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**Oscillators: are the sources of sinusoidal electrical
**

waves for electronic communication systems .

They are supplied from a dc source and they generate

alternating voltages of high or low frequencies.

1

•

•

Operation of an Oscillator

**Oscillator : is a circuit that changes dc energy from the power
**

supply into ac energy.

An amplifier provided with a positive feedback becomes an oscillator •

and it produces an output signal even thought there is no external input

signal as shown

2

•

**A voltage source Vin drives the input terminals of an amplifier. The amplifier
**

output voltage is AVin and it drives the feedback network producing a

feedback voltage Vf = AβVin .

If the circuit of the amplifier and the feedback network provide correct

phase shift, then this feedback voltage Vf will be in phase with signal Vin

that drives the input terminals of the amplifier.

Now, if switch is closed and simultaneously the voltage source Vin is

removed, the feedback voltage Vf will drive the input terminals of the

amplifier.

3

If Aβ is less than 1. the output signal builds up resulting in oscillations with growing magnitude . AβVin =Vin and the output voltage is a sine wave whose amplitude remains constant.the signal feedback is not sufficient to drive the amplifier and the feedback circuits and the output will die out. 4 . . AβVin will be less than Vin . ..If A β >1.If Aβ =1.

The condition IAβI = 1 is called the Barkhausen criterion. • It implies that when IAβI =1. an infinitesimal signal (noise voltage) can produce an • output signal even without an input signal and the circuit acts as an oscillator. the magnitude of the product of the transfer gain amplifier and the magnitude of feedback factor of the feedback network is less than unity. 5 • • .From the basic feedback equation with Aβ = -1 and the term in the denominator becomes zero . Therefore. then Af becomes infinite. there exists an output voltage even in absence of any externally applied signal. • • The oscillations will not be sustained if.

At oscillator frequency. 6 • • . Aβ must decrease to 1 • 3. we can summarize the requirements of an oscillator circuit as: 1. Aβ is kept slightly larger than unity so that any variation in circuit • parameters may not cause Aβ to become less than unity otherwise the oscillation will stop.this due to change in the characteristics of active devices with voltage . Therefore. So.then after sometimes it is found that the Aβ will either become lower or higher than unity . After the desired output level is reached. 2. the loop gain must be greater than unity at oscillator frequency.If IAβI = 1 precisely . net phase shift around the loop must be zero or integer multiple of 360° so that the feedback signal is in phase with the starting infinitesimal voltage. Initially. temperature or ….

it results in negative feedback causing the output voltage to decrease. 7 • . If a part of this output is taken and fed back to input.Phase Shift Oscillator A phase shift oscillator consists of a single stage of amplifier that • amplifies the input signal and produces a phase shift of 180° the input and its output signal.

a total phase-shift of 360° (which is equivalent to 0°) results. Amplifier provides a phase shift of 180° and the phase-shift network also • gives a 180° and therefore.Phase Shift Oscillator But we require positive feedback which means that the voltage signal feedback should be in phase with the input signal. 8 • . • • The output of the amplifier should taken through a phase-shift network to provide it an additional phase shift of 180°.

But in actual practice each RC-section does not provide the same phase • shift because each section loads the previous one but the over all phase shift is 180° which is the requirement .resulting in total of 180° phase shift as desired . these values are selected so as to • produce 60° phase shift per section . The O/P of the phase shift network is connected to the I/P of the amplifier • . 1 The frequency at which phase shift is 180° is : • f = 2πRC 6 This the frequency of oscillation • 9 • .The RC network provides the required phase shift by using three RC Each having some value of R and C.

Aβ>1 A>1/β A>29 10 • • • • .gain of amplifier stage must be greater than 29 .1 f = 2πRC 6 at this frequency β=1/29 For loop gain Aβ to be greater than unity .

fo = Wein Bridge Oscillator 1 2π R1 R2C1C2 The principle This type of oscillation uses two stages of amplifiers each providing a phase shift of 180 . The O/P of second stage is fed back to the I/P through a feed back network without producing any further phase shift . 11 .

The polarity of feedback applied to the base is such that it is regenerative (positive). and R2. 12 • • . C1. and the other contains R1. For the circuit to oscillate. and the portion of voltage across R2 C2 of R1 C1.-R2 C2 branch is applied to base of Q1. the positive feedback must be greater than the negative feedback.. each of which acts as a voltage divider for the feed-back voltage. C2 • • The feedback voltage developed across R4 of R3 R4 branch is applied to emitter of • Q1. • The bridge network consists of two parallel branches.WBO The wein bridge oscillator uses two stages to provide 180 phase shift per stage and a bridge network to control the frequency of oscillation. and the feedback applied to emitter tends to be degenerative (negative). • One branch contains R3 and R4.

If the frequency tends to decrease. the voltage across R4 is less than that across R2 C2 • So. This results in a corresponding decrease in positive feedback developed across R2 C2. the impedance of R2 C2 combination decreases.At the frequency of oscillation. Since C2 shunts R2. • reducing the positive feedback applied to the base below the level of negative feedback applied to emitter. the positive feedback again becomes less than the negative feedback. the reactance of C1 increases causing more of the feedback voltage to be dropped across C1 . As the frequency increases. the circuit oscillates. 13 • • . preventing the circuit from oscillating. fo. Hence. reactance of the capacitor C2 decreases.

The frequency of oscillation of the oscillator is given by : 1 fo = 2π R1 R2C1C2 14 • .The frequency of oscillation of the oscillator can be varied by varying C1. and C2 simultaneously.

15 .RC oscillator using op-amp Phase shift oscillator which consists of an op-amp as the amplifying stage and three RC cascade networks as the feedback circuit is shown.

• • At some specific frequency when the phase shift of the cascaded RC • networks is exactly 180° and the gain of the amplifier is sufficiently large. 16 .RC oscillator using op-amp The feedback circuit provides feedback voltage from the output back to the input of the amplifier. The output of op-amp is shifted by 180° at the output. • • An additional 180° phase shift required for oscillation is provided by the cascaded RC networks. Thus the total phase shift around the loop is 360°. the circuit will oscillate at that frequency.

For a desired frequency of oscillation. 17 • • . choose a capacitor C.This frequency called the frequency of oscillation fo and is The circuit produces a sinusoidal waveform of frequency fo if the gain is 29 and the total phase shift is exactly 360° . and then calculate the value of R.

The capacitor C1 and the tapped coil L1 determine the frequency of the oscillator . The first part is used to supply ac voltage and the other part develops the positive feedback signal to sustain oscillation. L1a is in the base circuit and L1b is in the collector circuit of the transistor.Hartly Oscillator This oscillator has two parts of coil • . 18 1 • .The first part is in the input circuit of the transistor and the other part is in the output circuit . The two sections of tapped coil are L1a and L1b.

• The feedback voltage L1b is in phase • with the input voltage across L1a and hence results in oscillations. The drop in collector voltage is coupled through C3 and developed across L1b. This act as initial excitation for the • tank causing a circulating current to flow in the tank. The amplified signal at the collector is coupled back to the tank circuit by C3 and developed across L1b.the collector current begins to flow. 19 • . 1 This circulating current induced • voltage across L1a which drives the base of the transistor.When VCC is applied .

The F.C determine the frequency of oscillation: f = 1 2π LC • .B voltage is in phase with the input voltage as180° phase shift occurs between signal at base and collector. The capacitor C3 blocks the dc • components of collector circuit but couples ac signal. and another 180° is being • provided by the fact that the two ends of coil L1 are of opposite polarity. The dc components flows to Vcc • supply through r-f choke which also prevents ac components from following this path as RFC acts as a dc short and ac open. 20 The value of L.

inductors have • higher resistance and other losses. RF inductors. in resonant circuits this can reduce the Q factor of the circuit. broadening the bandwidth. are specialized construction techniques which used to minimize these losses. In addition to causing power loss.Remark Radio frequency inductor • At high frequencies. 21 . particularly radio frequencies (RF).

• 22 .30 MHz). • It is very popular and used in radio receivers as a local oscillator.F range (20 KHz .Hartley Oscillator Description : • The Hartley oscillator is designed for generation of sinusoidal oscillations in the R.

• • • The feedback network (L1.O The circuit diagram consists of an CE amplifier configuration. R1 and R2 form a voltage divider. The coupling capacitor Cc blocks dc and provides an ac path from the collector to the tank circuit.H. L2 and C) • determines the frequency oscillation of the oscillator. 23 .

O When the collector supply voltage • Vcc is switched on. setting up oscillations in the tank circuit.c voltage which is applied to the base emitter junction of the transistor and appears in the amplified form in the collector circuit. The oscillatory current in the tank • circuit produces an a.H. due to some transient disturbances in the circuit the collector current starts rising and charges the capacitor C. 24 • . • It discharges through coils L1 and L2.

Thus the total phase shift becomes • 360° (or zero). thereby making the feedback positive or regenerative which is essential for oscillations. 25 • • • . So continuous oscillations are obtained.O The phase difference between the voltages • across L1 and that across L2 is always 180°because the centre of the two is grounded.H. A further phase of 180° is introduced between the input and output the voltages by transistor itself.

26 .

When the voltage is applied across a piezoelectric (usually quartz). They use crystal slices. Oscillator provides great frequency stability. The crystal oscillates in a stable and accurate manner. 27 • • • . • • • The frequency of oscillation is determined by the crystal dimensions.The Crystal Oscillation A crystal oscillator is a tuned circuit using a crystal as a resonant circuit. The crystal materials exhibits the piezoelectric effect. Commercial quartz crystals are ready available with frequencies from a few kilohertz to a few hundred megahertz. usually made of quartz.

the crystal is cut and mounted between two metal plates. electrical charges appear across its faces. 28 • • . If a crystal is excited by an ac voltage the crystal generates a significant ac voltage. • For use in electronic circuit . and an ac voltage can be generated.If mechanical pressure is put on such a crystal.

• the natural resonant frequency depends on the type of material. This property of crystals make them highly useful in the oscillator circuits. 29 • • • . when the mounted crystal is not vibrating .it starts vibrating . When ac voltage is applied to the crystal .it is equivalent to a capacitance Cm because it has two metal plates separated by a dielectric . The natural frequency of a crystal is inversely proportional to its thickness. how it is cut and its physical dimensions.Consider that an ac source is connected across it .

• At this frequency. • • 30 • . This parallel combination offers maximum impedance. • The series resonant frequency fs of crystal is the resonant frequency of LCR branch.The crystal has two resonant frequencies. the impedance of LCR branch is minimum. • The crystal behaves as a parallel resonant circuit at a frequency at which the series LCR branch has an inductive reactance which equal to the capacitive reactance of Cm .

31 • .Colpitts Crystal Oscillator This figure shows a Colpitts crystal oscillator . The output is also fed back to the input which is "in-phase" with the input providing the necessary positive feedback. • • The output signal at the collector is • then taken through a 180o phase shifting network which includes the crystal operating in a series resonant mode. The input signal to the base of the transistor is inverted at the transistors output.

B resistor) . Calculate the frequency of oscillation if the three resistors are 1. • select the value of C to operate at 12 kHz .Design a phase shift oscillator using a FET . let C = 0. and RA • • • .Design a phase shift oscillator .1 µF and select values for R.5 k and the three capacitors are 0. R =20 k (F.1µF 32 . when: RD = 50 k .Provide a schematic for a three – section RC phase shift oscillator.to operate at 100 kHz. RF.Examples .

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