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Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology

En017B-808

August 2, 2001

17:39

Ventilation, Industrial
Howard D. Goodfellow
University of Toronto and Stantec Global Technologies Ltd.

I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.

Ventilation Design Methodology
Ventilation Equipment
Design Equations for Industrial Ventilation
Ventilation Modeling Using Computers
Ventilation Modeling Using Fluid Dynamics
Solving Ventilation Problems for Existing Plants

GLOSSARY
Canopy Structure or enclosure located above a contaminant source to capture the rising contaminant into a
ducted system.
CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics.
Dust Small particles created by the breaking of larger
particles by mechanical action.
Face velocity Air velocity at the hood opening.
Froude number Dimensionless number that is the ratio
of inertial forces to buoyancy forces.
Fume Small solid particles formed by the condensation
of vapors of solid materials.
Hood Structure designed to enclose or partially enclose
a contaminant-generating operation.
Industrial air technologies Air flow control technologies to control workplace indoor environment and
emissions.
Mist Small droplet of materials that are ordinarily liquid
at normal temperature and pressure.
Neutral zone or plane of neutral pressure Elevation
within a building at which neither the outside air tends

to move into the building nor the inside air tends to
move out.
Reynolds number Dimensionless number that is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces.
Target levels Acceptable design levels for contaminants
in an industrial environment.
Threshold limit values Airborne concentrations of substances for conditions under which it is believed that
nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after
day without adverse effect.

THE FIELD OF INDUSTRIAL ventilation, or the more
general, Industrial Air Technology (IAT) is a challenging
field, which has been neglected by the scientific community until the last decade.
In all ventilation, the condition of the indoor environment called Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and the exposures
for the occupants are important. In industrial facilities, the
contaminant emission rates may be 10–100 times higher
than in nonindustrial facilities, but for many contaminants,
the IAQ levels may be the same. From a design point of

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These target levels may be determined for the whole area or locally. e. and controlled discharge of exhaust air to outdoors.P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. such as occupants. environment. and (3) safety systems. The target levels may be determined for the whole area or locally. and safety air systems. and INDUSTRIAL VENTILATION reduced production failures r Air conditioning systems fabrics. and other similar premises and processes. process ventilation. r Pneumatic conveying systems Conveying systems are used to transport captured pollutants from processes to a collection point.g. while the . In addition to the main controlled zone. r Process ventilation systems In process ventilation. These systems are based on local capture of contaminants. some indoor air parameters are controlled only partially. higher productivity. which require different target levels for indoor environment and its control. corporate image. the target is to maintain defined conditions to ensure process performance. gases.. Industrial air technology systems include drying. r Reduction in maintenance costs for the building r Reduction in energy consumption r Opportunity to select new energy-efficient systems in ventilation design r Environmental pollution is reduced by lower energy usage and lower emissions to the surroundings r Embraces Clean Plant Design Concept r Improve life cycle Figure 1 is a schematic representation of the principles of industrial ventilation. zones with different activities. zones with different target levels. PROCESS AIR TECHNOLOGY r Cleaning systems Cleaning systems are used to remove contaminants. Industrial air technology field is a more general description than industrial ventilation and includes measures to prevent harmful emissions from industrial processes to be discharged outdoors. and products Air conditioning systems include control of air quality and thermal environment for both human occupancy and processes r General ventilation systems In general ventilation systems. often only a part of the space needs to be controlled. For example. railroad and vehicle tunnels. paper machine hoods. energy. the first priority is to consider the process. The scope of the IAT field includes industrial process buildings. Typically. but other important issues. The benefits of advanced industrial ventilation with improved IAQ are The more general IAT system category can be classified into three categories: (1) industrial ventilation. r Improved health of workers and reduced absenteeism r Improved work satisfaction. clean the resulting fluid flows and collect materials before discharging the exhaust air. (2) process air technology. mining. r Local ventilation systems These are used for local controlled zones. Also. r Drying systems Drying systems are used to remove moisture. there may be one or more local controlled zones with different targets than in the main controlled zone. machines equipped with electrical components require very clean and accurately controlled indoor environment. etc. must also be considered. In addition to the main controlled zone. conveying and cleaning technologies. A more detailed breakdown of these systems is as follows.. as well as hospitals. industrial premises will have. underground car parks. It is typical for industrial premises to have. and vapors from the product SAFETY AIR TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS r Designs to ensure safety from explosions FIGURE 1 Zoning and IAT systems. Often only a part of the space requires controlling of the indoor environment parameters. there may be one or more local controlled zones with different target levels than the main controlled zone. in one space. livestock buildings. Industrial view. machinery. Target levels are usually lower than for air conditioning. 2001 17:39 436 Ventilation. in one space.

air set in motion. an area where the air is controlled locally. Process modifications to eliminate the contaminant problem can range from a total to a partial process change. process modification. The theoretical development of the design equations for heat release calculations. source capturing. Industrial ventilation refers to the control of the environment with airflow as it applies to processing and manufacturing operations. and dilution ventilation is covered. VENTILATION DESIGN METHODOLOGY A. Ventilation modeling is described for both computer applications and fluid dynamic techniques. I. and filters are subsystems of local exhaust ventilation. gravity or powered ventilators. environmental dispersion Note: Air distribution systems are not ventilation or air conditioning systems. change in material composition or temperature). Local ventilation systems can be divided into the following subsystems: r Local exhaust r Local supply. as well as other targets. the concentration of contaminant in the exhaust duct is significantly higher than in the general room area. fume control. type of system.. The development of cost-effective solutions requires an experienced and qualified ventilation engineer working with an industrial hygienist. These systems are commonly referred to as dust control. which is often the same as occupied zone r Local controlled zone. For example. for process control. Discharge systems are used to discharge exhaust air to outdoors in such a way that harmful spreading of pollutants to environment and back to indoors is avoided. shall be specified zone by zone. e. Industrial unoccupied zone by the ceiling needs only a less stringent controlled protection against structural damages. Local exhaust ventilation usually requires ducted systems with hoods and covers. Controlled zone is a zone in which the thermal and air purity (quality) conditions are controlled to their specified levels. etc. If no acceptable process changes are possible. Figure 2 is a schematic of a local exhaust ventilation system. including air curtains. This table includes a description of the four strategies..g. mixing air distribution or displacement air distribution are methods to bring the supply air to the treated space. the application of local exhaust ventilation should be considered. main characteristics. Experience has shown that the four solutions to be considered for a ventilation problem. i. or for production protection Uncontrolled zone is a zone in which source emissions will be captured by source capturing system. For local exhaust ventilation systems. the target levels of IAQ. are as follows: 1. the capture zone is uncontrolled (e.P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. frequency of operation. workers shall not enter a capture zone without additional protection). and typical applications. Techniques for solving ventilation problems for existing plants are summarized. Local ventilation systems are used for local controlled zones. Room air conditioning systems are used for controlling the main controlled zone. In industrial premises.g. Methods for Room Air Conditioning—Basic Strategies Table I summarizes the strategies for room air conditioning. 2001 17:39 437 Ventilation. These systems are based on local exhaust ventilation for local protection. From the pollutant concentration point of view. a change in the materials handling system may be required (e. Background Most industrial ventilation problems are complex. The design methodology for ventilation systems is described on the basis of the development of ventilation system design as an integral part of the project planning and design activities. . ducts. control of air flow using jets r Combined local supply and exhausts Fans. Systems can be divided into subsystems: r r r r r r r Air handling systems Air distribution systems (ductwork) Room air distribution systems Ventilation systems Room heating and cooling systems Main exhaust systems Discharge systems: stacks. the control requirements may be for worker protection and comfort. in order of priority. emissions.g.. 2.. and where the capture efficiency is determined and shall be maintained over the working period. For some operations. The two categories of controlled zones are r Main controlled zone is normally a large area. Procedures to be implemented for the development of technical specifications for louvers and roof exhausters are presented. and mist control systems.e. Primarily local protection should be made using process methods such as encapsulation.

(e. For these industrial ventilation applications. C. EX = exhaust Main characteristics: Ideal Contaminantand Heat Removal Efficiency Piston To create unidirectional air flow field over the room area by supply air. Figure 3 is a schematic of a general work area ventilation system. Design equations are developed in Section III for natural or forced ventilation systems for the control of heat. x Room air flow patterns controlled by low momentum unidirectional supply air flow. C. the concentration of contaminant in the exhaust duct is not significantly higher than the contaminant concentration in the general room air. height) SU = supply. For applications where local exhaust ventilation is not feasible. x Room air flow patterns controlled typically by high momentum supply air flow ∞ 1 ← −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−→ Typical application (An example of a general room air distribution method) 3. mg/m3 . C.g. %RH Y:axis: Room dim. contaminated air is exhausted to the outdoors and large volumes of makeup air are introduced to dilute plant air contaminants to acceptable concentrations. supply air distribution with low momentum SU Room dimension EX T. process building or general work area ventilation must be employed. For any specific industrial ventilation problem. Room dimension SU EX T. C. dust. the contaminated air can be exhausted by natural ventilation (taking advantage of buoyancy-driven forces arising from heat sources) or forced ventilation (using fans or roof exhausters). . strong enough to overcome disturbances Stratification Zoning Mixing To support flow field created by density differences by replacing the airflow out from the room area with supply air To control air conditions within the selected zone in the room by the supply air and allow stratification of heat and contaminants in the other room areas To provide uniform conditions throughout the ventilated space Room dimension SU Room dimension EX T. and FIGURE 3 Schematic of general work area ventilation system. x Room air flow patterns controlled mainly by boyancy. FIGURE 2 Schematic of local exhaust ventilation system. Industrial TABLE I Ideal Room Air Conditioning Strategies Air conditioning strategy Description Heat. 2001 17:39 438 Ventilation.P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. Humidity and Contaminant Distribution (Pictures) X-axis: ◦ C. For these systems. x Room air flow patterns controlled partly by supply and partly by boyancy SU EX T.

No scientific basis for many design applications 2.S. 2001 17:39 439 Ventilation. the plot plan. Goodfellow and E. (More details can be found in the “Handbook of Industrial Ventilation” edited by H. Cost-effective ventilation systems can only be developed if the ventilation system design is an integral part of the project planning and design activities from the preliminary conceptual stage. the building profile. For example. Ventilation field fragmented on a global basis so need collaboration by a team of international experts 9. ideal ventilation schemes may be based on the concept of a wide- open building to enhance natural ventilation: this is in conflict with noise control considerations that require the plant to be enclosed as much as possible to reduce neighborhood noise. and practitioners in the industrial ventilation field. The ventilation engineer must work closely with the project design team at all stages of the project since the ventilation system can have a major impact on the type of process to be used. A brief description of the different design steps follows below. scientists. 4.D. such as respirators. the ideal ventilation scheme may be in conflict with other environmental design criteria such as noise control and fume control. listed in the bibliography.) C. Many ventilation books are out of data 5. Canopies perform best if the building is totally enclosed to prevent cross drafts from disturbing the rising plume and causing it to miss the fume control system. Gaps in technical literature not defined and no roadmap identified for future technological developments 4. Design equations are also developed for dilution ventilation applications as they apply to gases and volatile vapors. The initial research and development effort was started in Finland in 1991 with the launch of the INVENT program and an investment of more than $20 million U. INVENT program started in Finland has generated momentum and a critical mass to make project successful The design of a ventilation system must be incorporated into the plant design and layout at the earliest conceptual stage of the project. B. This design methodology has been developed over many years of international collaboration and represents input from numerous engineers. No harmonization of design equations from different countries or researchers 3. No longer acceptable to overdesign ventilation systems 6. In 1995. Target Levels It is difficult to achieve a good indoor environment in an industrial facility because of the lack of a scientific FIGURE 4 Outline of the systematic design methodology procedure for industrial ventilation. An analysis of the current state-of-the-art identified the following issues: 1. Personal protection equipment. Industrial fume for large industrial process buildings. In many applications. Figure 4 is an outline of the systematic design methodology procedure for industrial ventilation. researchers. a decision was made at a workshop in Zurich to start preparation of an international guidebook for industrial ventilation. Tahti. Excellent opportunity to collate worldwide research and development efforts into a single handbook 10. dollars. significant progress has been made since 1990 in developing a systematic design procedure for industrial ventilation systems. Another example of this conflict is the use of canopies for remote fume capture. No accepted design methodology based on a rigorous scientific approach 8. Design Methodology On a global basis. No handbook in the industrial ventilation field 7.P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. . and equipment layout within the plant. should only be considered for solving ventilation problems as an emergency or an interim maintenance requirement.

Health risk estimates at low concentrations (e. This information on the benchmark air quality. Step 3: Building layout and structures basis for defining acceptable design levels for contaminants in an industrial setting. Target concentrations of air contaminants can be developed based on both human risk assessment and technology. needs for enclosure. such as available from FIOH and other international health and safety bodies..P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. and ventilation equipment r Divide process in such parts that their inputs and outputs to the environment can be defined FIGURE 5 Design methodology for industrial ventilation systems. investment.) r Literature search to obtain published ventilation design data Step 2: Process description r Understand the industrial process and identify subprocesses r Identify possible emission sources. A detailed database for existing contaminant exposure is available from the Finnish Institute of Occupational Hygiene (FIOH). effects of environmental parameters on production. Industrial foundation for setting target levels for industrial air quality. and life cycle costs. The control technology approach is based on information on “current” concentrations achieved by standard practices and “benchmark” concentrations achieved by the advanced ventilation and production technologies. below one-tenth of the current occupational exposure limits) are. This target level becomes the design input for establishing the industrial ventilation system design parameters. structures and building envelope. and the health and comfort effects form the r Collect properties of building layout. climatic conditions. site elevation.e. can be utilized for assessing concentration levels that are achievable. Details of a case history of the application of target level and design methodology for paper machine room ventilation are also included. inaccurate and rather unreliable. Existing contaminant exposure data banks. A detailed description of the use of target levels of air quality as a valuable design tool is presented in a “Handbook of Industrial Ventilation” by H. technology-based approaches for the assessment of target concentrations have been emphasized. Step 1: Given data r Identify and collect data that are site specific (i. Consequently.D. 6) review requirements for heat load calculations . Step 5: Source description r Identify emission sources by type (chemical and physical properties) r Complete typical data sheet to be used to develop a catalog of emission sources (Fig. in general. and openings r Complete zoning of building based on division of the process and building layout r Identify layout requirements and structures required for ventilation systems r Develop isometric of building showing all openings Step 4: Target-level assessment r Define target levels for indoor (zones) and outdoor (exhaust) conditions based on human risk assessment and technology r Specific design conditions for which the target levels for ventilation system based on reliability. Goodfellow and E. 2001 17:39 440 Ventilation. the current concentration levels.. energy consumption. Figure 5 shows a recommended approach for assessing target levels of industrial air quality. etc. etc.g. occupational areas. The benchmark air quality has been determined by measuring concentrations in factories equipped with the advanced technologies. Tahti.

This equipment should only be purchased after the system design has been completed and proper technical specifications have been prepared by a qualified and experienced ventilation engineer.P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. condensation risks. 2001 17:39 441 Ventilation. etc. sound and vibration damping. r Develop construction and commissioning plan FIGURE 6 Catalog of emission sources data sheet. the major equipment components are louvers and roof ventilators (gravity or powered). Industrial Step 8: Calculation of total building loads r Calculate total loads (heat. II. humidity. Some important guidelines that will assist the engineer in the preparation of better technical specifications include the following. Background For industrial ventilation systems. fire protection. contaminants) from different subprocesses and building for specific zones of the building r Account for time dependency of emissions r Evaluate system performance and establish if target levels or building layout and structures need to be revised Step 9: Selection of the system r Select acceptable systems based on target levels r Identify feasibility of different options selected r Select the most effective ventilation system Step 10: Selection of equipment r Identify system specifications r Select acceptable equipment based on performance characteristics r Equipment recommendations r Prepare a technical specification for selected equipment Step 11: Detailed design r Calculate dimensioning requirements for selected systems r Detailed layout ventilation systems r Design control system r Consider special issues such as thermal insulation. . VENTILATION EQUIPMENT Step 6: Local protection r Calculate heat loads from individual sources (see Section III) r Use emission data or calculation models r Calculate total volume of air set in motion r Heat and flow balances Step 7: Local protection r Examine feasibility of local source control r Calculate working conditions for different options r Compare to target levels of local zone A. maintenance. The technical specifications must clearly and concisely communicate the users’ requirements or criteria to the bidders.

gear box and shafting. Modify standard specifications. legalese. FIGURE 7 Typical ventilation equipment: (a) louvers. coordinated louvers. Louver elevation must be high enough to avoid damage from snow removal or other equipment. blade profiles. Louver elevation must be low enough to supply air without the occurrence of dead zones. blade profile. The velocity of the incoming air must be low enough to prevent uncomfortable drafts on personnel (≤0. that is. Clearly define the scope of work. 6. material of construction. galvanized. (b) roof gravity ventilators. The specified airflow into the building through louvers is established on the basis of ventilation design calculations. Design must be flexible to accommodate the addition of heat to the incoming air. 7. Define performance criteria and the required warranty. Some design guidelines for industrial louvers follow. Acoustic treatment may be required. 10. (c) square or rectangular powered roof exhausters. The basis of performance criteria must be well developed and must include details of testing procedures.g.g. 8. For guidance. and samples of contaminants. stainless steel). Discuss your requirements with suppliers first. and actual location of louvers. Be specific. Avoid highly restrictive ones. Industrial 1. 4. Do not reinvent the wheel. Attach a technical questionnaire to be completed by all bidders and used during bid analysis.. The engineer preparing specifications must have an in-depth technical knowledge of the specified components. 3. Do your homework.. 2001 442 17:39 Ventilation. 11. The operating types can be manual with a push bar spring and chain.5 m/sec). as well as the weather penetration at this velocity. Louvers In industrial buildings. aluminum) as well as custom design louvers (e. Strive for clarity and conciseness. A typical industrial louver profile is shown in Fig. 4. materials. what is included and excluded. Louver types can be fixed or operating. A special screen design may be required to keep out insects or birds. pneumatic. Louver designs must be architecturally pleasing. What is available? 5. 1. 6. in consultation with the louver suppliers. the prime purpose of louvers is to control the location and flow of incoming air. Aim for performance specifications. 5. Supply pertinent process data. and repetition. Minimize reference to general standards.P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. Louvers are available in a great variety of types. selection should follow the design guidelines listed earlier. 7. 12. 9. 2. dusty environments as well as under freezing conditions. 8. the engineer. B. or electric. Louvers may be located in a row around the perimeter of the building or may be stacked vertically in banks with proper support steel. Louvers must be located to account for wind patterns. Louvers come in a wide range of standard materials and finishes (e. information on operating conditions. Louvers must be of rugged design and able to operate in hot. 7. In the design of louvers for a ventilation system. Avoid ambiguous phrases. Resistance to airflow must be minimized. Any openings for louvers must minimize the penetration of rain or snow. and finishes. 2. can select the type of louver. 3. 10. Airflow requirements must be reduced during the winter. . test results. 9. the critical design features involve the air pressure drop at the specific velocity of the air (either expressed as a face velocity or velocity through the free area). or custom special louvers. For a specific application.

The primary function of a roof exhauster is the direct exhaust of heat. Gravity ventilator designs can be used to complement the architectural features of industrial buildings. streamline monitors. Heat Release Calculations Detailed calculations can be carried out to establish heat releases from the different operations within the process building. Ventilators may be gravity or powered. 4. Some general guidelines for selecting either gravity or powered ventilators include the following. the pressure drop can be determined from a typical curve based on test work for the specific louver. They can be located directly above the hot source. and square or rectangular. Powered roof ventilators come in three basic configurations: round. thus making up the primary ventilation flows. Powered ventilators must be sized to handle the required flow at a static pressure by using tables available from the equipment suppliers. from the workplace environment. poor flow conditions at either the inlet or outlet of the powered roof exhausters have a very significant effect on the ventilation rate. equipment or structural obstructions. Roof ventilators are devices designed either to introduce outdoor air into buildings or to exhaust air from them. Supply systems may bring outside air into specific work areas to control the in-plant environment. Figure 7 shows a typical profile of a gravity ventilator. In many plants. This would include radiant heat that is absorbed by the roof and walls and subsequently lost to the outside atmosphere. Figure 7 shows a schematic of a square or rectangular powered roof exhauster. information is available from the louver supplier that relates pressure drop in millimeters of water to air velocities through the free area of the louver expressed in meters per second. or guided-flow or sawtooth roof monitors. noxious gases. or to operate in either mode as required. height. air supply locations.25 m/sec. and wind factors. to bring in outdoor air. and the transient nature of heat releases all affect ventilation rates. the louver size can be determined. These supply units may be equipped with filters or humidifying sections to produce cleaned or conditioned air. A selection should only be made after proper technical and economic analyses have been completed. 2. The actual velocity of air through the blades is calculated by dividing the flow rate by the louver free area. maintenance). 6. Powered exhausters provide more flexible and better control. Heat is released from surfaces by convective forces that cause thermal updrafts. smoke. For each type of louver. The velocity usually selected is about 1. or they may supply makeup air to balance exhaust requirements. 5. Gravity ventilators are available in many different styles and materials of construction. Operating costs for powered ventilators will be higher (power. can operate in an on/off mode or with a two-speed fan. dome. For this velocity through the blades. 7. Some supply units may be designed to recover heat or to add heat by means of hot water or steam coils to reduce the space-heating load. 1. 3. They may be designed to exhaust air. the first step in problem solving should always be to measure actual flow rates in the field. It is also known that special building pressure conditions. However.P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. For specific conditions. Gravity ventilators depend on thermal driving forces. Exhaust capacities must account for heat. C. If a ventilation problem exists in a plant with powered roof exhausters. both types of ventilators should be considered at the conceptual stage. Industrial With the known flow rate and a recommended louver face velocity. A good feature of gravity ventilators is that they are self-regulating. III. and contaminants. with the hot air rising and being exhausted through the roof. DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL VENTILATION A. Power ventilators or powered roof ventilators (PRVs) have motordriven fans. and by radiant transfer. such as fume. moisture. The important design parameter for gravity ventilators is the throat area or flow area required for a given flow rate. The percent free area of the louver can be calculated from information supplied by the louver manufacturer. The ventilation rate through a section will increase if the heat release from a source below increases. The initial total cost will be much higher for gravity ventilators. Community noise is often a problem with powered roof exhausters. or mists. it may be necessary to perform modeling tests or a more rigorous calculation approach. Gravity ventilators are sometimes referred to as monitors. 2001 17:39 443 Ventilation. . as described in Section III. and can be turned off in winter. Powered ventilators have higher discharge rates that help reduce ground-level concentrations and reduce the effect of wind. For almost all applications. Roof Ventilators (Gravity or Powered) Roof ventilators are widely used in industrial buildings and are the workhorses of the industry. Radiant heat that is not ultimately converted into convective heat does not affect the primary ventilation flow.

Cp ambient air specific heat (kcal/kg K). An air stream at a hot body source may have a flow of 0. the heat release from equipment surfaces is calculated with the equation qc = h c A(Ts − Ta ) where qc is convective heat loss (kcal/sec). it is recommended that an average heat release be established to be somewhat higher than the steady heat release. Ts the surface temperature (◦ C). The driving force at each opening is related to the vertical distance between the opening and the neutral zone and the temperature difference between the opening and the neutral zone:  Q N = A N L nz tnz /(RT ) where Q N is the flow rate (m3 /sec). To avoid recirculation. published in 1926. roof ventilators should. vi the velocity through the opening (m/sec). and ρ0 ambient air density (kg/m3 ). B. an additional flow of 50 m3 /sec of surrounding air. A N the area of the opening (m2 ). F view factor (usually assumed equal to 1).156).e. accommodate this total flow arriving at the roof level. T0 absolute ambient temperature (K).81 m/sec2 ). The heat loss calculations provide the necessary data for the ventilation heat balance and total building heat balance. Ts absolute surface temperature (K). Gravity or Powered Ventilation In a classical technical paper in the ventilation field.5 m3 /sec. as a minimum. gc acceleration due to gravity (9. Theorem 1. this hot air stream may set in motion. Q j the powered ventilation flow rates (m3 /sec). The following plume flow rate equations for point plumes (first equation) and line plumes (second) can be used to calculate air set in motion at different elevations: Q = (6π α/5)(18Fα/5π )1/3 z 5/3 Q = 2α(F/α)1/3 z where Q is the plume flow rate at elevation z (m3 /sec) (for a line plume. A surface area of hot source (m2 ). C. This hot air is heated by contact with the surfaces of the hot equipment and rises due to thermal buoyancy. For radiant heat losses. Industrial radiant heat absorbed within the building and converted to convective heat does affect the primary ventilation flow rate. the heat release from equipment surfaces is calculated by   qr = σεF A Ts4 − Ta4 where qr is radiant heat loss (kcal/sec).P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. Emissivities for various surfaces are available in standard references. Q is plume flow rate per unit length of source). 2001 17:39 444 Ventilation. For design purposes. Air Set-in-Motion Calculations Air set-in-motion calculations account for major air and fume vertical flows that are produced by the total convective portion (may include some radiant heat loss that is converted to convective heat) of heat release from hot processes. line plume 0. n  i=1 Ai vi + n  Qj = 0 j=1 where Ai is the area of opening (m2 ). After some vertical travel.093. The size and velocity of this hot air column is a function of the heat release rate and the distance between the source and the roof level. The total heat release from the equipment surface is the sum of the convection and the radiation heat losses. z vertical distance from plume origin to roof truss in meters. Ta the surrounding air temperature (◦ C). The heated air stream originating from the surfaces of hot bodies mixes turbulently with the surrounding air as it moves upward. ε emissivity of substance (blackbody coefficient of the radiating surface).. entrained in). and F buoyancy flux (m4 /s3 ) F = qgc /Cp T0 ρ0 where q is source heat flux (kcal/sec). L nz the distance from center line of the . The convective heat transfer coefficient h c can be readily estimated from well-established formulas that can be found in standard heat transfer reference books. Emswiler developed two theorems that apply to industrial ventilation and form the basis for design. The sum of flow rates into the building below the neutral zone must equal the sum of the flow rates out of the building above the neutral zone. Emswiler defined the concept of a neutral zone or plane of neutral pressure as the elevation within a building at which neither the outside air tends to move into the building nor the inside air tends to move out. Theorem 2. A the surface area of hot source (m2 ). For convective heat losses. Ta absolute surrounding air temperature (K). It is imperative that the total volumes of air set in motion be calculated and compared to the exhaust rates of roof ventilators. The roof ventilators must accommodate the total flow of hot air delivered to them in order to ensure that the hot contaminated air does not recirculate to the lower working areas. Both the steady and the intermittent heat releases are calculated. α entrainment constant (point plume 0. h c the natural convective heat transfer coefficient in kilocalories (kcal/m2 ◦ C sec). and become mixed with (i. σ Stefan-Boltzmann constant (kcal/m2 sec K4 ).

These equations can be used to calculate air changes in single-span and multispan (commonly called multibay) process buildings. and T the absolute temperature of the air at the opening (K). G = q/[Cp (tout − tamb )] where G is the mass flow rate of air leaving the shop (kg/sec). Industrial opening to the neutral zone (m). The pressure at any arbitrary plane on a building is a magnitude of pressure in FIGURE 8 The plane of neutral pressure as defined by Emswiler. the flow rate is given by  Q N = 4. The resistance of the opening R is given by R = 1/2gc C 2 where gc is acceleration due to gravity (9. For natural ventilation.81 m/sec2 ) and C the loss coefficient for the opening. gc acceleration due to gravity (9. wind has a significant effect on building ventilation rates. ρ the air density (kg/m3 ). A the area of the opening (m2 ). q the quantity of heat removed from the shop (kcal/sec). is given by  G = CF A 2gc ρ P where G is the mass flow rate (kg/sec).  √ Q N = (2. the amount of air coming into the shop per unit of time (in kilograms per second) is equal to the amount of air leaving the shop in the same time period. CF the discharge coefficient of flow (dimensionless).81 m/sec2 ). with a pressure difference P between the pressure indoors and outdoors. Cp the heat capacity of air (kcal/kg ◦ C).P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2.65. and Q the ventilation flow rate (m3 /sec). From the continuity equations for the steady state. tnz the temperature difference between the opening and the neutral zone (K). Cp the heat capacity of air (kcal/kg ◦ C). the quantity of heat removed from the shop must equal the sum of the heat brought into the shop by the outdoor air plus the surplus heat given off in the shop in the same unit of time. tamb the ambient air temperature (◦ C). 2001 17:39 445 Ventilation. The heat balance equation can be written as t = q/ρCp Q where t is the temperature rise through the building (◦ C). . The elevation of the neutral zone is determined by trial and error using the preceding equations. ρ the density of the air in the initial state (kg/m3 ). The temperature rise through a hot process building is a function of the amount of heat released in the building and the ventilation flow rate. Substituting for R in the preceding equation. The rate at which air flows through an opening of area A. and P the difference between the inside and the outside pressure at a given opening (kg/m2 ). q the heat release rate (kcal/sec). R the resistance of the opening. Thus the air balance equation is given by   G in = G out For the heat balance equation. Baturin has developed four equations that describe the ventilation process.88/ T )A N L nz tnz (m3 /sec) Figure 8 shows the plane of neutral pressure for a hot process building. tout the outlet air temperature (◦ C).43CA N L nz tnz /T (m3 /sec) For C = 0. The effect of wind on a building manifests itself as an increase in pressure on its windward side and as suction on the leeward size.

Industrial excess of ambient pressure. pressure coefficients for buildings are found by wind-tunnel tests on geometrically similar models. ρ the air density (kg/m3 ).P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. The equations also allow the areas of the vents in the walls and roof to be calculated. The wind pressures are obtained by multiplying the pressure coefficient for the points concerned by the velocity pressure of the wind as p = kw (ρv 2 /2gc ) where p is the wind pressure (kg/m2 ). 2001 17:39 446 Ventilation. This ratio is called the pressure coefficient and is dimensionless. kw the wind pressure coefficient (dimensionless).81 m/sec2 ). dilution ventilation requirements can be related to the generation and removal rates of a contaminant as V dC rate of accumulation = G dt − Q . The preceding equations allow the amount of ventilation air required to meet allowable contaminant concentrations to be determined. v the velocity (m/sec). and gc the acceleration due to gravity (9. the quantity of air that is supplied or removed by mechanical ventilation is written into the air balance equation on the inlet or outlet side. D. Thus. Experiments have shown that pressure coefficients remain constant on geometrically similar buildings. Dilution Ventilation Starting with a fundamental differential material balance. For systems with mechanical ventilation as well as natural ventilation.

C dt rate of generation rate of removal 3 where V is the volume of the room or enclosure (m ). C the concentration of gas or vapor at time t (ppm). t the time (sec). G the rate of generation of contaminant (m3 /sec). Q .

= Q /K the effective rate of ventilation corrected for incomplete mixing (m3 /sec). (2) case B. Location and number of points of generation of contaminant in the room or work area 3. operational cycle. the mixing factor. Factors that must be considered by an experienced industrial hygienist or ventilation engineer in selecting the K value include 1. and after one air change. Duration of the process. Location of air inlets and outlets 4. For most industrial ventilation applications. the room still contains a dilution mixture of fresh and contaminated air. Contaminant toxicity 2. Seasonal changes in the amount of natural ventilation The dilution ventilation equation will be solved for the following three cases: (1) case A. For this condition. rate of contaminant concentration buildup.   C2 dC 1 t2 dt = . Before solving the dilution ventilation equation for different cases. allowing for incomplete mixing. however. rate of purging. In practice. 1. Reduction in operating efficiency of mechanical air moving devices 7. the introduction of the fresh air results in turbulent mixing with the contaminated air. Ventilation of contaminated air in a space would be simple if the outside air could enter the room in a laminar fashion without turbulence and remove the contaminated air in a piston fashion. K varies from 3 to 10. and (3) case C. one air change would be required to completely remove the contaminated air (K = 1). it is important to establish a procedure for estimating K . Figure 9 is a graphical representation of these cases on a plot of concentration versus time. Case A: Rate of Contaminant Concentration Buildup Rearranging the dilution ventilation equation and integrating. maintenance of acceptable concentrations at steady state. and K the design distribution constant or mixing factor. Geometry of enclosures or room 6. and normal location of workers relative to sources of contamination 5.

V t1 C1 G − Q C   G − Q .

C2 Q.

ln = − (t2 − t1 ) G − Q .

C1 V For the case of C1 = 0 at t1 = 0. this can be simplified to V (G − Q .

C) t = − .

ln Q G 2. dC = 0 and the preceding equation becomes G dt = Q . Case B: Maintaining Acceptable Concentrations at Steady State At steady state.

C dt FIGURE 9 Contaminant concentration versus time for different dilution ventilation conditions. .

2001 17:39 447 Ventilation. Industrial For a uniform generation rate and a constant concentration  t2  t2 G dt = Q .P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2.

C dt t1 t1 .

Systems can be designed to utilize thermal or density stratification to create a tendency to unidirectional flow.e. where TLV is the threshold limit value. 3. equations can be developed based on the steady state to determine the ventilation volume requirements for specific weights or volumes of solvent evaporated. G dt = 0). The benefits of displacement flow are that it improves the air renewal and contaminant removal speed and that it assists in maintaining favorable concentration gradients of the contaminants generated in the room. air and the contaminated air. that is. G(t2 − t1 ) = Q C(t2 − t1 ) KG C The preceding equation can be used to calculate the flow rate of uncontaminated dilution air required to reduce the ambient concentration of a hazardous material to an acceptable level.. to create displacement flow. Calculation procedures based on mathematical two-zone models have been established. Case C: Rate of Purging To calculate the rate of decrease of concentration of contaminant over a period of time for the case where a volume of air is contaminated and the contaminant generation process ceases (i. For liquid solvents.1 × 106 × K molecular weight of liquid × TLV FIGURE 10 Displacement ventilation in workshops. the dilution ventilation equation is integrated as  C2  Q . In metric units.1 × specific gravity of liquid × 106 × K molecular weight of liquid × TLV cubic meters per kilogram of solvent evaporated = 24. the equations are Q= cubic meters per liter of solvent evaporated = 24.

t2 dC =− dt C V t1 C1 ln Q.

C2 = − (t2 − t1 ) C1 V or t2 = − V C2 ln Q .

C1 For any specific contaminant. a flow diagram of the computer ventilation model. comfort limits. Five of the surveys were carried out on three different days in a three-aisle process building approximately 275 m in length. For a building with many ventilation openings. high-production. and the output. For many industrial solvents. the most stringent design criterion for a dilution ventilation system is based on the odor threshold concentration. VENTILATION MODELING USING COMPUTERS A mathematical model for building ventilation has been developed based on modifying Baturin’s four ventilation equations. or odor threshold concentrations. With prevailing winds accounted for. Table II also gives the calculated flow rates for the no-wind condition. The agreement between predicted model flows and measured flows for individual openings . the calculation procedure can become very time-consuming. shows a typical input. Figure 11. 10. the solution procedure is iterative. the design criteria may be based on regulated limits. as shown in Fig. Further details are available in the book by Goodfellow. BOF ingot teeming building with several hundred building openings. Results for calm conditions underestimate the total flow rate by 15–20%.” The computer model has been verified by using data from six independent surveys. The sixth survey was conducted in a multiple-aisle. no short circuiting takes place and the residence time for the room air is exactly the transit time (ideal case). A stratification takes place between the clean supply IV. the initialization and iteration loop. Results of the verification are shown in Table II. Computer programs are available that can be applied for solving industrial ventilation problems. “Advanced Design of Ventilation Systems for Contaminant Control. the predicted and measured results are all within 20% of each other. For this situation. Ventilation by displacement is a concept developed and tested in laboratories in Norway and is based on ideal unidirectional flow (plug flow). Except for the simplest cases.

nonuniform distribution of heat sources. wind direction and speed.) on the ventilation characteristics for the shop. It is also a very .P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. 2001 17:39 448 Ventilation. etc. Industrial FIGURE 11 Computer ventilation model flow diagram. the overall agreement is shown to be good. the computer program can be used to study the effects of different atmospheric conditions (summer/winter. and pressure disturbances due to local building features. However. Scatter of individual points does occur because of wind gustiness during measurement. has also been studied. Once correct modeling of observed ventilation flow rates is established.

Using a small-scale replica of the building and the proper laws of similarity. 2001 17:39 449 Ventilation. Industrial TABLE II Verification of Ventilation Computer Model Wind Survey number Direction Speed (km/hr) Heat release (Mcal/sec) 1 2 3 4 5 6 NNE S S NNE NNE NE 2.4 2.0 useful tool in the evaluation of proposed ventilation improvement schemes.0 3. What is the source of contamination in a specific area? Model total flow Measured total flow (m3 /sec) Wind (m3 /sec) No wind (m3 /sec) 260 429 331 364 492 5660 285 364 371 310 397 5190 282 334 326 305 344 4300 For more complex ventilation and contaminant control. the actual flow rates and velocities for the full-scale building can be predicted from measurements of the small-scale replica. A number of items have been identified requiring further study in order to increase reliability of CFD simulations in large industrial premises. The limitations of computer modeling are apparent as soon as predictions are required on the microenvironments inside the building. What are the effects of intermittent peak heat releases on ventilation flow characteristics? 3.P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. 2.6 15. What are the internal flow patterns under different layout and operating conditions? 2. and cost-effective solutions developed and implemented to solve the ventilation problems. and recirculating flows Understanding the relative importance of long and short wave radiation in an industrial setting to determine if a long-wave radiation can be omitted from simulations Identifying heat transfer correlations for natural.9 20. What are the predicted contaminant concentrations in the breathing zone? 8.5 2. 1. wind conditions. These details of the internal flow fields are required by the designer to ensure an acceptable work environment for a new facility or to improve the work environment in an existing facility. or process changes on the performance of the proposed ventilation scheme. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used. forced. Different ventilation schemes can be analyzed. near wall effects.0 2. The fluid dynamic modeling approach is described in Section V.7 2. From the preceding discussions.7 9. Where does the fresh air enter the building? 7. What happens to contaminated plume that misses a hood? 5. Problems such as contamination due to cross drafts or high temperatures in the work environment can be identified quickly and corrective measures taken. A technique that is well developed for quantifying internal flow fields is the use of fluid dynamic models. and their independent variables are allowed to vary in 1. The advent of high speed computers and the creation of general computer code systems allow the practical development of solutions to the type of internal flow questions listed above. The use of high-speed computers provides the designer with the capability of examining the impact of architectural changes. The steady-state and intermittent recycle flows caused by process or other heat releases convey contaminants from one area to another. and mixed convection that accurately predict the heat transfer off a surface Testing methods to provide for jets from diffusers in a ventilated room in order to accurately model the penetration length without resorting to fine grids Identifying the role of magnitude of the effect that potential errors in boundary condition specification might play on the final solution. These are r Identifying a turbulence model that provides a r r r r sufficient degree of reliability in the prediction of low Reynolds number regimes. energy.2 1. and related entities. What effect do cross drafts have on the workplace environment? 6. These equations represent the laws of conservation of mass.0 12.5 16. or 3 space dimensions and in time. momentum. Can the flow fields be represented satisfactorily as a two-dimensional flow? 4. . it is apparent that the computer ventilation model can reliably predict the gross ventilation rates for complex process buildings. Typical ventilation questions that may arise during the planning and design of ventilation systems include these. Governing equations similar to the ones presented earlier can be developed for the three-dimensional non-steady-state case.

flow around obstacles such as cranes) 3. Hence. Therefore. The costs for performing modeling tests are usually much less than the cost for performing a full-scale field test. q the heat flow rate (kilocalories per second).000. uncontrolled building emissions.e. A typical range of costs for modeling studies is $20. the governing dimensionless groups for scaling model (m) to prototype (p) are the Reynolds number and the Froude number. Industrial the Reynolds number similarity criterion is met by ensuring that the flow in the model is fully turbulent. depending on the scope and complexity of the model and testing methodology. fluid models can provide useful design data at the conceptual and preliminary engineering stages of a project. to establish minimum capture volume for sources). The applications of fluid dynamic modeling techniques include the following: 1.P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. Ventilation. Individual sources of heat and contaminants (e..e. The two conditions necessary to establish dynamic similarity are (1) exact geometric similarity. and m the subscript identifying model parameter. The application of fluid dynamic models has the advantage of enabling numerous different test conditions to be examined. For new facilities.. The general theory behind the use of scale models is well covered in numerous textbooks on fluid mechanics and in the technical literature. VENTILATION MODELING USING FLUID DYNAMICS The technique of small-scale modeling for fluid flow problems (i. p the subscript identifying prototype parameter. Information is required on the major sources of heat in order to calculate heat balances and volumes of air set FIGURE 12 Typical flow chart for ventilation modeling study.000–$100.g. For processes involving hot gases (i. which requires that the linear dimensions of the model are in the same proportion as the corresponding dimensions of the prototype.g. Therefore. and (2) kinematic similarity which requires that the flow regimes be the same for model and prototype. External flow fields (e. Data measured in the model flow may be related quantitatively to the full-scale prototype flow by establishing dynamic similarity between the model and the prototype.. Internal flow fields (e. fluid dynamic modeling) has been used extensively for a wide variety of industrial ventilation applications.. 2001 17:39 450 V. The Reynolds number similarity criterion is not a critical scaling parameter because prototype flows are almost always fully turbulent due to large Reynolds number. Kinematic similarity is achieved by matching governing dimensionless groups that describe the flow regime. For modeling ventilation systems.. the designer does not have the option of field testing. The first step is to define the contaminant and the source characteristics. stack discharge) 2.g.. S the model scale (e. the Froude number similarity criterion can be applied to the model and the prototype. Figure 12 is a typical flow chart of activities required for a ventilation modeling study.e. etc. . heat and contaminant release rates.g. S = 10). flow from one bay to another. buoyancy-driving forces).. to model movement of large air masses far from enclosing walls.). Parameters to be defined are the size of the process building and details of the source flux (i. to model pressure distribution. The flow required in the prototype is given by Q p = Q m (S)5/3 (qp /qm )1/3 where Q is the volumetric flow rate (cubic meters per second). for a 1: 10 scale model. Flow patterns are similar in the different geometric scales as long as the important flow fields are fully turbulent. only an outline of the approach used in fluid modeling for ventilation applications follows.

Because water has a smaller kinematic viscosity than air. including quantitative measurements of downwash and transport of contaminants to other buildings 4.P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. sections Schedule of openings Identifies factors specific for each plant Identifies significant heat sources in building Identifies typical operating practice Identifies gaps in data to be filled in by field testing program General considerations Building ventilation In-plant flows Field data log sheets for ventilation measurements. Testing programs for many modeling studies are brief compared to the time required to design and construct the model system. 1–2 weeks to commission and calibrate the model. reports. For any model testing program. speed. Volumes of air set in motion 9. but the working or buoyancy-driven fluids for models can vary widely. it is not uncommon to require 8–10 weeks to design and construct a model. SOLVING VENTILATION PROBLEMS FOR EXISTING PLANTS Ventilation flows and design parameters are unique for each specific process building.) Summary table of flows Sketches to show in-plant flows 2. Flow visualization is also easier with water-based models because velocities are lower than in air. flexible. the fluid dynamic model is a valuable tool in modeling the problem and developing alternative cost-effective solutions. Data on ventilation openings 3. For example. Computer simulation of ventilation flows (natural ventilation) 10. The results of the small-scale modeling are used to refine the ventilation concept and to finalize all requirements. Air models are usually the simplest and least expensive models to build and test. Field testing program 1. The fluid dynamic modeling technique is a costeffective. direction. For most complex ventilation problems. Plant ventilation flow balance and in-plant flow patterns 7. Develop details of field testing program 5. operating procedures Define problem (summer. and powerful tool for the design of ventilation systems for a greenfield plant and for the elimination of ventilation problems in existing plants. Examining external flow patterns. winter. weather conditions. the recommended sequence is to use the mathematical models and equations to develop the overall ventilation concepts and architectural constraints. a smaller model is required to ensure a high Reynolds number and turbulent flow. and mercury and carbon tetrachloride. The measuring technique for the contaminant of concern must also be considered since it may have a significant impact on the level of accuracy and the cost of the testing program. supply. The use of air may require a large model to ensure fully turbulent flow. Some of the applications of scale modeling include continue with the design of the structural steel while the small-scale model is being constructed and tested. heat. The common fluids used are air or water. the project design team can 6. temperature. Examining internal flow patterns and contaminant concentrations at any location 3. water and saltwater. Plant questionnaire 4. Field testing report Total plant heat balance calculation Ventilation heat balance calculation Based on surface temperature and convective heat release Calibrate using field test data Summarize test conditions and test results . Establishing the effectiveness of source hoods. 2001 17:39 451 Ventilation. Information may be required on site conditions such as wind. Finalizing building ventilation rates and schemes 2. Fluid systems that have been used include air and heated air. extensive use should be made of photographic and video recording equipment. VI. and frequency. At this stage. The photographs and films will be invaluable in analyzing the test results and for subsequent presentation of solutions to management. etc. exhaust) Review existing data and studies Visit site Isometric drawings: plans. For new process buildings. water and carbon tetrachloride. it is recommended that both analytical calculations and a field measurement program be carried out TABLE III Major Activities for a Ventilation Field Testing Program Activity Specific items 1. Data are required on the external and internal flow conditions for the prototype. Meltshop heat balance 8. plant operating records Field measurements (volume. The design of the model system requires an examination of the scaling parameters and the type of fluid medium to be used. For an existing plant. Information gathering Obtain drawings. and 1–2 days to perform actual tests and develop solutions for the ventilation problem. Industrial in motion. A detailed analysis of the scaling parameters and possible fluid systems is required in order to select the best modeling technique for the specific ventilation problem.

Experience has shown that the field sampling program must be developed in detail and must be tailormade for each specific ventilation problem. 2001 17:39 452 Ventilation. cost-effective solution to the ventilation problem. It is necessary to develop the details of a field testing program and all necessary field data log sheets prior to the actual field testing. Because the ventilation flow in large process buildings is usually complex.P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. for the field testing program. Specific information is required on the current operating practice. A good approach is to perform preliminary calculations on all sources and then to clearly identify where information gaps exist and what essential data must be collected. Although there may be minor variations for any specific ventilation project. obtain all pertinent reports and drawings on the plant for review and study. an inexperienced sampling team will often collect insufficient data for subsequent analytical calculations or will spend a considerable amount of effort collecting field data that are irrelevant. Industrial in order to develop a sound. the 10 activities listed in Table III represent the major activities for a field testing program and the sequence for performing this work. FIGURE 13 Walk-through ventilation survey data sheet. A visit to the site should include a walk-through ventilation survey using a data sheet as shown in Fig. A brief description of the scope of work required for each activity is included. This program should be reviewed and approved by plant operating personnel prior to commencement. The development of a proper field testing program is the most important step in ensuring a successful ventilation study. as well as information on the nature of the in-plant dust and heat stress problems. there are many elements of the field testing program that are common for any problem. However. 13. As a starting point. .

and wind speed and direction.P1: GPB Final pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology En017B-808 August 2. “Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice. Temperatures associated with in-plant flow patterns must also be recorded. Data from the computer models can be validated from the field measurement program. Using the FIGURE 14 results of this field testing program. The temperature of air leaving the meltshop will vary considerably. an experienced ventilation engineer can develop cost-effective solutions for any plant ventilation problem. Sufficient temperature data must be available to allow evaluation of the air density distribution within the shop.. It will change during the course of the day and could be higher in the wake of the building. this would generally be the ambient temperature.” Academic Press. as well as production levels. Pergamon. Computer models based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to predict the velocity vectors and concentration of contaminants as a function of position and time. Weather data should be measured at the site and obtained from the nearest airport or meteorological station as well. H. These measurements would be concurrent with the ventilation survey. V. “Fundamentals of Industrial Ventilation. Do not expose the thermometer or temperature probe to sunlight or radiant heat from hot objects. and Tahti. and test results. Gusty wind conditions will cause velocity readings to fluctuate. good temperature readings are important. E. Data to be included are the status of operation of all major process and environmental equipment. The location of the equipment on the floor plan and equipment surface temperature should be recorded on a separate sheet. A temperature measurement is required for each velocity measurement. Goodfellow. Data to be recorded include ambient temperature. Figure 14 shows an industrial CFD case study with momentum sources. it is essential to prepare a proper engineering report. Baturin. Mean surface temperatures of hot surfaces must be recorded for subsequent heat release and air-set-in-motion calculations. relative humidity. An in-plant survey will be required to establish parameters such as dust levels and heat stress. U. Goodfellow. For any ventilation field testing program.” Elsevier. (2000). During the test period. . “Handbook of Industrial Air Technology (DGB). D. London.K. Cincinnati.. ACGIH. Heinsohn. this information should be recorded on at least an hourly basis. An industrial hygienist would work with the ventilation engineer to establish the scope and extent of the industrial hygiene sampling program. J. It is not acceptable to “be on the safe side” by rounding readings to a higher value. V. Ohio. For air entering the building. San Diego. (1972).. H. Industrial The measurement of air velocities through all the openings must recognize the need to have a “representative” velocity for the survey.” 3rd ed. “Advanced Design of Ventilation Systems for Contaminant Control. For this case. “Industrial Ventilation: Engineering Principles.” 23rd ed. SEE ALSO THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES ENERGY FLOWS IN ECOLOGY AND IN THE ECONOMY • ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY • FLUID DYNAMICS (CHEMICAL ENGINEERING) • HEAT TRANSFER • MACHINE DESIGN • POLLUTION. R. 2001 17:39 453 Ventilation. D. (1985).” John Wiley & Sons. which includes all the field data. outputs from the CFD program can be used to establish airflow patterns for summer and winter conditions and for different process operating scenarios. calculations. The ambient temperature should be recorded on an hourly basis. For heat balance calculations. New York. (1990). A record of plant activities during the testing program is required. Amsterdam. AIR BIBLIOGRAPHY American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (1998). Sufficient time must be allowed to elapse to enable the individual monitoring the instrument to arrive at a representative velocity by “integrating” the observed values in his or her mind.