods such as adjusting the

generator output, transformer tap changing, and compensation using capacitors. Synchronous

generators can be used to generate or absorb reactive power within their capacity limits. Tapchanging transformer is another popular method of voltage control. By adjusting the turns ratio,

its output voltage on the secondary winding can be varied to maintain the voltage control.

Injecting reactive power into the system from compensating apparatus is another effective way

to regulate the voltage. Shunt capacitors are commonly used to inject reactive power into

lagging-power factor circuits.

Contingency analysis uses a power flow solution, e.g. Newton-Raphson, to evaluate the impact

of contingencies in power systems. Power system planning and operating criteria often refer to

the N-1 rule which requires the system operate in a stable and secure manner following any

single transmission or generation outage. More stringent N-x (x>1) criteria extend to

multiple elements such as loss of a generator, several buses and lines simultaneously.

Page 1

3. SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS:

A 7-bus system consisting of 2 generators and 4 loads is shown in Figure 1. Two capacitor

banks are connected to bus 3 and bus 7 to regulate the bus voltages. Bus 1 is chosen to be the

swing (slack) bus (voltage = 1pu, angle = 0 deg.). Bus 2 is the voltage controlled bus (also

called PV bus) and its voltage is to be set to 1 pu.

Generator (at bus 1):

Max. MW Output = 100MW

Min. MW Output = 0 MW

Nominal voltage = 34.5 kV

Max. Mvar = 40 Mvar

Min. Mvar = -6 Mvar

Generator (at bus 2):

Max. MW Output = 100MW

Output MW power = 60MW

Min. MW Output = 0 MW

Nominal voltage = 34.5 kV

Max. Mvar = 40 Mvar

Min. Mvar = -6 Mvar

Transmission lines:

Lengths: L1= 500 km, L2= 100 km, L3= 300 km, L4= 200 km, L5= 100 km

Series resistance = 0.1019 /km

Reactance = 0.5912 /km

Nominal voltage = 345 kV

Rated power = 100 MVA

Transformers:

Elec4612 - Experiment 2 Power Flow

Page 2

Reactance = 0.1580 pu

Nominal voltage: 34.5/345 kV

Rated power = 150 MVA

Loads:

26 MW at bus 2

50 MW, 34 Mvar at bus 3

40 MW, 23 Mvar at bus 6

20 MW, 15 Mvar at bus 7

Switched shunt capacitors:

37 Mvar at bus 3

10 Mvar at bus 7

Construct the network one-line diagram according to the specifications given above. Choose

the base power of S base 100 MVA . Build the one-line diagram for this power system.

Procedure:

Part 1: Power flow solutions using iterative techniques

1.

Gauss-Seidel method:

Switch into the Run Mode. Solve the power flow of the system by the Gauss-Seidel

method step by step, and observe the convergence process. To solve the power flow

step by step, under Tools tab click on Simulator Options dialog and check the

Do Only One Iteration box.

The Bus Real and Reactive Power Mismatches lists the mismatches at each bus.

To display it, under Case Information Network click on Mismatches

To achieve the result quickly, uncheck the Do Only One Iteration box and increase

the Maximum Number of Iterations to 100 (since larger number of iterations is

required by the Gauss-Seidel method). To view the power flows of the entire system,

under Case Information tab click on Power Flow List.

2.

Newton-Raphson method:

Repeat step 1 above but solve the power flow by the Newton-Raphson method. The

Jacobian matrix can be displayed by selecting Case Information Solution

Details Power Flow Jacobian.

3.

Now consider the case when only the generator at bus 1, the transformer between

buses 1 and 4, the transmission line between buses 3 and 4, and the load at bus 3 are

in-serviced. The rest of the system components are not in-serviced.

Set the reactive load at bus 3 to be zero. Increase the active load from 30MW to

70MW by 10 MW per step. Record the magnitudes (p.u.) and the angles (deg.) of the

voltages at buses 4 and 3. Work out the voltage drop (regulation).

Page 3

Set the active load at bus 3 to be 20 MW. Increase the reactive load from 0 to

30MVar by 10MVar per step. Record the magnitudes (p.u.) and the angles (deg.) of

the voltages at buses 4 and 3. Work out the voltage drop.

Before proceed to the next question, please turn all the other system components to

be in-serviced. Set the load at bus 3 back to 50MW, 34Mvar.

4.

Assume the voltage at the buses should be limited between 0.95 and 1.05p.u. Is there

any violation out of these bus voltage limitations? If the shunt capacitor bank at bus

3 is out of service, will there be any violations on the bus voltages?

(The bus voltage limits can be specified in the Case Information Limit

Monitoring Settings and Limit Violations dialog.)

5.

Record the bus voltage magnitudes at buses 3 and 4 when the amount of nominal

reactive for the shunt capacitor bank at the bus 3 is changed from 0 to 40MVar in

steps of 10Mvar. Note down the changes of the bus voltages and the system losses.

Comments on the results.

(The system losses can be observed in Case Information Case Summary for

Current Case.)

6.

Change the tap position of the transformer connected between buses 1 and 4, and

record the reactive power output of the generator at bus 1 and the voltage magnitudes

at buses 1, 4, and 3 for the tap positions at 0.95, 1 and 1.05. Comment on the results.

7.

Change the tap ratio of transformer between buses 1 and 4 back to 1.0. Add a new

transformer between buses 1 and 4. The specifications of the new transformer are the

same as the existing one. Find out the power dispatch of these two transformers.

What if the reactance of the new transformer is twice of the existing one? Comment

on the results.

8.

Disconnect the new transformer between buses 1 and 4. The transmission line

between buses 3 and 4, and the shunt capacitor bank at bus 7 are out of service

because of an accident. How much load should be cut to maintain the voltage

magnitude of bus 3 above 0.95 p.u.? Comment on the reason why you choose to cut

that specified load.

Connect the transmission line between buses 3 and 4, and the shunt capacitor at bus

7 back before proceed to the next question.

9.

A new transmission line is installed between buses 3 and 4. The parameters of the

new transmission line are the same with the existing one. Find out its impacts on the

power flow of the transmission lines, the bus voltage magnitudes, and the total loss

of the system. Comment on the results.

10. Remember to remove the extra transmission line and transformer from the network.

PowerWorld Simulator offers a set of tools for contingency analysis. Click the Tools

tab and select Contingency Analysis. The simulator uses a full Newton-Raphson

Elec4612 - Experiment 2 Power Flow

Page 4

solution by default to perform the analysis. By using this simulator, the user can

determine whether the given system can still operate under an acceptable state in

certain contingencies. Assume the bus voltages should be maintained within 5% of

the rated voltage. Investigate whether the system will remain secure:

a.

b.

c.

d.

When the transmission line between buses 5 and 7 is out of service.

When the switched shunt at bus 3 is out of service

Click on Auto Insert, and choose automatically generate contingency

involving. a single transmission line or transformer.

4. DISCUSSION:

1. Comment on the relative merits of the Gauss-Seidel method and the Newton-Raphson

method in solving power flow problems.

2. How does the change of active and reactive power affect the bus voltages? Is there any

difference? Why?

3. Comment on the effects of the shunt capacitors and the transformer tap changing in the

system operation.

4. Comment on possible ways for improving the reliability of the system operation.

_____________

Page 5

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