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San Vicente, Urdaneta City, Pangasinan
Summer AY 2014 - 2015
Case Study Format
I. Patient Assessment Database
a. General Data
1. Patients Initials AC
2. Address San Nicolas
3. Age 68
4. Sex M
5. Birth date May 24, 1946
6. Rank in the family Father
7. Nationality Filipino
8. Religion Roman Catholic
9. Civil Status Married
b. Date of Admission 2-15-15
Order of Admission
Attending Physician Dr. Peralta
Chief Complaint: Difficulty of breathing accompanied by anorexia and muscle
History of Present Illness: One (1) month PTA, Mr. A experienced difficulty of
breathing, and anorexia lasting for 1 week. A week PTA, he still experienced
difficulty of breathing, and anorexia associated plus muscle weakness but still
he did not seek medical attention. A day PTA, he still experienced the same
signs but this time he decided to seek medical attention.
Physiologic Cues
Blood Pressure

Normal Adult Temperature Ranges: Oral 36.5 37.5 C Axillary 35.8 37.0 C
Rectal 37.0 38.1 C Tympanic 36.8 37.9C
Normal Pulse rate 1 year 80-140 beats/min 2 years 80- 130 beats/min 6 years
75- 120 beats/min 10 years 60-90 beats/min Adult 60-100 beats/min
Normal 14-20/ min in adult
Adult 90- 132 systolic 60- 85 diastolic Elderly- 140-160 systolic 70-90
For adult males 163.5 cm (5' 4.3") for adult females, 151.8 cm (4' 11.8")

Actual Findings
Axillary: 36.8.C
Adult: 87bpm



The average weight for Filipino adults is relatively low at 121 pounds for those
aged 20 to 39, 122 pounds for those aged 40 to 59, and 109 pounds for those
aged 60 and over.
Below 16.0 = Severely underweight
From 16.0 to under 18.5 = Underweight
From 18.5 to below 25 = Normal
From 25 to below 30 = Overweight
From 30 to below 35 = Obese

54 kilos or 118.8

20.4 BMI

II. Introduction
Brief Description of the Disease Condition
The body is made up of many types of cells. Normally, cells grow, divide and die. Sometimes,
cells mutate (change) and begin to grow and divide more quickly than normal cells. Rather than
dying, these abnormal cells clump together to form tumors. If these tumors are malignant
(cancerous), they can invade and kill your body's healthy tissues. From these tumors, cancer
cells can metastasize (spread) and form new tumors in other parts of the body. By contrast,
benign (noncancerous) tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Nasopharyngeal cancer
is a malignant tumor that develops in the nasopharynx .The nasopharynx is the area where the
back part of your nose opens into your upper throat. This is also where tubes from your ears
open into your throat.
Nasopharyngeal cancer is rare. It most often affects people who are between 30 and 70 years of
age. Men are more likely to have nasopharyngeal cancer than women. You are most likely to get
this cancer if you or your ancestors came from southern China, particularly Canton (now called
Guangzhou) or Hong Kong. You are also more likely to get this cancer if you are from a country
in Southeast Asia, like Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia or Thailand. No one knows for sure what causes
nasopharyngeal cancer. Eating salt-preserved foods (like fish, eggs, leafy vegetables and roots)
during early childhood may increase the risk of getting this form of cancer. The Epstein-Barr
virus may also make a person more likely to get nasopharyngeal cancer. This is the same virus
that causes infectious mononucleosis (also called "mono"). You may also inherit a tendency to
get nasopharyngeal cancer.


Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Respiratory System



respiratory system consists of all the organs involved in



These include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and

respiratory system does two very important things: it brings oxygen



bodies, which we need for our cells to live and function properly; and it



get rid of carbon dioxide, which is a waste product of cellular function.

The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi all work like a system


pipes through which the air is funneled down into our lungs. There,

in very

small air sacs called alveoli, oxygen is brought into the bloodstream


carbon dioxide is pushed from the blood out into the air. When
something goes wrong with part of the respiratory system, such as


infection like pneumonia, it makes it harder for us to get the oxygen we

need and to get rid of the waste product carbon dioxide. Common respiratory symptoms include
breathlessness, cough, and chest pain.

The Upper Airway and Trachea

When you breathe in, air enters your body


your nose or mouth. From there, it travels


throat through the larynx (or voicebox) and


trachea (or windpipe) before entering your


these structures act to funnel fresh air down


outside world into your body. The upper


important because it must always stay open

for you to

be able to breathe. It also helps to moisten




the air before it reaches your lungs.

The Lungs
The lungs are paired, cone-shaped organs which take up most of the space in our chests, along
with the heart. Their role is to take oxygen into the body, which we need for our cells to live and
function properly, and to help us get rid of carbon dioxide, which is a waste product. We each
have two lungs, a left lung and a right lung. These are divided up into 'lobes', or big sections of
tissue separated by 'fissures' or dividers. The right lung has three lobes but the left lung has only

two, because the heart takes up some of the space in the left side of our chest. The lungs can
also be divided up into even smaller portions, called 'bronchopulmonary segments'.

These are pyramidal-shaped areas which are also separated from each other by membranes.
There are about 10 of them in each lung. Each segment receives its own blood supply and air

Air enters your lungs through a system of pipes called the bronchi. These pipes start from the
bottom of the trachea as the left and right bronchi and branch many times throughout the lungs,
until they eventually form little thin-walled air sacs or bubbles, known as the alveoli. The alveoli
are where the important work of gas exchange takes place between the air and your blood.
Covering each alveolus is a whole network of little blood vessel called capillaries, which are very
small branches of the pulmonary arteries. It is important that the air in the alveoli and the blood
in the capillaries are very close together, so that oxygen and carbon dioxide can move (or
diffuse) between them. So, when you breathe in, air comes down the trachea and through the
bronchi into the alveoli. This fresh air has lots of oxygen in it, and some of this oxygen will travel
across the walls of the alveoli into your bloodstream. Travelling in the opposite direction is carbon
dioxide, which crosses from the blood in the capillaries into the air in the alveoli and is then
breathed out. In this way, you bring in to your body the oxygen that you need to live, and get rid
of the waste product carbon dioxide.

Blood Supply
The lungs are very vascular organs, meaning they receive a very large blood supply. This is
because the pulmonary arteries, which supply the lungs, come directly from the right side of
your heart. They carry blood which is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide into your lungs so
that the carbon dioxide can be blown off, and more oxygen can be absorbed into the
bloodstream. The newly oxygen-rich blood then travels back through the paired pulmonary veins
into the left side of your heart. From there, it is pumped all around your body to supply oxygen to
cells and organs.

The Pleurae






membranes that we call pleurae. The


have two layers, a 'visceral' layer which


closely to the outside surface of your lungs,


'parietal' layer which lines the inside of

your chest

wall (ribcage). The pleurae are important


they help you breathe in and out smoothly,


any friction. They also make sure that when


ribcage expands on breathing in, your


expand as well to fill the extra space.

The Diaphragm and Intercostal Muscles

When you breathe in (inspiration), your muscles need to work to fill your lungs with air. The
diaphragm, a large, sheet-like muscle which stretches across your chest under the ribcage, does
much of this work. At rest, it is shaped like a dome curving up into your chest. When you breathe
in, the diaphragm contracts and flattens out, expanding the space in your chest and drawing air
into your lungs. Other muscles, including the muscles between your ribs (the intercostal muscles)
also help by moving your ribcage in and out. Breathing out (expiration) does not normally require
your muscles to work. This is because your lungs are very elastic, and when your muscles relax
at the end of inspiration your lungs simply recoil back into their resting position, pushing the air
out as they go.

The Respiratory System and Ageing

The normal process of ageing is associated with a number of changes in both the structure and
function of the respiratory system. These include:

Enlargement of the alveoli. The air spaces get bigger and lose their elasticity, meaning
that there is less area for gases to be exchanged across. This change is sometimes
referred to as 'senile emphysema'.

The compliance (or springiness) of the chest wall decreases, so that it takes more effort to
breathe in and out.

The strength of the respiratory muscles (the diaphragm and intercostal muscles)
decreases. This change is closely connected to the general health of the person.

All of these changes mean that an older person might have more difficulty coping with increased
stress on their respiratory system, such as with an infection like pneumonia, than a younger
person would.