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**Adrielle Hernandez, Czarina Hernandez, Mhariel Ilagan, Reggiana Lanuza, & Paulo Latonio
**

Department of Biology

College of Science, University of Santo Tomas

España, Manila Philippines

Abstract

Measurement is a collection of quantitative

data and made by comparing a quantity with

a standard unit. Measuring devices like

Vernier Caliper, Micrometer Caliper and

Foot Rule were used and well studied and

compared with each other. Due to different

factors, errors and uncertainties occurred.

Mathematical formulas like average

deviation, mean, % error and volume of the

sphere were also used.

Introduction

In order to have a reliable

data, appropriate instruments must be used.

Failure of using the right instrument is one

of the sources of error. Different measuring

devices can be used. Each measuring

devices have their own usages and functions.

Foot rule is a rule for taking length or

distance in feet and inches.

Vernier Caliper is a measuring

instrument consisting of an L-shaped frame

with a linear scale along its longer arm and

an L-shaped sliding attachment with a

vernier. It is used to read directly the

dimension of an object represented by the

separation between the inner or outer edges

of the two shorter arms.

Micrometer Caliper is a measuring

**instrument whose conversion mechanism
**

consists of a screw-nut micropair. Both are

used to get extremely precise measurements

but Micrometer caliper is more accurate

compared to Vernier caliper.

This experiment aims to (1)

familiarize the students with the different

measuring devices and compare their

accuracy, (2) study the errors and how they

propagate, (3) determine the average

deviation and mean of the set of

experimental values as well as set of average

deviation of the mean and (4) determine the

density of an object given its mass and

dimensions.

Theory

Mean Diameter (md) = Σdiameter/n

- sum of all measured diameters divided by

number of observations.

Deviation (d) = |reading-mean diameter|

Average deviation (a.d.) = Σd/n where n=

number of observations

- sum of the deviations divided by the

number of observations

Average deviation of the mean (A.D.) =

Σd/√n

8840 1.90 1.90 3.80 1.49 Table 2.80 1. micrometer caliper and the foot rule were determined. Ten independent measurements for the diameter of the sphere were made.7686 7.90 10.8860 1.8970 1.90 1. Results of measurement of thumb using Vernier Caliper 3 0.) of the mean diameter were determined. The same steps were repeated for the Vernier and micrometer caliper.8810 1.25 % Table 1.90 1. deviation (d) of each measurement of diameter from the mean diameter The average deviation (a.80 1.68 % 0.8810 1. The % error was also computed.d.0015 2. The results were then compared Results and Discussion A.80 1. the average deviation (A.9758 7.74 1.49 .70 1. Activity 2 The thumb of each group member was obtained using the Vernier caliper.758 3 27.8 29.8834 0.60 1.90 1.d) Average Deviation of the Mean (A. The weight of the sphere was determined using the electronic gram balance.90 27. The density of the sphere was also calculated. The % error was determined by determining the sphere’s accepted value of density. Results Trial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mean Diameter Average Deviation (a. The least count of the Vernier caliper.D.90 1.4981 27.90 1.11 49 7.0047 0.90 1.56 2 0.90 1.90 1.Volume (v) = 4/3 〖πr〗^3 where r= radius Density= mass/volume %error =| (experimental value-accepted value )/(accepted value)|x100 Methodology Activity 1 The errors in the measuring device were determined and were added/subtracted from the final measurement.8670 1.) was calculated.025 3 0 0.70 1. The mean diameter of the sphere.90 1.8860 1.90 1.D) Volume (cm3) Mass (g) Experiment al Value of Density (g/cm3) Accepted Value of Density % Error for Density Diameter of Sphere (cm) Foot Vernier Micromet Rule Caliper er Caliper 1.5914 3. Results of measurement of sphere using Foot rule. Vernier Caliper and Micrometer caliper Group Member Width of thumb (in) 1 0.40 % 2.8860 1.8 7.70 1.8810 1.8850 1.60 1.90 1.8 7.08 0 0.

J. Discussion With the given data using the three measuring devices.B. while student number 2 (Hernandez. A. (2015).) and student number 3 (Ilagan) have the smallest thumb widths that measured 0. the use of the Vernier caliper gave the least % error having a 0.49 inches. Conclusion Through performing the experiments. The importance in taking multiple measurements is emphasized because one trial will not always give a accurate and precise measurement and that although the measurements may be close. Physics (8th ed.physicsclassroom.com/PhysicsTutorial/1-D-Kinematics Cutnell. & Johnson. the width of their thumbs are both 0. C.25 % error. One person may have more body fat in their thumb while others may have less body fat in that area. it became slightly less accurate than the Vernier caliper.). . 68%. The measurement using the Micrometer caliper should be the most accurate among the three because the micrometer provides a greater degree of accuracy but because of human error or maybe the inappropriate use of the tool. student number 4 (Lanuza) came second with a thumb width of 0. The use of Micrometer caliper gave a 2. Human error may be a possible reason why the use of foot rule gave a high % error. References The Physics Classroom. The group members with the widest thumbs are student 1 (Hernandez. K.40% error.59 inches. 1-D Kinematics [Data file].56 inches. Inc. (2009). Retrieved from http://www. USA: Wiley & Sons. which is very high and most likely inaccurate. which is close to the accepted value while the use of foot rule gave the most highest % error of 29.) and student number 5 (Latonio). the group was able to observe errors and how they happen. The width of the thumb of each person may differ from one another because of their body types. there is still room for error.

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