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ASSIGNMENT SOLUTIONS GUIDE (2014-2015)

E.H.I.-5
Hkkjr % 18oha 'krkCnh osQ
eè; ls 19oha 'krkCnh osQ eè; rd
(India: From mid-18th Century to mid–19th Century)
Disclaimer/Special Note: These are just the sample of the Answers/Solutions to some of the Questions given in the
Assignments. These Sample Answers/Solutions are prepared by Private Teacher/Tutors/Auhtors for the help and Guidance
of the student to get an idea of how he/she can answer the Questions of the Assignments. We do not claim 100% Accuracy
of these sample Answers as these are based on the knowledge and cabability of Private Teacher/Tutor. Sample answers
may be seen as the Guide/Help Book for the reference to prepare the answers of the Question given in the assignment. As
these solutions and answers are prepared by the private teacher/tutor so the chances of error or mistake cannot be denied.
Any Omission or Error is highly regretted though every care has been taken while preparing these Sample Answers/
Solutions. Please consult your own Teacher/Tutor before you prepare a Particular Answer & for uptodate and exact
information, data and solution. Student should must read and refer the official study material provided by the university.

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Hkkxµ1
iz'u 1- izkP;okfn;ksa rFkk mi;ksfxrkokfn;ksa esa D;k varj Fkk\ foospuk dhft,A
mÙkjµvaxzstksa dk izkP;oknh n`f"Vdks.k–bl n`f"Vdks.k dk leFkZd ckjsu gsfLVXt Fkk A bl n`f"Vdks.k ds vuqlkj Hkkjr ds iz'kklu
dks lgh <ax ls fu;af=r djus ds fy, Hkkjr rFkk blds vrhr dh iw.kZ tkudkjh vko';d gS A ;s iz'kkld Hkkjr ds vrhr ds xkSjo dh ckr
Hkh djrs Fks A
okjsu gsfLaVXt us bl dk;Z dks xEHkhjrk ls fy;k A mldk ekuuk Fkk fd bl dk;Z dks iwjk djus ds fy, dqN ,sls iz'kkldksa dh vko';drk
gS] tks vius LokFkks± ls Åij mBs gq, gksa A vr% mlus ,sls laxBuksa dh LFkkiuk djus dk iz;Ru fd;k] tks Hkkjr ds Lof.kZe vrhr ls lEcfUÌr
Kku dh [kkst djsa vkSj fQj mu yksxksa dks bl Kku ls ifjfpr djk;sa ftUgsa bl ns'k dk iz'kklu pykuk gS A
blh mís'; dh iwfrZ ds fy, ,d vaxzst U;k;fon~fofy;e tksUl us Hkkjr dks u, fljs ls tkuus dk dk;Z vkjEHk dj fn;k rkfd vaxzstksa
dks Hkkjr dh rLohj ls ifjfpr djk;k tk lds A Hkkjr vkus ij mlus vuqHko fd;k fd Hkkjr dks tkuus ds fy, mldk oSKkfud v/;;u t:jh
gS rFkk ;g dk;Z fdlh ,d O;fDr }kjk lEHko ugha gS D;ksafd blds fy, ,d oSKkfud v/;;u vko';d gS ftlds fy, fo}ku rFkk esgurh
yksxksa dh lgk;rk visf{kr gS A vr% mlus ,f'k;kfVd lkslkbVh dh LFkkiuk dh A bl lkslkbVh dk izeq[k mís'; ,f'k;k esa jgdj rFkk ,f'k;k
ls ckgj jgdj nksuksa izdkj ls egkns'k dh fNih okLrfodrk dks mtkxj djuk Fkk A bl lkslkbVh us Hkkjr ds lkekftd] vkfFkZd] ÌkfeZd] Hkk"kkf;d
rFkk jktuSfrd i{kksa dk xgjkbZ ls v/;;u fd;k A bl lkslkbVh us Qkjlh rFkk laLd`r ds xazFkksa] iqjk.kksa rFkk dkfynkl dh jpukvksa dks vuqokfnr
Hkh fd;k A blds lnL;ksa us Hkkjrh; lekt vkSj ÌeZ ij 'kksÌ fd;k rFkk vusd vkys[k fy[ks A bu iz;klksa ds ifj.kkeLo:i Hkkjr rFkk bldh
laLd`fr ls lEiw.kZ ;wjksi ifjfpr gks x;k rFkk Hkkjr dh ,d ubZ Nfo nqfu;k ds lkeus mtkxj gqbZ A
gsfLaVXt Hkkjr esa vaxzsth dkuwu vkSj vaxzsth rkSj&rjhds ykxw ugha djuk pkgrk Fkk] vfirq og Hkkjrh;ksa ij mUgha ds rjhdksa ls 'kklu djus
ds i{k esa Fkk A mlus vuqHko fd;k fd fczfV'k 'kklu ds rhoz fodkl ds dkj.k dqN iwokZxzg mHkj dj lkeus vk, gSa A og bl izo`fÙ ij jksd
yxkuk pkgrk Fkk A nwljs og Hkkjrh; laLFkkvksa ds lkFk fczfV'k 'kklu dk rknkRE; LFkkfir djuk pkgrk Fkk A blds fy, Hkkjr ds ^vkpkj vkSj
jhfr&fjoktksa* dh xgjkbZ ls Nkuchu rFkk Hkkjrh; lkfgR; vkSj dkuwu ds O;kid fo'ys"k.k dh vko';drk Fkh A blh mís'; iwfrZ ds fy, gsfLaVXt
ds ,d lgdehZ gSygsM us ÌkfeZd vkSj jhfr fjokt lEcUÌh dkuwuksa dh lwph rS;kj dh ftls ^tsaVwyk* ds uke ls tkuk x;k A bl lwph dks rS;kj
djus dk eq[; mís'; ns'k dh turk ls esy&feyki ;k izkIr miyfCÌ dks fLFkjrk iznku djus okyh izfØ;k dks le>uk Fkk A budk ;g ekuuk
Fkk fd blls Hkkjr esa okf.kT; rFkk jkT; dh LFkkiuk ds voljksa dks vkSj vfÌd etcwrh feysxh A
mi;ksfxrkoknh n`f"Vdks.k–budk mís'; dkuwu rFkk Hkwfe lacaÌh fu;eksa dks cnydj cktkj fuekZ.k dk ekxZ iz'kLr djuk Fkk A budk
fo'okl Fkk fd izfl) nk'kZfud tsehZ ds funsZ'ku esa ,d oSKkfud vkSj rdZ laxr n`f"Vdks.k fodflr gks ldrk gS tks fd dkuwu vkSj Hkwfe lacaÌh
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fu;eksa dk ,slk lekÌku izLrqr dj ldrk gS] ftlls ^vfÌd oLrq,a vfÌd yksxksa ds fy,* fl)kar dk ikyu fd;k tk ldrk gS A
dkuwu }kjk lqèkkj–csafVad us mi;ksfxrkoknh n`f"Vdks.k ls izHkkfor gksdj dkuwu dks ifjorZu dk ,d ek/;e cuk;k A mldk fo'okl Fkk
fd lrh izFkk vkSj ckfydk gR;k tSls Hkkjrh; dqjhfr;ksa dks dkuwu }kjk gh jksdk tk ldrk gS A vius lS)kafrd fo'oklksa ds vkÌkj ij bUgksaus
jktuhfrd lqÌkj dks dk;Z:i nsus dk fu'p; fd;k A csaFke ds fl)karksa dks vkÌkj cukdj dbZ dkuwu vkSj naM lafgrk,a ykxw dh xbZa rFkk ,d
,slh laLFkk dk;e dh xbZ tks fupys Lrj rd tkdj yksxksa dks izHkkfor dj lds A
fey us mi;ksfxrkoknh vFkZ'kkL= ds vuq:i Hkw&jktLo esa cnyko ykus dh uhfr dk leFkZu fd;k A blesa ,d vksj equjks ds jS;rokM+h
cankscLr dh rjg fdlkuksa ls lhÌs lEidZ LFkkfir djus dh ckr dh x;h vkSj nwljh vksj fjdkMksZ ds fl)kar ds vuqlkj Hkwfeifr;ksa ij djkjksi.k
dk elyk lkeus vk;k A ;g djkjksi.k bl <ax ls fd;k x;k Fkk fd ek= Hkwfe dh fefYd;r izkIr dj ysus ls Hkwfeifr;ksa dks mRikn vkSj O;kikj
ds ekeys esa vfrfjDr ykHk u igqaps A bldk rkRi;Z ;g Fkk fd mUgsa dqy mRikn esa ls [ksrh dk [kpZ fudky dj cph gqbZ jkf'k jkT; dks nsuh
gksxh] bl mís'; dh izkfIr ds fy, dqy mRikn dks ekius ds fy, O;kid losZ{k.k Hkh fd, x, A
iz'u 2- D;k 1857 dk fonzksg cxkor Fkh\ foospuk dhft,A
mÙkjµ1857 dh Økafr dk ,d vU; izeq[k dkj.k Hkw&jktLo cankscLr Fkk] tks fd mÙj&if'peh izkarksa vkSj voÌ esa ykxw fd;k x;k Fkk A
bldk rkYyqdsnkjksa rFkk fdlkuksa ij cgqr cqjk izHkko iM+k A
ds vfÌfu;e VII esa izLrkfor bl izLrko ds lq>ko rkYyqdsnkjksa ds f[kykQ Fks] ftlesa xzkeh.k leqnk;ksa dks lajf{kr djus ds fy,
tehankjksa vkSj iV~Vsnkjksa ls lhÌk cankscLr fd;k x;k A 1840 ds vkl&ikl laifÙxr vfÌdkjksa dh lVhd ifjHkk"kk fuÌkZfjr djus ls ckgj ds
yksxksa us Hkwfe esa dkQh iSlk fuos'k fd;k] ftlls dkQh Hkwfe dk LFkkukarj.k gqvk rFkk tksr dbZ VqdM+ksa esa caV xbZ A
1822

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mÙj&if'peh izkarksa esa jktLo cankscLr ds ifj.kke fuEufyf[kr jgs µ
1. rkYyqdsnkjksa ds izfr lgh joS;k u viukus ds dkj.k muls dkQh lEifÙ fNu xbZ Fkh A dbZ rkYyqdsnkjksa dk foHkktu gks x;k rFkk dbZ
u"V gks x, A
tehankjksa dh fLFkfr Hkh uktqd gks xbZ Fkh A mu ij dtZ dk cks> bruk vfÌd Fkk fd os fnokfy;siu ds dxkj ij [kM+s Fks A
Qjojh] 1856 esa voÌ dk Hkh vfÌxzg.k dj fy;k x;k Fkk rFkk ;gka ij 1856-57 esa FkkSElksfe;u i)fr ij cankscLr fd;k x;k A blds
fuEufyf[kr ifj.kke lkeus vk, µ
2.

fczfV'k vfÌxzg.k ls iwoZ rkYyqdsnkj fdlkuksa ls viuh vko';drkuqlkj mit esa ls viuk fgLlk ysrs Fks] fdUrq vaxzstksa us LFkkbZ uxn
jktLo dk fuÌkZj.k fd;k] tks fd t:jr ls T;knk gksrk Fkk A Qly de gksus ;k de nke feyus dh fLFkfr esa fdlkuksa ls tcjnLrh yxku olwyk
tkrk Fkk A ifj.kkeLo:i fdlkuksa dh n'kk 'kkspuh; gks xbZ Fkh A
(i)

lexz :i ls jktLo esa deh vkbZ] dbZ LFkkuksa ij jktLo fuÌkZj.k t:jr ls T;knk fd;k x;k A
(iii) rkYyqsdnkjh jkT;ksa dks ?kVkdj dkQh de dj fn;k x;k A
(ii)

bl izdkj ubZ jktLo iz.kkyh ds }kjk vaxzstksa us lhÌk fdlkuksa ls lEidZ cukus ds fy, tehankjksa rFkk rkYyqdsnkjksa dh 'kfDr;ksa dks dkQh
de dj fn;k Fkk A ifj.kkeLo:i ;s vaxzstksa ds f[kykQ gks x, Fks A
1857 dk fonzksg ebZ vkSj twu ds chp rsth ls QSyk A tu&valrks"k dks flikgh fonzksg dk lgkjk feyus ds dkj.k ;g fonzksg vfÌd
'kfDr'kkyh gks x;k Fkk A bl fonzksg esa lsuk ds 'kkfey gksus ds dbZ dkj.k Fks A
fonzksg dk vkjEHk 29 ekpZ] 1957 dks dydÙk ds fudV cSjdiqj esa gqvk] tgka eaxy ikaMs uked flikgh us ;wjksih; vfÌdkjh dh gR;k
dj nh Fkh A gkykafd bl fonzksg dks nck fn;k x;k] fdUrq vxys dqN lIrkgksa esa flikfg;ksa dk fonzksg rsth ls izLQqfVr gqvk A 10 ebZ] 1857
dks esjB ds flikfg;ksa us vius vQlj dk dRy dj fn;k vkSj 11 ebZ dks fnYyh dh vksj dwp fd;k rFkk ckn'kkg cgknqj'kkg f}rh; ls Økafr
dk usrk cuus dk vuqjksÌ fd;k A bZLV bafM;k daiuh ds yxHkx vkÌs flikfg;ksa us fonzksg dj fn;k A bu flikfg;ksa esa vfÌdrj mÙj&if'peh
izns'k vkSj voÌ lwcs ds mPp tkfr ds izfrfufÌ Fks A
jkbQy esa Hkjs tkus okys dkjrwl dks Hkjus ls igys mldk fiNyk fgLlk nkar ls dkVuk iM+rk Fkk A ;g vQokg QSy xbZ fd dkjrwl
ds bl fgLls esa lqvj vkSj xk; dh pchZ dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS A vr% fgUnw rFkk eqfLye flikfg;ksa esa ;g Mj QSy x;k fd budk iz;ksx djus
ls mudk ÌeZ Hkz"V gks tk,xk A vr% mUgksaus bls bLrseky djus ls euk dj fn;k rFkk Nkouh esa fonzksg dj fn;k A
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1857 bZ- osQ fonzksg dk Lo:iµ1857 bZ0 ds fonzksg ds Lo:i ds fo"k; esa fofHkUu bfrgkldkjksa us fofHkUu er fn, gSa A dqN dk
ekuuk gS fd ;g dsoy ,d lSfud fonzksg Fkk] D;ksafd bldk vkjEHk esjB Nkouh esa gqvk Fkk] tc lSfudksa us peM+s ls cus dkjrwl dk iz;ksx
djus ls euk dj fn;k Fkk A ;g loky Hkh mBrk gS fd D;k ;g dsoy le`)ksa }kjk fu;af=r vkUnksyu Fkk ;k ;g tu&fojksÌ Fkk A dqN
bfrgkldkjksa dk ;g er gS fd bl fonzksg esa fu.kZ; dh ckxMksj rkYyqdsnkjksa ds gkFk esa Fkh vkSj fonzksg dk #[k le`) yksxksa }kjk fuÌkZfjr Fkk A
rkYyqdsnkjksa us fonzksg fd;k] rks fdlkuksa dks vius lkFk feyk fy;k] ns'kh fj;klrksa ds jktkvksa us fonzksg fd;k] rks vke turk muds lkFk fey
xbZ A
fdUrq fQj Hkh bl fonzksg dks dsoy lSfud fonzksg ugha dgk tk ldrk A blesa vlSfud yksxksa us Hkh c<+&p<+ dj Hkkx fy;k A ;g fonzksg
vaxzsth ljdkj dh vkfFkZd] jktuSfrd] iz'kklfud o ÌkfeZd uhfr;ksa ds fo#) Fkk A ;g fonzksg mÙjh Hkkjr ds dkQh cM+s Hkkx esa QSyk gqvk Fkk
A vr% bldk Lo:i dkQh O;kid Fkk A bl fonzksg esa lHkh oxksZa rFkk ÌeksZa ds yksxksa us feydj Hkkx fy;k A vaxzstksa dh xyr uhfr;ksa ds izfr
vkØks'k rFkk viuh lH;rk o laLd`fr dks cuk, j[kus dh dfVc)rk us lSfudksa] xSj&lSfudksa] tehankjksa] fdlkuksa lHkh dks izsj.kk iznku dh A ,d
lhek rd bls Lora=rk ds fy, ;q) dgk tk ldrk gS A ;g mfpr gS fd bl le; rd Hkkjrh;ksa esa jk"Vªh;rk dh Hkkouk dk mn; ugha gqvk
Fkk] fdUrq vaxzstksa dh xyr uhfr;ksa ds f[kykQ fonzksg ds Lrj yxHkx lHkh {ks=ksa ls leku :i ls mBs Fks A
vr% bl fonzksg dks pkgs Hkkjr dk izFke LokÌhurk laxzke ekuk tk, vFkok laLd`fr dh j{kk ds fy, fd;k x;k la?k"kZ A fQj Hkh bl rF;
ls badkj ugha fd;k tk ldrk fd ;g ,d jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu Fkk A
iz'u 3- D;k ge fczfV'k 'kklu osQ nkSjku vukS|ksxhdj.k osQ ckjs esa ppkZ dj ldrs gSa\ foospuk dhft,A
mÙkjµns'k dh dqVhj m|ksxksa vFkok gLrf'kYi ;k Lons'kh m|ksxksa ds fouk'k dk ,d xaHkhj vk£Fkd ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd muesa yxs gq, yksx
Hkwfe ij fuHkZj gksus ds fy, foo'k gks x;s A vaxzstksa us Hkkjrh; xzkeks|ksxksa ;k gLrf'kYi dks u"V dj fn;k] ijUrq muds LFkku ij jkstxkj dk
dksbZ vU; òksr dk;e ugha fd;k] ifj.kkeLo:i csjkstxkj f'kYih vkSj dkjhxj d`f"k O;oLFkk esa yx x;s] ftlls Hkwfe ij fuHkZj vkcknh dk vuqikr
c<+ x;k A d`f"k esa c<+rh gqbZ vkcknh dh bl izo`fÙ dks gh ^rhoz nsgkrhdj.k* (Rapid Ruralisation) vFkok Hkkjr dk vukS|ksxhdj.k dgk x;k
gS A
vukS|ksxhdj.k dk izHkko
(1) Hkkjr ds fo'oizfl) m|ksx ,d&,d djds u"V gksus x;s] QyLo:i Hkkjr dh vk£Fkd izfr"Bk dks xgjh {kfr igqaph A fo'o ds le`)
ns'k Hkkjr dh x.kuk vk£Fkd n`f"V ls fiNM+s ns'kksa esa gksus yxh A
(2) ns'k dh vFkZO;oLFkk vpkud yM+[kM+k xbZ vkSj iru dh c<+rh gqbZ tM+rk dh fLFkfr esa igq¡p x;h A
(3) vk£Fkd {ks= esa Hkkjr ds dyk&dkS'ky dks vR;f/kd {kfr igq¡ph A ftl dyk] fuiq.krk ds cy ij Hkkjr ds Lons'kh m|ksx ,slh oLrq,a
cukrs Fks] ftudh rqyuk fo'o esa ugha Fkh] ml dyk&fuiq.krk dk cM+h lhek rd fouk'k gks x;k A
(4) vukS|ksxhdj.k ls ns'k ds fu;kZr dks Hkkjh /kDdk yxk A nwljh vksj fczfV'k m|ksxksa dk fu£er eky Hkkjh ek=k esa ns'k esa izos'k djus
yxk A Hkkjr ds cktkj vk;kfrr eky ls Hkj x;s] oLrqvksa dh ekax lekIr&lh gks x;h vkSj bl izdkj Hkkjr dh eafM;ka fons'kh eky dh eafM;ka
cu x;ha A
(5) Hkkjr vkS|ksfxd ns'k esa eq[;r% ,d [ksfrgkj ns'k cu x;k A mlds fofHkUu vaxksa ds chp tks rkyesy Fkk] og tkrk jgk A
(6) vk£Fkd foiUurk ls ns'k esa csjkstxkjh] Hkq[kejh] vkfn xaHkhj vk£Fkd chekfj;ka rsth ls iuiha] yksxksa dh Ø; 'kfDr ?kV x;h vkSj os
vius O;olk; dks [kks cSBs A
(7) Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk dh fuHkZjrk lekIr gksdj og fczfV'k vFkZO;oLFkk ij vkfJr gks x;h A
(8) ;|fi ijEijkxr m|ksxksa dk LFkku QSDVjh m|ksxksa us ys fy;k] ysfdu fjDr LFkkuksa dh iw£r rsth ls ugha gks ldh A QyLo:i ns'k dks
vk£Fkd fouk'k dk lkeuk djuk iM+k A
(9) Hkkjr dks mi;qZDr vk£Fkd cckZnh vkSj vk£Fkd leL;k;sa jk"Vªh; ljdkj dks fojklr esa feyk] ftlds Lok/khu Hkkjr ds vFkZra= ij
iqufuZek.k dk Hkkjh cks> vk iM+k A
bl izdkj vukS|ksxhdj.k ns'k ds fy, dkQh ?kkrd fl) gqvk A

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iz'u 4- Hkkjr esa miU;kl dh foèkk osQ mn~Hko dks vki fdl izdkj le>rs gSa\ fVIi.kh dhft,A
mÙkjµ18oha vkSj 19oha 'krkfCn;ksa esa fodflr u;s miU;kl dk Lo:iµHkkjr esa 18-19 oha 'krkCnh esa miU;kl lkfgR; dk
fodkl gks x;k Fkk A miU;kl x| dh ,d ,slh ubZ fo/kk gS] ftlesa vk/kqfud lekt ds ;FkkFkZ fp=.k ds lkFk&lkFk vk/kqfud lH;rk dh leh{kk
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gqbZ gS A bldk fo"k; nSfud thou&i)fr ,oa ;FkkFkZokn gS A
bl dky dk izFke egÙoiw.kZ miU;kl ^vkuUn eB* Fkk tks cafdepUæ pVthZ }kjk fy[kk x;k Fkk A mUgksaus ^oUnsekrje~* xhr dks Hkkjr
ds jk"Vªh; xhr dk ntkZ izkIr gqvk gS A ;g miU;kl caxyk Hkk"kk esa gS A izsepUn Hkh ,d izfl) miU;kldkj gSa ftuds izfl) miU;kl ^jaxHkwfe*
vkSj xksnku us fo'o[;kfr izkIr dh A mUgksaus yxHkx 300 dgkfu;ksa dh jpuk dh A buesa dqN dgkfu;ka ;Fkk ^dQu*] ^iwl dh jkr*] ^lok lsj
xsgwa*] ^'krjat ds f[kykM+h* us Dykfld miU;kl dk ntkZ izkIr fd;k A izsepUn fgUnh&mnwZ ds lokZf/kd izfl) miU;kldkj ,oa dgkuhdkj Fks A mUgksaus
viuh jpukvksa esa fdlkuksa rFkk yksxksa ds nq%[k&nnZ] mu ij mPp oxZ }kjk fd;s tkus okys 'kks"k.k rFkk thou&la?k"kZ dk ltho fp=.k fd;k gS
A fgUnh ds vU; izfl) miU;kldkjksa esa rkjk'kadj cuthZ] ef.kd cuthZ] Q.kh'ojukFk js.kq dk uke fy;k tk ldrk gS A xqtjkrh ds iqUuk yky
iVsy rFkk ejkBh esa HkkypUæ usekMs lqizfl) miU;kldkj gq, A
dqN miU;kldkjksa us e/;e oxZ dh lkekftd vkSj ikfjokfjd leL;kvksa dks ysdj Hkh miU;kl fy[ks A buesa caxyk ds 'kjrpUæ pVthZ]
fgUnh ds tSusUæ dqekj rFkk dUuM+ ds ;w0vkj0 vkuUnew£r cgqr izfl) gq, A
1947 esa Hkkjr&ikd foHkktu ds le; ?kVh nq?kZVukvksa dks vkus okys ;qx ds lkeus j[kus ds fy, miU;kl fy[ks A buesa ^;'kiky* dk
^>wBk&lp* rFkk mnwZ esa ^dqdZ rqy&,u&gSnj* dk ^vkx dk nfj;k* fny ngyk nsus okys miU;kl gSa A
iz'u 5- Vhiw dh HkwjktLo O;oLFkk gSnjkckn jkT; dh O;oLFkk ls fdl izdkj fHk Fkh\
mÙkjµjktLo izfØ;k ds fy;s Hkwfe dks vyx&vyx njtksa esa ckaVk gqvk Fkk vkSj gj njts dh Hkwfe ds ewY;kadu dk rjhdk Hkh vyx Fkk A
btkjk Hkwfe dks r; fdjk;ksa ij fdlkuksa dks iês ij fn;k tkrk Fkk A fgLlk Hkwfe ij fdjk;k mRiknu esa fgLls ds rkSj ij nsuk gksrk Fkk A blds
vykok flafpr Hkwfe dk fdjk;k mRiknu esa fgLls ds rkSj ij nsuk gksrk Fkk vkSj lw[kh Hkwfe dk fdjk;k iSlksa esa pqdkuk gksrk Fkk A
Hkwfe dks losZ{k.k vkSj fu;a=.k iz.kkyh ds rgr j[kk tkrk Fkk vkSj [ksrksa dks tksrus okyksa dks dkQh jkgr vkSj lqj{kk nsdj mudk gkSlyk
c<+k;k tkrk Fkk A jkT; fu;a=.k dh ,d etcwr iz.kkyh cuk;h x;h Fkh ftlesa veynkj rks jktLo iz'kklu dks fu;af=r djrs Fks vkSj vklQnkj
fdjk;s lacaÌh >xM+ksa ds dkuwuh fcanqvksa dh ns[kHkky djrs Fks A fcpkSfy;ksa dks [kRe djds jkT; ds fy;s vfÌd ls vfÌd jktLo cukus ds fy;s
jkT; ds fgrksa vkSj fdlkuksa ds fgrksa ds chp ,d lhÌk lw= cuk;k x;k A Vhiw us jktLo fdlkuksa ls fdlkuksa dh j{kk djus ds fy;s [kkl ljdkjh
vfÌdkfj;ksa dks [ksrh ds vfÌdkj u nsus tSls dbZ mik; fd;s A

N

Vhiw dh Hkwfe jktLo uhfr esa [ksrh ds fy;s fodflr lqfoÌk;sa nsus ds fy;s O;fDr;ksa dks [ksrh djus ds fy;s iwjh Lok;Ùrk nsus dk izkoÌku
Fkk A ,sls O;fDr;ksa dks flapkbZ rFkk vU; lacafÌr dk;ks± ds fy;s tehu eq¶r esa nh x;h A bl rjg yksxksa dk ,d ,slk oxZ rS;kj fd;k tks [ksrh
ds fodkl dks Lora= :i ls lgkjk ns ldsa] ijUrq bu mik;ksa ls vyx iM+h Hkwfe dks tksrus vkSj ,d [kkl ifjokj dks ges'kk ds fy;s tkxhj
ns nsus okyh] tkxhj iz.kkyh ds dkj.k lQyrk ugha feyh A nwljh vksj [ksrh ds mRiknu esas iwjs xkao dh lk>snkjh gksus dh izFkk Fkh A bl izFkk
ds dkj.k mRiknu dk cM+k fgLlk opZLo j[kus okyh ;k Åaph tkfr;ksa dks pyk tkrk Fkk tks vfÌdrj deZdkaM djrs Fks A bl rjg] ,slk dksbZ
rjhdk ugha Fkk ftlls dh vfrfjDr mRiknu dk bLrseky [ksfrgj leqnk; esa fodkl dk dke 'kq: djus ds fy;s fd;k tk lds A ifj.kkeLo:i
[ksfrgj ds ikl brus lalkÌu ugha Fks fd [ksrh dk fodkl gks lds A lcls vfÌd jkT; ;q) dks izkFkfedrk nsrk Fkk A lqYrkuksa dk [kkl /;ku
ekjkBksa] gSnjkckn] dukZVd vkSj vaxzstksa ij Fkk A blds dkj.k lsuk dk [kpkZ csrgk'kk c<+ x;k vkSj mlds ifj.kkeLo:i jktLo dh ekax c<+
x;h A Vhiw us viuh gkj ds le; Hkwfe jktLo esa 30 izfr'kr dh c<+ksrjh dh Fkh A bl rjg [ksrh ds fdlh LFkkbZ fodkl dh laHkkouk ugha Fkh
vkSj [ksfrgj dks vkSj vfÌd iSlk nsus dks etcwj djuk bl fLFkfr dk ,slk ifj.kke Fkk ftls Vkyk ugha tk ldrk Fkk A
Vhiw lqYrku vkSj gSnj vyh us jktLo ij ,d cM+h ukSdj'kkgh ds tfj;s lhÌs dkcw djus dh dksf'k'k dh Fkh] ysfdu gSnjkckn ds 'kkldksa
us ;g dke fcpkSfy;ksa dks djus fn;k A jktLo ds fy;s ;g rks le>k tkrk Fkk fd og mRiknu dk 50 izfr'kr gksuk pkfg,] ysfdu ,slk cgqr
de gh gksrk Fkk fd bl vuqikr esa jktLo bdëk gks A jkT; vkSj Hkw&jktLo nkrkvksa ds chp fcpkSfy;ksa dk egRo bl rF; ls irk pyrk gS fd
jkT; dh bdëk gqbZ jde ;k ^^tekcanh** tehankj dh lgefr ls r; gqbZ ewY;kadu dh jde ;k ^^dkfye** ls ges'kk de gksrh Fkh A gSnjkckn
esa jkT; dh lsok ds fy;s feyus okyh Hkwfe iq'rSuh gksrh Fkh A eSlwj esa rks bl ij jksd yxkus dh dksf'k'k gqbZ] ysfdu gSnjkckn esa blds fy;s
dksbZ xaHkhj mik; ugha fd;s x;s A ;gh ugha tkxhjnkj iq'rSuh fojklr dk Qk;nk mBkrs gq, brus etcwr gks x;s Fks fd okLrfod jktLo esa fxjkoV
vkus ds lanHkZ esa Hkh bl ckr dk dksbZ loky gh ugha mBrk fd tkxhjnkjksa dks tks jde lpeqp feyuh pkfg;s] mudh tkxhjksa ls mUgsa feyus
okys jktLo mlls de gks A
gSnjkckn ds Hkw&jktLo iz'kklu esa vkfeyksa ds uhps vfÌdkjh gksrs Fks A fu;fer ewY;kadu vkSj losZ{k.k ds mik; fd;s tkrs Fks A [ksrh djus
okyksa dk jkT; dh dtZ vkSj eksgyr dh fufr ds tfj;s gkSlyk c<+k;k tkrk Fkk A exj ;s lHkh laHkkouk;sa fcpkSfy;ksa dh rkdr vkSj vgfe;r
us [kRe dj nh A geus Åij ns[kk fd mudh Hkwfedk jktLo ds ewY;kadu vkSj tek djus esa fu.kkZ;d Fkh A bldk futkeksa ds vÌhu gSnjkckn
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ds jkT;ra= ds cuus ij egÙoiw.kZ vlj iM+uk Fkk A yxrk gS ogka fcpkSfy;s lokFkks± dk ,d ,slk ra= ekStwn Fkk tks loksZPp Lrj ij rkdr vkSj
vlj ds fy;s pyus okyh gksM+ ds fy;s jktuhfrd vkÌkj cu ldrk Fkk A
iz'u 6 okf.kT;okn osQ fl¼kar dh izeq[k fo'ks"krkvksa dh foospuk dhft,A
mÙkjµokf.kT;oknµog fopkj/kkjk ftlesa thou fuokZg dh oLrqvksa dks O;kikfjd :i iznku fd;k tkrk gS A mnkgj.k ds fy, d`f"k dsoy
thou fookZg dk lk/ku gqvk djrh Fkh] vc mldk Lo:i dnydj O;kikfjd gks x;k A yksx vius [ksrksa esa dsoy vius mi;ksx ds fy, gh oLrq
iSnk ugha djrs] cfYd fu;kZr ds fy, Hkh iSnk djus yxs vFkkZr~yksx miHkksDrk Qlyksa ds vfrfjDr O;kikfjd Qly vf/kd iSnk djus yxs A bl
fopkj/kkjk dks d`f"k dk okf.kT;okn dgrs gSa A
izQkal vkSj baXySaM ds lUnHkZ esa okf.kT;okn–16oha 'krkCnh esa bu ns'kksa us lkearokn ds iru ds ckn okf.kT;oknh O;oLFkk dks viuk;k
vkSj 18oha 'krkCnh ds e/; og vkS|ksfxd iwathokn rFkk jk"Vªokn dh vksj c<+s A ijUrq Hkkjr 18oha 'krkCnh rd lkearoknh iz.kkyh ij dk;e
jgk A ;wjksi esa vk£Fkd {ks= esa gLrf'kYi ij vk/kkfjr ukxfjd O;kikj dk LFkku okf.kT;oknh iz.kkyh us ys fy;k A
vFkZO;oLFkk ds {ks= esa ;wjksi esa okf.kT;oknh iz.kkyh us lkearh izFkk dk LFkku ys fy;k vkSj u;s m|ksxksa dks izksRlkgu fn;k A vk£Fkd lgk;rk]
,dkfèkdkj vkSj dj ls eqfDr nsdj] fons'kksa dh izfr;ksfxrk dks lhfer djds] pqafx;ksa dks bl izdkj <kydj fd dPps eky ds vk;kr vkSj rS;kj
eky ds fu;kZr dks cy feys vkSj fu;a=.k }kjk mRiknu dk Lrj iwoZor~dk;Z j[kdj blus m|ksxksa dk iks"k.k fd;k A
iwath ds lap; us okf.kT;okn dks tUe fn;k vkSj d`f"k] O;kikj ,oa m|ksxksa dks izHkkfor fd;k A d`f"k {ks= esa [ksrksa dh pdcanh vkSj HksM+ikyu
esa ckM+canh ls mRiknu esa o`f) gqbZ vkSj m|ksxksa ds fy, Jfed miyC/k gq, A O;kikfjd {ks=ksa ls lacaf/kr daifu;ksa dk fodkl] u;s ekxks± rFkk
vesfjdk ,oa Hkkjr tSls u;s ns'kksa dh [kkst ds QyLo:i u;s cktjksa dk fodkl gqvk A vejhdk ls ;wjksi lksuk&pkanh vk tkus ls O;kolkf;d
m|ksxksa dks cy feyk A okf.kT;oknh uhfr ds }kjk jkT; ls /ku vkSj 'kfDr izkIr dh] ftldk mi;ksx mlus mifuos'k clkus] lsuk;sa [kM+h djus
vkSj fojksf/k;ksa ds fo#) ;q) djus esa fd;k A
iz'u 7 ([k) egyokjh O;oLFkk

N

mÙkjµegyokM+h O;oLFkk iatkc] e/; Hkkjr o dqN mÙj&if'peh izkUrksa esa ykxw dh xbZ A bl i)fr ds vuqlkj Hkwfe ij dj xzke ;k ,LVsV
¼egy½ dh nj ls yxk;k tkrk Fkk A Hkwfe dj dh olwyh dk vfÌdkj tehankj ;k eqf[k;k ds ikl gksrk Fkk A vaxzstksa ds vuqlkj ;g O;oLFkk
iqjkuh xzke i)fr ij vkÌkfjr Fkh] ijUrq dj olwyh iwjs xzke ls gksus ij tehu ij ekfydkuk gd dsoy tehankj ;k eqf[k;k dk gksrk Fkk A
;g ,d izdkj dh tehankjh O;oLFkk Fkh rFkk blesa tehankjh O;oLFkk ds lHkh xq.k&nks"k fo|eku Fks A
bl O;oLFkk dk eq[; nks"k dj dh nj dkQh Å¡pk gksuk Fkk A vfÌdrj NksVs fdlku dtZ ds cks> rys ncs gq, Fks A os dj pqdkus dh
fLFkfr esa ugha Fks] ifj.kkeLo:i [ksr lwn[kksj egktuksa dh laifÙ cu x,] ftUgksaus Hkwfe ds vlyh ekfydksa dks [ksfrgj etnwj cuk fn;k A
egyokM+h O;oLFkk ds dkj.k 19oha 'krkCnh ds pkSFks o ik¡pos n'kd esa mrj Hkkjr esa Hk;kud vkfFkZd eanh dk nkSj vk;k A blds ifj.kkeLo:i
1857 esa fdlkuksa us fonzksg dj fn;k rFkk mUgsa dj olwyh ds fy, vk, vfÌdkfj;ksa o tehu ds u, ekfydksa dks xzkeksa ls ekj Hkxk;k rFkk lHkh
ljdkjh dkxt u"V dj fn, A
iz'u 7 (?k) f}rh; vkaXy&cekZ ;q)

mÙkjµvaxzstksa us cekZ ij 1824 esa vkØe.k fd;k] ysfdu caxky lsuk dh rhu cVkfy;uksa us ml le; fonzksg dj fn;k ftl le; mudks
cekZ ds vjkdku {ks= ds iM+ksl esa fpVxkao ij vkØe.k djus dks dgk x;k A eq[; vkØe.k leqnz ls fd;k x;k A cekZ dh lsuk;sa vklkuh ls
ijkftr gks x;ha A jktk us ml 'kkafr lafÌ dks Lohdkj fd;k ftlds vuqlkj vle] ef.kiqj] vjkdku] rkok; vkSj esjxqbZ dksa vaxzstksa ds vfÌdkj
esa ns fn;k x;k Fkk A bl izdkj jktk us vius vfÌd`r leqnz rV dks [kks fn;k rFkk mlds ikl Åijh vkSj dsUnzh; cekZ okys {ks= 'ks"k jg x;s A
mldks viuh jktÌkuh esa ,d vaxzst jsthMsaV ¼izfrfuf̽ dks j[kus ds fy;s ck/; fd;k x;k rFkk 1,000,000 ikSaM dk gtkZuk vnk djuk iM+k A
bl ;q) esa vaxzst Hkkjrh; lsuk ds 40,000 yksxksa us Hkkx fy;k] ftlesa ls 15,000 yksx ekjs x;s A ;q) dk [kpZ bruk vfÌd Fkk fd cekZ
;q) ds nkSjku vFkkZr~1824 ls 1828 rd Hkkjrh; ctV dk ?kkVk 7,000,000 ikSaM igqap x;k A
cekZ jktÌkuh fLFkr fczfV'k jsftMsaV us nkok fd;k dh cekZ dh ljdkj mlds lkFk lEekutud O;ogkj ugha djrh gS rFkk 1839 esa mlus
cekZ dks NksM+ fn;k A blh chp phu ds lkFk O;kikj dk izlkj gqvk] nf{k.k iwohZ ,f'k;k esa fczfV'k mifuos'kksa esa Hkh dkQh o`f) gqbZ vkSj blh dkj.k
vaxzsth tgktksa dh ejEer ds fy;s vklkuh ls miyCÌ cekZ dh bekjrh ydM+h rFkk vU; mifuos'kksa esas bjkorh unh ds eqgkus ij mRikfnr gksus
okys pkoy dh vkiwfrZ djus dh Hkh vko';drk gqbZ A 1852 esa Hkkjr ds xouZj tujy MygkSth us vaxzstksa ds lEeku dh iquLFkkZiuk dk cgkuk
ysdj cekZ ij vkØe.k dj fn;k A f}rh; ,aXyks&cekZ ;q) 1852 esa vkjaHk gqvk rFkk vaxzstksa us 1853 rd isaxw vkSj Vksaxw ds {ks=ksa ij vfÌdkj
tek fy;k A cekZ ds jktk feanu feu dks viuh jktÌkuh ek.Mys esa ys tkus ds fy;s etcwj fd;k x;k A bl izdkj vaxzstksa dk caxky dh [kkM+h
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ds laiw.kZ rV ij vfÌdkj gks x;k A bl lnh ds var esa] 1885 esa ;g cgkuk djds lEiw.kZ cekZ dks vius vÌhu dj fy;k fd jktk fenu feu
,d nqjkpkjh jktk Fkk A rFkk fo;ruke fLFkr Ýkalhfl;ksa ds lkFk feydj ,f'k;k esa vaxzstksa dks detksj djus ds fy;s dk;Z dj jgk Fkk A bl
rjg cekZ dks Hkh czhfV'k Hkkjr dk ,d izns'k cuk fn;k x;k A
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