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DIN and DIP budgets for Maricá-Guarapina coastal lagoons

Rio de Janeiro State
Erminda da C.G. Couto, Nicole A.C. Zyngier, Viviane R. Gomes , Bastiaan A. Knoppers
and Marcelo F. Landim de Souza

Study area description
The Maricá-Guarapina system comprises three small choked coastal lagoons and a wetland connected by
narrow channels, on the east coast of Rio de Janeiro state (22.93°S, 42.70°W, Figure 1). Present
anthropogenic influence is mainly sewage inputs, but in the 1950’s the system suffered several
hydrological impacts, such as the artificial change of oceanic opening from the middle to the eastern
extreme, and since then landfill in the link channels has restricted water circulation.

Figure 1. Map and location of Marica-Guarapina Lagoons.

Maricá Lagoon (area 29 km2, mean depth 1.3 m) is a shallow lagoon which receives
untreated organic waste with no direct input of seawater. It is linked to Guarapina
Lagoon (area 6 km2, mean depth 1.0 m), a shallow lagoon permanently connected to the
sea via an artificial channel - Ponta Negra Channel (Figure 2) (Couto 1989). In choked
coastal lagoons, the entrance channel serves as a dynamic filter that effectively reduces
or eliminates tidal water fluctuations and tidal currents. In Guarapina Lagoon, which is

1992). with autotrophy dominating during the summer and heterotrophy during the winter. Water flux in 106 m3 yr-1. Water and salt budgets for Marica-Guarapina coastal lagoons. However. However. 1990. Machado 1989). with the highest flux usually occurring during the summer when primary production is highest. In Maricá and Barra Lagoons sporadic dystrophic crises and fish kills induce nutrient pulses (Esteves 1992. salt flux in 106 psu-m3 yr-1 and salinity in psu.characterized by a 1. intense rain events may induce drastic salinity changes.5 km long and 40 m wide tidal channel. The results reflect seasonal variability of benthic nutrient fluxes. which seems to serve as a physical and biological filter for biogenic matter transferred from the drainage basin to the lagoon. water level oscillations are usually reduced to 1 % or less as compared to the adjacent coastal tide (Kjerfve and Knoppers 1991). Carmouze et al. Figure 2. The highest fraction of suspended detrital organic matter is encountered during the less productive period during late autumn and winter. 1993). some export of material from the vegetation belt may occur during sporadic inundation and washout events during the passage of metereological fronts (Couto 1989). 1991). Most of the suspended detritus originates from autotrophic production. Tidal exchange between Maricá Lagoon and Guarapina Lagoon is dampened by intermediate lagoons. Moreira and Knoppers 1990). The marginal vegetation consists predominantly of the macrophyte Typha dominguensis Pers (Typhaceae). Barra (Kuroshima 1995) and Guarapina (Machado 1989) lagoons. in press. Measurements of nutrient release rates from the sediment-water interface have been made in Maricá (Fernex et al. Moreira 1989). Nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations . Salinity changes are always smallest in the internal cells of lagoon systems. as indicated by the relatively low particulate organic carbon to nitrogen ratios. This system exhibits pronounced annual cycles of salinity (Moreira 1988. Net autotrophy and heterotrophy are equal on an annual basis (Knoppers and Kjerfve.). In the summer Guarapina Lagoon is dominated by planktonic cyanobacteria (Moreira 1988). Knoppers et al. Knoppers and Moreira. with C:N by weight less than 9:1. The presence of large suspended detrital pools has been confirmed for Barra Lagoon (Carmouze et al. (1991) presented concentration ranges from sporadic sampling effort conducted by FEEMA. 1993) and Guarapina Lagoon (Moreira 1988). and seems to be an important source of nutrients for primary production in the spring (Moreira 1988. The system presented marked seasonal shifts between autotrophy and heterotrophy. These events result in marked biogeochemical and ecological responses (Knoppers and Moreira 1988). wetlands and channels (Knoppers et al. Couto 1989. Mean annual primary production range is ~300400 g C m-2 yr-1 in Guarapina lagoon (Machado and Knoppers 1988. Primary production is dominated by phytoplankton production. A consistent data set for Maricá Lagoon does not exist.

Ammonia was the major component (>50%) of TIN with major sources being the bottom in Guarapina (Machado 1989) and human effluents in Maricá. The source of the high TIN load (ammonia) in Guarapina is primarily due to decomposition of benthic macroalgae (Cladophora vagabunda) in Padre Lagoon. Available early data was compiled to construct a preliminary nutrient budget and apply the LOICZ biogeochemical approach (Gordon et al. An estimate based on the per capita load of phosphorus from the population in Maricá City (38. DIP budget for Marica-Guarapina coastal lagoons. In this lagoon a small residual flow is produced by hydraulic gradient. Using both total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations as trophic state (TP) indices demonstrates that Maricá. Guarapina Lagoon receives a considerable load from its adjacent interior lagoons (Padre. The intermediate lagoons change their role in the transfer of matter and nutrients seasonally between Maricá and Guarapina lagoons. Padre and Guarapina lagoons presented an eutrophic state. A small fraction of DIN (3. 25 days in Guarapina. and only 185 days considering the whole system. 1996). Water and salt balance Total water residence time was about 314 days in Maricá. The major fraction of organic matter is stored in phytoplankton. Loading from the Guarapina drainage basin is minimal and conditions closely resemble a natural state (Figueiredo et al.4 mM DIP and 9. This results in a high residence time.and the ratio of total inorganic nitrogen to total inorganic phosphorus (TIN/TIP) are far less in Guarapina Lagoon than in the other lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast (Knoppers et al. .500) suggests that this lagoon receives large amounts of effluent discharges (FEEMA 1987). However. This resulted in net seaward fluxes of 3x103 moles DIP yr1. alternately functioning as a filter and as an internal recycling source of releasing nutrients (Knoppers et al. In Guarapina Lagoon mixing with the adjacent sea is continuous.4%) is retained in Guarapina.2 mM DIN).5 mM DIP and 5. 1991).7 %) exported from Maricá is retained in Guarapina. This resulted in net seaward fluxes of 694x103 moles DIN yr-1. The negative net nonconservative fluxes of DIP and DIN show that autotrophic processes prevail in the system. Tidal exchange between Maricá and Guarapina lagoons is dampened by the narrow channel.6 mM DIN) than Guarapina (0. The N/P ratio indicated a trend towards nitrogen limitation. The annual average salinity was higher in Guarapina (17 psu) than Maricá (5 psu). 1996) on an annual basis. Barra. 1991). Most of the hydraulic flux DIP exported from Maricá (90. Nonconservative materials balance Dissolved inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations were higher in Maricá (3. Figure 3. Barra and Maricá lagoons).

Figure 4. Table 1 Nonconservative dissolved inorganic P and N fluxes in the Maricá Guarapina system. * mol m-2 yr-1.8 1Redfield N:P ratio.760 +0.17 +1.120 +0.81 mole N m-2 yr-1) in Guarapina. DDINexp** (nfix-denit)(1*) DDIP** DDINobs** (p-r)* Maricá -320 +230 -5.640 +0. ** x 103 mol yr-1 Back to [Node Introduction] [Budgets][South America] [ Last Updated 21 May 2006 by DPS LOICZ] . Stoichiometry and net system metabolism The net N-fixation was estimated as +4.9x106 moles N yr-1 (+0.2 Guarapina -290 -236 -4.81 +5. DIN budget for Marica-Guarapina coastal lagoons. The results are summarized in Table 1.9x106 moles N yr-1(+0.2 Whole system -610 -6 -9.17 mole N m-2 yr-1) in Maricá and +4.28 +1.