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# Experiment 1: Errors, Uncertainties, and Measurements

Adrielle Hernandez, Czarina Hernandez, Mhariel Ilagan, Reggiana Lanuza, & Paulo Latonio
Department of Biology
College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
España, Manila Philippines

Abstract
Measurement is a collection of quantitative
data and made by comparing a quantity with
a standard unit. Measuring devices like
Vernier Caliper, Micrometer Caliper and
Foot Rule were used and well studied and
compared with each other. Due to different
factors, errors and uncertainties occurred.
Mathematical formulas like average
deviation, mean, % error and volume of the
sphere were also used.
Introduction
In order to have a reliable
data, appropriate instruments must be used.
Failure of using the right instrument is one
of the sources of error. Different measuring
devices can be used. Each measuring
devices have their own usages and functions.
Foot rule is a rule for taking length or
distance in feet and inches.
Vernier Caliper is a measuring
instrument consisting of an L-shaped frame
with a linear scale along its longer arm and
an L-shaped sliding attachment with a
vernier. It is used to read directly the
dimension of an object represented by the
separation between the inner or outer edges
of the two shorter arms.
Micrometer Caliper is a measuring

instrument whose conversion mechanism
consists of a screw-nut micropair. Both are
used to get extremely precise measurements
but Micrometer caliper is more accurate
compared to Vernier caliper.
This experiment aims to (1)
familiarize the students with the different
measuring devices and compare their
accuracy, (2) study the errors and how they
propagate, (3) determine the average
deviation and mean of the set of
experimental values as well as set of average
deviation of the mean and (4) determine the
density of an object given its mass and
dimensions.

Theory
Mean Diameter (md) = Σdiameter/n
- sum of all measured diameters divided by
number of observations.