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ASSIGNMENT SOLUTIONS GUIDE (2014-2015)

E.H.I.-3
India: From 8th to 15th Century A.D.
Disclaimer/Special Note: These are just the sample of the Answers/Solutions to some of the Questions given in
the Assignments. These Sample Answers/Solutions are prepared by Private Teacher/Tutors/Auhtors for the help
and Guidance of the student to get an idea of how he/she can answer the Questions of the Assignments. We do
not claim 100% Accuracy of these sample Answers as these are based on the knowledge and cabability of Private
Teacher/Tutor. Sample answers may be seen as the Guide/Help Book for the reference to prepare the answers of
the Question given in the assignment. As these solutions and answers are prepared by the private teacher/tutor so
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has been taken while preparing these Sample Answers/Solutions. Please consult your own Teacher/Tutor before
you prepare a Particular Answer & for uptodate and exact information, data and solution. Student should must
read and refer the official study material provided by the university.

SECTION-I

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Q. 1. Critically examine the development of architectural styles and basis of classifying various
temples in the early medieval period.
Ans. 8th-13th century was the period of cultural heritage of India. The most important feature of cultural
tradition is regionalism which seen in every sphere, art, language and literature as well as religious manifestation. We have a lot of sources about cultural ethos in different parts of the country. Vishakhadatta’s Mudrakshasa
speaks of different regions whose inhabitants differ in custom, clothing and language. Chinese pilgrim HuanTsang also mentioned same as Vishakhadattas. Early medieval temples as a centre of education. Architecture
of temples and its decoration and painting etc.
(1) Temple Architecture: A large number of temples built during this period. These temples have
symbolised the very ethos of life-style of people from decades. Kanchi and Madurai is the earliest true and
found in India.
(a) Major Styles: The ancient text of Indian temple architecture broadly classify into three orders such
as Nagara, Dravida and Vesara. Among Nagara temple style founded in North, while Dravida temple style
founded in South India. The Dravida temple style. Comparatively speaking, followed a more consistent
development track and was confined to the most southernly portions of the sub-continent specially the
Krishna river and Kanyakumari.
(b) Presiding Deities: Each and every templ was dedicated to gods of the Brahmanical phantheon, but
Shiva and Vishnu too the great Mother Goddess as well. Except that Devas and Asuras and countless folk
deities such as Vakshas, Vakshis, Apsaras represent a world of their own. Animals and birds were the vehicles
(Vahanas) of these divinities like:
(a) Nandi, the agricul bull of Shiva.
(b) Tiger, the mount of Durga.

(c) The river goddesses, Ganga and Yamuna are identified by their Vahanas, crocodile and tortoise
respectively.

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(d) Lakshmi associated with elephant.
(e) Lotus associated with water.
(2) Shapes, Plans and Languages of Temple: Temple styles were varied from place to place and king
to king. South India remain dominant in temple style. The sanctury which main part is called the Vimana
where the Garbhagriha containing the main presiding deity is located. Mandapa or pavillion is the other
term of ground plane of assembly of devotees. The natmandir or dance hall and bhogamandapa were evolved
subsequently in Orissa temple such as the famous Sun Temple at Konarka. The Dravida style has a polygonal,
octagonal Shikhara and pyramidal Vimana, which is rectangular in shape.
(3) Ecological Setting, Raw Material and Regionalistation: All above things keep in mind when
temples were established in 8th-13th century. Temple structures were based on location and atmosphere. In
heavy rainfall area temples have sloping tiled roofs. The dangerous area of snow and hail, wooden sloped
roofs were used. In hotter and drier climate, the flatter the roof, open porches.
Apart from the ecological influences raw materials also affected styles of craftsmanship. In 3rd century
B.C. the transition from wood to stone was a great step. Pallava king Mahendravarman called VichitraChitta because discarded conventional perishable materials such as brick, timber and mortar and used hardest
rock and stones.

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(4) Role of Decorative Elements: Decoration of temples of various styles is a old and natural
phenomenon. This system developed slowly and surely. In the beginning Pallava period decorative elements
mention on pillars of lathe work.The temple of Madurai and Rameshwaram give extraordinary place to long
corridors on the surface with animals based caryatids. Mahabalipuram monuments has a plain shovel-headed
firial, develops a lion head in the Chola monuments. Dilwara Jain temples at Mt. Abu have extremely
exiquisite carving in marble in the ceilings are well decorative.
(5) Chronological and Geographical spread of Indian Temples: All temples are built in different
style because different rulers architect temples according to their own style.
(i) The Northern Style (5th-7th Centuries): We have different style of temples is 5th-7th centuries in
North, Central and Western India like the Parvati temple at Nachna, the Dashavatara temple at Deogarh,
Vishnu temple at Gopa and Sanchi at Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) The Deccan and Central India (6th-8th Century): Ellora in Maharashtra, Elephanta near Mumbai,
Badani in Karnataka these are the famous temples during this period.
(iii) Western and Central India (8th-13th Centuries): Chandella temples of Khajuraho, Sun temple
at Modhera and marble temples of Jain at Mt. Abu are famous temples during this period.
(iv) Eastern India (8th-13th Centuries): Lingraj and Rajarani temples of Bhubaneshwar, Sun temple
at Konarka, Jagannath temple at Puri are very famous temples in Eastern India. All these temples are in
Orissa.
Q. 2. Define iqtas, What was the nature and pattern of revenue assignments (iqtas) under the
delhi Sultans?
Ans. Iqta System and Provincial Administration

(1) Iqta: Iqta is a Arabic word and the institution had been in the force in the early Islamic world as a
form of reward for services to the state. It was used in the caliphate administration for paying civil and
military officers.

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In Turks period “Iqta” territorial area or units whose revenue were assigned to officials in lieu of salaries.
The grant of Iqta did not imply a right to the land nor was the hereditary though the holders of Iqta tended to
acquire hereditary rights in Firoz Tughluq’s region. These revenue assignments were transferable from one
region to another every three or four years.
(2) Provincial and Local Administration: During Muhammad Tughluq reign fiscal responsibilities
were partially withdrawn from the Muqtis or Walis and placed under central officers. According to Ibn
Batuta the Iqta of Amroha was placed under two officers. One is called Amir and other as Wali-ul-Kharaj.
Muhammad Tughluq also order that the salaries of soldiers maintained by Iqta-holders be paid by DiwaniWizarat to prevent fraud by the officers.
According to lbn Batuta, Chaudhuri was the head of hundred villages. The village was the smaller
unit of local administration. The main village functionaries were Khot, Muqaddam and Patwari. Courts of
the Qazi and Sadr functioned in the provinces. The Kotwal maintained law and order at village level.
Revenue Administration
The collection of revenue during the 13th century was uncertain. Turkish ruling groups had replaced
the previous land revenue system. According to Barani three groups of rural aristocracy Khot, Muqaddam
and Chaudhari collected land revenue from the peasants on the behalf of the state. Beside land revenue
(Kharaj) every cultivators had to pay house-tax (Ghari) and cattle and grazing tax (Charai).

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W.H. Moreland however uses the term intermediaries for all the three groups. Such peasants as were
weak and without resources were completely made prostrate and the rich peasant who had resources and
means turned rebels. Whole regions were devastated. Cultivation was totally abandoned. It is true that the
intermediaries were eliminated from direct revenue collection, but they were still expected to maintain law
and order in the countryside and helped the revenue officers without any remuneration.
The state’s direct relations with the peasants resulted in an expansion of revenue officials called variously
“ummal” mutasarrif, mushrif, muhassilan etc. Corruption seen among the revenue offcials for which they
were punished by the Naib Wazir, Sharaf Qaini, about 8 to 10 thousands officials were punished. Due to
corruptions among revenue collector official Alauddin had raised the salary of the revenue collectors and
also started new mode of collection of revenue in the form of grain. Ghiyasuddin Tughluq exempted revenue
from house and cattle tax. But Muhammad Tughluq enhance the land tax beyond 50%, under Firoz Tughluq
water tax started.
SECTION - II

Q. 3. What was Gordon Childe’s notion of an urban centre? Discuss the regional pattern on the
emergence and growth of urban centres in the early mdieval period.
Ans. Gordon Childe’s opinion of “Urban Revolution”. Childe emphasis more on the persence of
craft specialists and the role of agriculture surplus which supported non-food producers living in cities. He
listed monumental buildings, large settlement with dense population and existence of such people who were
not engaged in food production (rulers, artisans and merchants).
Regional Variations and Types

India is being a vast country many regional variations seen everywhere and in every field. In every
phase masses of the people affected through these changes. Ups and downs seen everywhere during the
medieval period. All this happened due to the agrarian expansion and agricultural production.

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(1) Rural Centres Transformed into Urban Centres: In medieval period the main sources of agrarian
expansion was due to the Brahmadeyas and Devadanas. Surplus of agriculture production and huge trade in
every field transformed rural centres into urban centres. 8th-9th century Chola city of South India emerged
as a craft centre.
(2) Market Centre, Trade-Network and Itinerant Trades: Nagarams located in Karnataka. It emerged
as a trading network especially agrarian regions. Basic features of Nagaram was to acquire an agricultural
hinter-land for non-producing urban groups staying in such centre. Market of these centres were owned by
nagaram assembly chief called Pattanasvami. The nagaram served as the market for agrarian peasant nadu
or kurram. Same trade market also can be seen in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. In Western India slowly
and gradually trade started in different routes from different directions. Commercial activities were taking
place which was the positive sign of rise of market and trade network in India. Even South India developed
inter-regional trade and over all whole India became market centre or we can say trade network. After that
traders developed their contracts with West and foreign traders such as Jews, Christains and Muslims,
through under special royal charters. Whole South Asia became the trade centre.
(3) Sacred/Pilgrimage Centre: Bhakti movement spread the idea of pilgrimage to religious centre in
early medieval period. Bhakti movement started in South India and spread in whole India very soon. Earlier
the system of religious worship only associated with higher caste (Brahmanas). However, pilgrimage centres
developed urban features due to mobile pilgrim population, trade and royal patronage. The role of emerging
market in the growth of tirthas is now being recognised by historians in a big way. Pushkar was a sacred
tirtha of regional importance with Vaishnava, Kasi with Brahmanical, Srirangam with Shaiva, while
Kanchipuram became a part of all Indian pilgrimage centre. Jain pilgrimage emerged in Gujrat and Rajasthan.
We say that South India in early medieval period as “temple urbanisation” because a large number of temple
structures existed there.

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(4) Royal Centre or Capital: Royal centre started new trade and communication link with the
agricultural hinterlands in South of Vindhyas. In early medieval India Mahajanapadas in North India and
traditional politics of South India was a example of Royal centres. Royal families developed own ports and
linked them with international commerce.
Royal centres of South and North Indian regions are:
(i) Vatapi and Vengi in the Karnataka and Andhra.

(ii) Kanchipuram of the Pallavas at Mahabalipuram.
(iii) Khajuraho of the Chandellas.
(iv) Valabhi of the Solankis.

Q. 4. Write a note on the currency system of the Delhi Sultans.
Ans. Currency System

Before the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate, it was marked by the scarcity of coinage particularly of
pure silver. The early Ghorid conquerors found that silver coins were made. The coins contained the image
of goddess or bull and horseman etc. These coins were called Delhiwal.
(1) Iltutmish (1210-1236): Iltutmish is credited for standardizing the coinage of the Delhi Sultanate.
The currency system was introduced by him. He introduced gold and silver tankas and also a copper jital
that was reckoned at 1/48th of the tanka in North India and 1/50th in the Deccan after the conquest of
Devagiri or Daultabad.

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The Sultan mints generally uttered coins in three metals–gold, silver and billion (copper mixed in less
quantity of silver). The main coins were tank and jital. Barani says that time dangs and dirams were also
used in Delhi. The equation of currencies are:
1 silver tanka = 48 jital = 192 dangs = 480 dirams. Upto Alauddin Khilji’s region silver currency
remained dominant but in Ghiyasuddin’s region silver currency declined in comparison to gold and billion
under Muhammad Tughluq gold coinage crushed silver coinage. In Firoz Tughluq’s period silver coinage
disappeared.
(2) Token Currency of Muhammad Tughluq: Muhammad Tughluq introduced a new coin of copper
and brass alloy and reckoned it at same value of silver tanka. This coin first time used in Persia and China
and became successful. But Muhammad Tughluq experiment in India became failure, because people forging
new coins and Government had not able to controlled it. Finally Muhammad Tughluq decided to withdraw
the token currency. He promised to exchange silver pieces for Bronze coins.
Q. 5. Discuss the organization of revenue adminstration under the Delhi Sultans.
Ans. The collection of revenue during the 13th century was uncertain. Turkish ruling groups had replaced the previous land revenue system. According to Barani three groups of rural aristocracy Khot,
Muqaddam and Chaudhari collected land revenue from the peasants on the behalf of the state. Beside land
revenue (Kharaj) every cultivators had to pay house-tax (Ghari) and cattle and grazing tax (Charai).

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W.H. Moreland however uses the term intermediaries for all the three groups. Such peasants as were
weak and without resources were completely made prostrate and the rich peasant who had resources and
means turned rebels. Whole regions were devastated. Cultivation was totally abandoned. It is true that the
intermediaries were eliminated from direct revenue collection, but they were still expected to maintain law
and order in the countryside and helped the revenue officers without any remuneration.
The state’s direct relations with the peasants resulted in an expansion of revenue officials called variously
“ummal” mutasarrif, mushrif, muhassilan etc. Corruption seen among the revenue offcials for which they
were punished by the Naib Wazir, Sharaf Qaini, about 8 to 10 thousands officials were punished. Due to
corruptions among revenue collector official Alauddin had raised the salary of the revenue collectors and
also started new mode of collection of revenue in the form of grain. Ghiyasuddin Tughluq exempted revenue
from house and cattle tax. But Muhammad Tughluq enhance the land tax beyond 50%, under Firoz Tughluq
water tax started.
Q. 6. Give a brief account of the political, socio-economic and religious factors for the rise of
bhakti movement in North India during the 14-15th centuries.
Ans. (1) Political Factors: Bhakti movement could not flourish in the Northern India before the Turkish
conquest because the socio-religious environment was dominated by the Rajput–Brahaman alliance, which
was against to any heterodox movement. The Turkish conquest crushed these alliances. Thus, the way was
paved for the growth of anti-caste and anti-Brahmanical ideology. The non-conformist sect of the Nathpanthi’s
was perhaps the first to gain from declining power of the Rajput–Brahman alliance. This sect seems to have
created an atmosphere for the rise of popular monotheistic movements and after Bhakti monvement in North
India.
(2) Socio-Economic Factors: It is said that the Bhakti movement of medieval period represented
comon people against the feudal oppression. According to this view point, element of revolutionary opposition
to feudalism can be found in the poetry of the Bhakti saints ranging from Kabir, Nanak, Chaitanya and

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Tulsidas. The Vaishnava Bhakti saints broke away from orthodox Brahmanical order only to the extent that
believed in Bhakti and religious equality.
The widespread popularity of the monotheistic movement of Kabir, Nanak and Dhanna etc, can be
explained fully only in the context of certain significant socio-economic changes in the period following the
Turkish conquest of North India. Though the growing classes of urban artisans were attracted towards the
monotheistic movement because of its egalitarian ideas as they were now not satisfied with the low status
accorded to them in traditional Brahmanical hereditary. The popularity of monotheistic movement was the
result of the support of it obtained from one or more of these different classes of the society.
Main Popular Movement and Their Characteristics
(1) Monotheistic Movement of North India: Kabir (1440-1518 AD) was the famous saint of the
montothestic movement. He belonged to a weaver family. His verses were included in the Sikh scripture, the
Adi Granth in large numbers than those of other monotheists. After Kabir Ravidas and Dhanna were the
prominent saints of monothestic movement. Guru Nanak (1469-1539) preached his ideas much in the Same
way as Kabir and other monothestic. He belonged to Khatri caste and was born in Nanakans Sahib (Punjab).
He founded the Sikhism religion and widely preach his ideology to the masses of the people in North India.
(2) Common Characteristic Features: The teaching of all the saints who are associated with the
monotheistic movement:

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(i) Most of the monotheis belonged to low castes and were aware that there existed a unity of ideas
among themselves. Most of them aware of the each-others teaching and influences. The ideological
affinity among the monotheists is also clear from the inclusion of the hymns of Kabir, Raidas
etc. along with those of Nanak by the 5th Sikh Guru Arjun Dev in the Adi Granth.
(ii) All the monotheists were influenced to each-other and in varying degrees by the Vaishnava
concept of Bhakti, Nathpanthi and the Sufism.
(iii) They all have been called monotheists because they believed in only one God. So the monotheistic
Bhakti called Nirguna and not Saguna Bhakti.
(iv) The followers of monotheistic ideology assaulted on caste system and idolatry. They followed
the path of the dominant religions of the time–Hinduism and Islam. They rejected the authority
of Brahmans.
(v)

The monotheistic saints followed the common language of North India. Thus, the use of common
language is a strirring feature of the movement in North India saints preached and spoke different
dialects in their teaching in common language.

(vi) Most of the monotheistic saints were not ascetics. They led worldly life and were manned.
(vii) The monotheistic saints travelled widely to propagate their beliefs.

(viii) The ideas of Kabir and monotheistic spread to various regions and became popular among the
lower classes. Dabisatan-i-Mazahib testifies to the continuing popularity of Kabir among the
people of North India.
(ix) Despite the widespread popularity that the teaching of monotheistic enjoyed among the masses
the followeres of each one of the major figures in the monotheistic movement like Kabir, Raidas,
Nanak organised themselves into exclusive sectarian orders called Panths, such as Kabir Panth,
Nanak Panth etc.

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(3) Vaishnava Bhakti Movement in North India: Ramananda was the most prominent scholar saints
of the Vaishnava Bhakti in Northern India. He is considered to be bridge between the South Indian Bhakti
and North Indian Vaishnava Bhakti. Vaishnava traditions link Kabir and some other monotheists to him as a
disciple. The innovations were due to the influence of Islamic ideas.
It has been suggested that the growing popularity of the heterodox Nathpanthis, the lower classes of
the society. His followers are called Ramanandis. Another prominent Vaishnava preacher in the Sultanate
period was Vallabhacharya in 15-16th century. He also advocated Krishna Bhakti. Surdas was the famous
Krishna Bhakti saint-poet. In North India Vaishnava Bhakti cult became more popular in Mughal period like
Tulsidas, Surdas, Mira Bai etc.
SECTION - III
Q. 7. (a) Brahmadeya and Devabana Grants
Ans. (1) Brahmadeya: Brahmadeya is a tax-free land or village given as gift to a single Brahmana or to
several Brahmana families which ranged from a few to several hundreds or even more than a thousand as
seen in South Indian context.
(2) Secular: From the 7th century onwards, officers of the States were also being remunerated through
land grants. This is of special significance because it created another class of landlords who were not
Brahmanas. We can say that incidence of grant of State officer varies from one region to another is also a
part of secularism.

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(3) Devadanas: Rent-free land gifted to brahmanical temples dities. Its Jain and Buddhist counterpart
is called Pallichanda. These centres worked for agricultural settlement and help in integrating various peasant
and tribal settlements through a process of collection. Temple lands were leased out to tenants, who paid
higher share of produce to the temple.
(d) Tantricism

Ans. Tantricism: Tantricism seen in the post-Gupta period in all religions. A great historian during that
time mentioned that the preponderance of the cult of the Mother Godess consequent upon the spread of
agriculture as a result of land grants. A recent study argues that the Devi Mahatmya of the Markandeya
Purana is the first comprehensive account of the Goddess to appear in Sanskirt in Madhya Pradesh which
refer 400 images.
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