You are on page 1of 5

Generic Name:

Atorvastatin
Brand Name:
Lipitor
Drug Classification:
Antihyperlipidemic
Dosage:
20mg/tab
Indication: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in high-risk pts. Reduces risk of stroke and heart attack in
diabetes with or without evidence of heart disease.

Mechanism of Action
Inhibits HMG-CoA
reductase, the enzyme
that catalyzes the early step
in
cholesterol synthesis.
Therapeutic Effect:
Decreases LDL and VLDL,
plasma
triglyceride levels;
increases HDL
concentration.

Generic Name:
Brand Name:

Adverse Reaction
Potential
for
photosensitivity,
rhabdomyolysis.

Lactulose
Enulose

cataracts,
myalgia,

Contraindication
Active hepatic disease,
lactation, pregnancy,
unexplained elevated
hepatic function test results.

Side Effects
Headache.

pts with type 2

Nursing Considretaions
1.

Give
cold compress on the
head.
2.
Massage the head /
neck / arm if the
patient can tolerate the
touch.

Drug Classification:
Dosage:
Indication:

Laxative
30 ml OD HS
Treatment of chronic constipation.

Mechanism of
Action

Adverse Reaction

Contraindicatio
n

Prevents
reabsorption of
ammonia, producing
osmotic effect.
Therapeutic Effect:
Promotes increased
peristalsis,
bowel evacuation;
decreases serum
ammonia
concentration.

Diarrhea indicates
overdose. Longterm
use may result in
laxative
dependence,
chronic
constipation, loss of
normal
bowel function.

Use in pts
requiring a
low-galactose
diet.

Side Effects

Nausea,
vomiting.

Nursing Considerations

1. Relieve sensation of nausea by providing any of


the following:

Ice chips

Hot tea with lemon

Hot ginger ale

Dry toast or crackers

Cold cola beverage

2. Position the patient: To prevent aspiration

Conscious: semi fowlers

Unconscious: lateral

3. Provide good oral care measures

Generic Name:
Brand Name:
Drug Classification:
Dosage:
Indication:

Captopril
Capoten
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.
tab of 1 tab BID
Treatment of hypertension alone or in combination with thiazide-type diuretics.
Treatment of CHF in patients unresponsive to conventional therapy; used with diuretics and digitalis.

Mechanism of Action
Suppresses reninangiotensin-aldosterone
system (prevents
conversion of angiotensin
I to angiotensin II, a potent
vasoconstrictor;
may inhibit angiotensin II
at local vascular and renal
sites). Decreases
plasma angiotensin II,
increases
plasma renin activity,
decreases aldosterone
secretion.

Generic Name:
Brand Name:
Drug Classification:
Dosage:
Indication:

Adverse Reaction

Contraindication

Excessive hypotension
(first-dose syncope)
may occur in pts with CHF
and in
those who are severely
sodium/
volume depleted.
Angioedema (swelling
of face/tongue/lips),
hyperkalemia occur
rarely. Agranulocytosis,
neutropenia may
be noted in those with
collagen vascular
disease (scleroderma,
systemic lupus
erythematosus), renal
impairment. Nephrotic
syndrome may be noted in
those
with history of renal disease.

History of angioedema
from previous treatment with
ACE inhibitors.

Digoxin
Lanoxin
Antiarrhythmic, cardiotonic.
1mg IV
Treatment of mild to moderate CHF

Side Effects

Nursing Considretaions

Headache

Diarrhea

1. Give
cold compress on the
head.
2.
Massage the head /
neck / arm if the
patient can tolerate the
touch.
1. restrict solid food
intake to allow for
bowel
rest
and
intestinal workload.
2. provide measures to
control diarrhea by
resting in bed.

Mechanism of
Action
Increases influx of
calcium from
extracellular
to intracellular
cytoplasm.
Therapeutic
Effect: Potentiates
activity of
contractile cardiac
muscle fibers,
increases
force of myocardial
contraction.
Slows the heart rate
by decreasing
conduction
through SA, AV
nodes.

Adverse Reaction

Contraindicatio
n

Most common early


manifestations of
digoxin toxicity are
GI disturbances (an
orexia, nausea,
vomiting),
neurologic
abnormalities
(fatigue, headache,
depression,
weakness,
drowsiness,
confusion,
nightmares).

Ventricular
fibrillation.

Side Effects

Dizziness

Nursing Considerations

1. Encourage patient to lie down for minute or two. This


will allow more blood to flow to your brain.
2. After lying down sit up slowly and remain sitting for 1 to

Headache

2 minutes before slowly standing up.

1. Give cold compress on the head.


2.
Massage the head / neck / arm if the patient can
tolerate the touch.

Generic Name:
Brand Name:
Drug Classification:
Dosage:

Spironolactone
Aldactone
Potassium- sparing diuretic, antihypertensive
25mg/tab 1 tab BID

Indication:

Management of edema associated with severe CHF

Mechanism of
Action

Adverse Reaction

Contraindicatio
n

Side Effects

Nursing Considerations

Interferes with
sodium reabsorption
by
competitively
inhibiting action of
aldosterone
in distal tubule,
promoting sodium
and water excretion,
increasing
potassium
retention.

Severe
hyperkalemia may
produce
arrhythmias,
bradycardia, EKG
changes
(tented T waves,
widening QRS
complex,
ST segment
depression).

Acute renal
insufficiency,
anuria,
hyperkalemia.

Dizziness

1. Encourage patient to lie down for minute or two. This


will allow more blood to flow to your brain.
2. After lying down sit up slowly and remain sitting for 1 to
2 minutes before slowly standing up.