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Waves & Universe



Unit Review







1) What is a wave?

Transfer of energy through a medium

2) What happens to the particles that a wave flows through?
return to their original position

The only oscillate (vibrate) and

3) Explain how a sound wave works?
Energy is transferred to a particle. That particle transfers
its energy to the next particle and returns to its original position. Eventually a particle transfers the
energy to someone’s ear drum and makes it vibrate at the same frequency as the source vibrated at.
4) What does a sound wave actually carry (or transport)?


5) What is wavelength?

Distance from peak to peak or trough to trough

6) What is amplitude?

Distance from centerline (rest position) to the peak or trough

7) What does the amplitude of a wave correspond to? (What does it relate to?)
8) In a sound wave, what does the amplitude relate to?
9) What is frequency?



Number of cycles (events) per second

10) What are the SI (metric) units for frequency?

Hertz (Hz)

11) If a circus performer swings back and forth 3 times in 15 seconds, what is the frequency of swings?
F=3/15s = 0.2 Hz
12) How are frequency and pitch related?
ears interpretation of the sources frequency)

Pitch is really the same as frequency (pitch is your

Use the diagram below to answer the next set of questions.

13) Which sets of letters identifies the amplitude of the wave shown above? Identify 2 sets.

B-C, K-I

14) Which sets of letters identifies the wavelength of the wave shown above? Identify 3 sets.

B-G, E-I

15) How many wave oscillations/cycles are shown in Figure 1 above?


Use the diagram below to answer the next set of questions

16) Which wave pattern above represents the highest frequency?


17) Which wave pattern above represents the lowest frequency?


18) Which wave pattern above has the longest wavelength?


19) Which wave pattern above has the shortest wavelength?


20) Which wave pattern above illustrates the loudest sound?


21) Describe what the Doppler Effect is?
It is the change in frequency/wavelength someone
observes as the source moves relative to their position. Wavelength decreases and Frequency
increases as an object approaches you. As the object moves away, Wavelength increases and
Frequency decreases
22) How does the Doppler Effect change sound if the object is moving…
towards you?

Pitch goes up

away from you?

Pitch goes down

23) How does the Doppler Effect change light if the object is moving…
towards you?

Light shifts to the blue end of the spectrum = Blueshift

away from you?

Light shifts to the red end of the spectrum = Redshift

Electromagnetic Spectrum:
24) What are the 3 things that vary on the Electromagnetic Spectrum?

Wavelength, frequency & energy

25) What are the categories of waves on the EM Spectrum from longest wavelength to shortest? Radio,
Microwave, Infrared, Visible Light, Ultraviolet, X-ray, Gamma
26) What category on the EM Spectrum has the highest frequency?



27) What category on the EM Spectrum has the most energy?


Least energy? Radio

28) What is the main difference between any 2 colors of light?

Wavelength (or frequency)

29) Where might you encounter each of the different forms of EM waves? (i.e. what are some
devises/applications that use each type of wave?)
− Radio:

Radios, energy coming in from outer space

− Microwave:

Microwaves, radar guns, cellphones

− Infrared:

Sun, animals, anything that gives off heat

− Visible Light:Sun, lightbulbs, candles


− Ultraviolet Light:
− X-rays:

Sun, tanning beds

X-ray machines

− Gamma Rays:

Cancer treatment, nuclear bombs, nuclear powerplants, outer space

The Universe:
30) What discovery led to our belief that the Universe is expanding?

Cosmic Redshift

31) Explain what the Big Bang is.
Idea that the Universe (all matter, space and time) started
from an infanantly small space and expanded over time.
32) What initally is the best piece of evidence we gathered for proof of the Big Bang Theory?
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
33) How old do we think the Universe is?
13.7 Billion years old
34) What elements were formed during the Big Bang?
35) What is a nebula?

Hydrogen and Helium

Cloud of gas and dust.

36) When does a nebular cloud officially become a Star?

When fusion begins in the core

37) Where in a star is energy produced when it is on the main sequence?

Core of the star

38) What process within a star produces the energy?


39) How do we get so much energy from this process?
energy (E=mc2)

A little bit of mass is converted into a lot of

40) What is the heaviest element a Sun-sized star can produce in its core?


41) What is the heaviest element that the largest sized star can produce in its core?


42) Where do elements heavier than a star can produce in its core come from then?


43) How can we determine a stars composition?


44) How can we determine a stars temperature?
wavelengths of energy

Spectroscopy, star color or peak

45) What does an HR Diagram plot on its X and Y axis?
Luminosity (x) vs. Temperature (y)
46) What is the main sequence?
Band of stars that
runs from the top left to the bottom right on an HR
47) Label on the HR Diagram where the following are
located …
− Main Sequence
− Red Giants
− Red Supergiants




− Blue Giants
− Red Dwarfs
− White Dwarfs?


48) Where on an HR Diagram (and in a stars life cycle) do stars spend most of their life?
49) What happens to a star as it sits on the main sequence
− in terms of its size?

Size does not stay (it is in equilibrium)

− in terms of its fuel?

Hydrogen fuel gets used up and creates Helium ash


50) Describe the life cycle of a Sun-sized star when it uses up the hydrogen in its core? Include where
it is on the HR Diagram during its different stages.
When its hydrogen is almost all used
up, it leaves the main sequence and begins to burn hydrogen in its shell and expands to become a
red giant. It gets hot enough in the core to fuse the helium in a helium flash. It reaches equilibrium
again. The hydrogen and helium shells burn and it becomes a red giant again. The burning helium
creates carbon. The star eventually doesn’t have enough energy to fuse elements and stops burning.
The outer shells drift away and become a nebula. The inner core is now a white dwarf and cools
down eventually giving up all of its heat and light and becomes a black dwarf

51) What two things remain after a Sun-sized star dies?

Nebula and white dwarf

52) If a star is 8X bigger than the Sun, how does its die differently than our Sun?
It will swell
up to a Red Supergiant and will have enough energy to fuse elements up to iron. Eventually it will
run out of fuel and will collapse in on itself and go supernova (explode)

53) What are the possible things that remain when a massive star dies?
Star. Nebula and Blackhole

Nebula. Nebula and Neutron

54) Explain the nebular hypothesis/theory?
Theory that our solar system (and all solar systems)
starts with small particles that eventually come together to form stars, planets, moons etc.

55) According to the nebular theory… how do we get planets to form? (include static charges and
gravity in your answer.)
Static charges bring particles together (like dust bunnies forming).
The bigger clumps attract more particles and collide into more particles, growing even bigger.
Eventually the clumps get big enough (1/2 mile in diameter) that gravity can now start to pull
smaller particles and clumps into it.

56) According to the nebular theory… how old is our solar system?

4.6 Billion years old