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5.1 Introduction
- In the earlier sections the emphasis has been on the
direct application of the laws of mechanics to either
simple, or simplified flow systems, in order to calculate
parameters of practical interest.
- Attention is now turned to more complex, viscous
- The Objectives are:

To use the laws of fluid motion to develop an
understanding of the behaviour of viscous fluids.


To use the process of dimensional analysis to
develop calculation techniques for viscous flows
that make use of available empirical data.


5.2 Dynamics of Fluid Motion

! Flow Acceleration / Deceleration
- Here the aim is to show what the
effects of acceleration and deceleration
are on the static pressure of the fluid.
- Consider accelerating flow in the
converging channel, shown here.
- From the momentum principle

F = m ( U 2 - U 1)

The positive force needed to maintain flow
acceleration, is generated by the change in fluid
pressure, along the direction of flow.
F = A1P1 -A2P2

- For a small element along the channel of area A and
length U shown here:
The Mass Flow Rate m is: m = D A U.
The Force is: F = AP -A(P+)P) = -A)P
Rate of Momentum change:
m ( U+ )U -U) = D A U )U

º - )P A = D A U )U

or -()P/)x) = D U ()U /)x)

Thus: Pressure Gr. = Density X Acceleration
Change in Velocity Related to Change in Pressure


Increase in Velocity
Reduction in Pressure

Reduction in Velocity
Increase in Pressure

- The same conclusion can be arrived at by considering
Bernoulli’s equation :
(P/D) + .5 V2 + gz = Constant
- Thus neglecting changes in z :
Increase in V
Reduction in V


Reduction in P
Increase in P

! Flow Curvature.
- Consider the corner flow shown below :
- This is a 2-dimensional flow
-The x direction and
acceleration in the y
direction, "X and "Y.


- Curvature in the flow streamlines, leads to a centrifugal
(normal to the flow streamlines) acceleration.
- As shown in equation 1.3.4, this acceleration in the
radial direction, increases the pressure along the radius
of curvature of the flow streamlines.

dP/dr = D V2 / r
A curved streamline is associated with a pressure
gradient across it
- Example:

As seen in Section 1.A )P = 2 JW (L b) .3. J =-: (dU/dy) Fp= J (L b) 8 8 Viscosity Plate Area Channel Flow . .5 ! Viscous effects and boundary layers.Wall driven flow.External forces or pressure gradients are needed to overcome these stresses. External force applied to the moving wall. . in real fluids. deformation produces internal forces (stresses) between adjacent layers of fluid that move relative to each other.A pressure difference must be imposed JW = -: (dU/dy)W . .

known as the wall-boundary layer. . when a fluid moves over a solid surface.A most important consequence of viscosity.In real (viscous) fluids. the fluid layer in contact with a solid surface is always at rest.Pressure Gradient + Viscous Force . .A region of slow moving fluid therefore grows. . .The difference in velocity between the stationary fluid at the solid surface and the moving fluid layers above it.6 . leads to shear deformation.The shear deformation creates a shear stress which opposes the fluid motion. is the formation of near-wall boundary layers. D[Acceleration] = .Fluid motion is governed by the balance between viscous and pressure gradient forces. .

.In Steady Flows.3 Visual Description of Fluid Motion ! Steady Flow .Consider the example of flow over a wing.7 5.The smoke trails reveal the loci of all the fluid particles that pass through the probe positions.These loci are called Streaklines .The fluid velocity is always tangent to the streamlines. º No Flow Across a Streamline . .Place smoke-emitting probes in the flow. . these lines are also Streamlines. A and B. .

the smoke will start to follow the new set of streamlines through a and b. . denoted by the new pair of dotted lines.The mass flow rate between any two streamlines must therefore be constant.At time smoke would start to follow the path shown by the stream lines a and b. streaklines are not the same as streamlines .By time t+)t. .While the smoke trails continue to be streaklines. . they are no longer streamlines. º In unsteady flows. denoted by the dotted lines.Consider the same example as before.Bunching of streamlines indicates flow acceleration . but for unsteady conditions.Any wall is a streamline. .8 . .Diverging streamlines indicate deceleration ! Unsteady Flow .

Flow over a Flat Plate .4 Qualitative Discussion of External Flows 5. . . *.In real.As the fluid moves further downstream.1 Boundary Layer Flows A. giving rise to a boundary layer. the thickness of the boundary layer. .This shear force slows down fluid layers above the wall. Because the viscous forces act for longer. the solid surface always brings the fluid particles in contact with it to a stop. grows. U4.4. flows. . gives rise to a viscous shear force which opposes the fluid motion.9 5. viscous. within which the fluid velocity increases from zero to the free-stream value.The velocity gradient between the wall and the fluid.

Thus from Bernoulli' s equation. remains constant along the streamwise. as the flow moves downstream. . U4.10 .In the case of a boundary layer developing over a Flat Plate. x.The rate of growth of the boundary layer is dictated by ratio between the inertial and the viscous forces. the free-stream velocity. . the pressure gradient in the streamwise direction is zero : P + DU42/2 + Dgz = Const º d ( P + DU42/2 + Dgz ) /dx = d (Const)/dx Since U4 and z do not vary with x : (MP) / (Mx) = 0 . the wall shear stress reduces the momentum of the boundarylayer fluid. direction.Where U a characteristic velocity D a characteristic length Re the flow Reynolds number . .Consequently.

x. When the Reynolds number increases. Flow Over A Concave Surface . is reduced in the flow direction.At low Reynolds numbers. the viscous force is stronger relative to the inertia force and thus the boundary layer grows faster. P is increased . U4.5DU42 = Const.In flow over a concave surface the free-stream velocity. º As U4 is reduced. the boundary layer grows more slowly.11 . ignoring changes in elevation: P + 0. A = Constant º As A increases U reduces From Bernoulli's equation. and the inertia force becomes more important. because the flow area is increased From Continuity : U. B.

.The pressure gradient therefore opposes the fluid motion and is consequently said to be an Adverse Pressure Gradient. the gradient of the velocity in the direction normal to the wall becomes zero.12 . .Because the boundary-layer fluid has lower momentum.At the start of the separation (Separation Point).  Students are at this point advised to attempt QUIZ8 on Blackboard . the adverse pressure gradient is able to reverse its flow direction and create a region of Flow Separation.

Velocity is reduced to zero along the central streamline. a Stagnation Point is a point of maximum local pressure.2 Flows Around Obstacles A. as the flow area increases. leading to a stagnation point at the front of the cylinder. Flow Around A Cylinder Points of Interest .Over the second half. the pressure gradient becomes adverse (positive) .As before. . At stagnation point U0 = 0. .According to Bernoulli's equation. .4. the adverse pressure gradient causes flow separation behind the cylinder. .Flow accelerates over the front half of the cylinder where the pressure gradient is favourable. .13 5.

causing a region of high pressure. FD.Therefore pressure in front of the cylinder is greater than the back pressure. the pressure is lower at the rear of the block due to the flow separation. . the static pressure remains constant because the freestream velocity no longer changes.As in the case of the cylinder.The presence of 90o corners causes flow separation because real fluids cannot turn round 90o corners. giving rise to a pressure drag force.Again a stagnation point is formed in the middle of the front face. Flow Over A Square Block Points of Interest . B. .Once flow separation occurs.14 .Again this gives rise to a pressure drag force. . FD. . .

Low Angle of Incidence Points of Interest .The above situation is equivalent to the wing being exposed to uniform flow on both sides and also surrounded by a vortex.A stagnation point is formed at the front of the aerofoil.15 5.This phenomenon is known as the Magnus Effect. FL. . . .From Bernoulli’s equation (P + 0.This gives rise to an upward pressure force known as the Lift Force. Explanation of Lift based on Bernoulli’s . .): The pressure over the upper side is lower than that of the lower side.The fluid moves faster over the upper side than over the lower side.3 Flows Around Aerofoils A.4. .5D U42 = const. To be further discussed at the end of this Section.

As already noted.A small drag force is also present. when fluids follow a curved path there is a pressure change across (normal to) the streamlines. diagram.As can be seen in the figure above.Viscous effects become important and use of Bernoulli’s questionable. . .16 . the flow is forced to follow a curved path around the wing. with the pressure increasing with the distance from the centre of curvature.The above explanation ignores the fact that there is a boundary layer around the aerofoil. Explanation of lift based on curvature of streamlines . which leads to: . .

the fluid enters the control volume with only a horizontal velocity component and it also has a vertical downward component. . . .As shown above.From the force-momentum principle the conclusion is that the wing exerts a downward force on the fluid. b) A decrease in fluid pressure above the wing from the free stream value p4 to a lower value over the upper surface of the wing The end result is again a pressure difference between the lower and upper surfaces of the aerofoil. Explanation of Lift Based on Deflection of the Flow - This is perhaps the simplest way of explaining the generation of lift force. which gives rise to force normal to the flow direction.17 a) An increase in the fluid pressure below the wing from the free stream value P4 to a higher value over the lower surface of the wing.

The lower velocity over the upper surface raises the pressure and hence reduces lift. B. . . .The separation bubble pushes the flow streamlines away from the upper surface of the aerofoil. . High Angle of Incidence The lift rises with " up to " .13o.The fluid velocity over the upper surface of the aerofoil is thus reduced. at which point the flow over the upper surface of the aerofoil separates. 12 .At the same time the drag force is increased.This phenomenon is known as aerofoil Stall. . then we must conclude that the fluid exerts an upward force on the wing. .18 .From the principle of action and reaction.

re-directs more fluid over th side which moves in the same direction as the flow and slows down the fluid over the side which opposes the fluid motion. Consequently a force normal to the direction of the flow develops on the spinning object . Heinrich Gustav As in the aerofoil flow.19 The Magnus Effect It occurs when there is cross flow past a cylinder or sphere spinning about their own axes. the rotation of the cylinder about an axis normal to the cross-flow. Streamline Plots As shown in the diagrams. pressure is Magnus lower in regions of high velocity and (1802 – 1870) German Physicist high at low-velocity regions.

Anton Flettner used the Magnus effect to develop a highly efficient form of ship propulsion. by replacing the sails of a boat with two rotating 50 ft high cylinders.20 Flow Visualisation Tests This rotation-generated lift force is often exploited. Footballers and Tennis players often use spin to bend the trajectory of a ball. . In the 1920s. Anton Flettner The resulting vessel outperformed 1885-1961 conventional sailing boats while using only a fraction of the fuel of propeller conventional systems.

21 The Flettner Rotor Ship It first crossed the Atlantic in 1926. Recent proposal to revive the Flettner Propulsion system. .

the entry length needed for the flow to become fully-developed.From Continuity.4 Qualitative Discussion of Internal Flows 5. . boundary layers develop along both walls. . centreline velocity in the fullydeveloped region must be greater than inlet velocity: . as in the case of the flat plate. direction and is thus said to be fully-developed. the velocity profile has a parabolic shape. consequently.4.Eventually. depend on the flow Reynolds number.For laminar fully-developed flow. .As the flow enters the channel.The flow then no longer changes in the streamwise. . x. the two boundary layers meet in the middle of the channel. . the rate at which the boundary layers grow and.22 5.As noted earlier.1 Channel Or Pipe Flows. .

The wall shear stresses cause a drop in static pressure in the flow direction.23 As : Re (=U.Finally it is worth emphasizing that the finite velocity gradients at the walls give rise to viscous stresses that oppose the fluid motion. Thus : dP / dX < 0 . .D / < ) Rate of Boundary Layer Growth Entry-length Needed for Fully-developed Flow Conditions Increases is Reduced Increases .

24 5. near the corner of the step. .A second. Points of Interest .As explained in previous examples.This second separation region can be removed by using a rounded instead of a sharp step. the combination of an adverse pressure gradient and boundary layer flow.The pressure on the face of the step is thus higher than that further upstream.2 Flow Over A Step. due to the fact that a real. . smaller separation region is formed over the narrower region of the passage.A stagnation point is formed on the forward facing face. viscous. fluid cannot turn round a sharp 90o step. leads to flow separation in the step corner.4. causing a region of high pressure (Bernoulli's) . . .

Flow separation causes a drop in static pressure . . Points of Interest . the reduction in the streamline velocity in the flow direction leads to an increase in pressure.From Continuity. . .25 5.From Bernoulli's principle. again leads to flow separation in the corner regions. .Rounded corners does not prevent separation.In practice gradual expansions are used in internal passages to avoid this. .4. the increase in cross-sectional area leads to a reduction in average velocity.3 Flow Over An Expansion.The combination of adverse pressure gradient and of low-momentum boundary layer fluid.

The flow then carries this separation bubble around the foot of the obstacle creating the horse-shoe vortex.The direction of the boundary-layer fluid is thus reversed and a flow recirculation bubble is formed along the upstream corner.5 Three-dimensional Flows 5.26 5. . a stagnation point is formed at the front face of an obstacle.This is a three-dimensional flow and it occurs around the foot of an obstacle.5. that creates a region of adverse pressure gradient upstream of the obstacle. .As shown in previous examples. . .1 Horse-shoe Vortex Points of Interest .

This phenomenon can be found in many applications.27 . . at the junction between the wing and the body of an aeroplane. At ground level around tall buildings. at the foot of turbine blades etc.

as mentioned earlier. the pressure below the aerofoil is greater than that above it.This is a phenomenon generated at the tips of a wing. . .A pair of counter-rotating vortices is therefore generated.2 Trailing Vortices Points of interest . .It originates from the fact that. . .Increasing the drag force on the wing.This is a phenomenon that tends to reduce the aerodynamic performance of a wing by: .Reducing the difference between the upper and lower pressures.As a result.28 5. .5. fluid is driven around the wing tips from the lower to the upper surface. behind the wing.


Tutorial 9 .Quiz9 on Balckboard .30 EXAMPLE OF WING-TIP WINGLETS i At this point students are advised to attempt: .

It has been known for a long time that rapid flow tends to be more complex than that of a slow moving liquid.31 5.6 Turbulence . Rapid Water Flow in a Channel Sketch of Water Flow in a Fountain by Leonardo Da Vinci. .

in the 1890s. while at low velocities flow streamlines remain steady.As noted by Osborne Reynolds. Osborne Reynolds Osborne Reynolds Flow Visualisation Water Tank. .32 . at high velocities flow becomes unstable. a professor of engineering at Manchester University.

This type of flow is known as laminar flow. .33 Osborne Reynolds Dye Injection Experiment Computer Simulation Flow Visualisation Experiment Flow Development in a Boundary Layer.This is because at low velocities the viscous forces are strong enough to dump any flow instabilities. .

. in turbulent boundary layers the wall shear stress is greater than in laminar ones. .Instabilities that occur cannot be damped by the viscous forces. . the inertia of the fluid increases.Turbulence enhances mixing between adjacent fluid layers. .As a result. . .In internal flows this leads to higher frictional losses in static pressure.At higher velocities. Instead they are amplified leading to an unstable fluid motion known as turbulent motion.34 .In external flows this causes a higher rate of increase in boundary layer thickness. leading to more uniform flow across boundary layers and steeper velocity gradients at the walls.

U and D are relevant velocity and length scales.The steeper velocity profiles also increase the resistance of boundary layers to flow separation .This ratio.35 . . and thus pressure drag. Golf balls and aircraft wings are two obvious examples. For other flows this value is different. . . as shown earlier. is represented by the flow Reynolds number. Re/ U.Transition from laminar to turbulent flow is determined by the ratio of the inertia to the viscous forces. .In pipe and duct flows the flow is normally turbulent at Re values greater than 2.000. .This is sometimes made use of to reduce the size of flow separation.D / <.

.The consequences of this can often be positive.As explained earlier. Internal combustion engines and gas-turbines are consequently able to operate at higher speeds and thus produce more power. turbulence enhances the mixing of momentum and of other fluid properties. . This is often exploited in cooling and heating applications.36 Consequences of Turbulence .Increases the speed of the flame front through a premixed air-fuel mixture. . . Turbulence also .Increases the rate of exchange of thermal energy between a fluid and a solid surface.The delay of flow separation is one such example. in simple terms. through the introduction of turbulence-generation features.

37 5. .With A and L being a surface and a length characteristic of the body.Moments ! A body symmetric about the direction of flow.Drag . dimensional analysis shows that for each geometry the dimensionless force coefficient CF. would only experience drag.Lift .Moreover.7 Drag and Lift Calculation in Viscous External Flows. ! As shown in the dimensional analysis Section. depends on only the flow Reynolds number Re. ! In general a body immersed in a fluid stream can experience : . . ! The consideration of specific applications helps to further clarify the above concepts.5DU2A) and Re / DUL/: .Where CF / F/(0. available information on forces acting on immersed bodies is presented in dimensionless form .

1 Drag Force ! In the case of a Flat Plate and also of other very slender bodies parallel to the flow direction. the drag force is generated by skin friction. .38 5.031Re -1/7 Note that the above correlations provide the Drag force on only one of the two sides of the plate. Re < 5 X 105: CD = 1. Re = DU4L/: S For Laminar Flow.The sheared area (in this case l. Re > 5 X 105: CD = 0. .7.w) is therefore used for the definition of the area a in the Drag Coefficient. CD.For Turbulent Flow. If both sides are exposed to the flow stream then the resultig answer needs to be multiplied by 2.328 Re-1/2 .

pressure drag is higher than skin friction.CD is now defined in terms of the frontal area. unless the thickness of the body is less than 20% of its length. mainly due to flow separation behind the body.The size of the separation region depends on the frontal area of the body. the value of its CD. Drag is caused by : .Pressure difference. can be reduced dramatically. ! The value of CD depends on the width of the separation region.Skin Friction . . . . .When there is flow separation. .39 ! In general.By streamlining the shape of a body.

As indicated earlier.40 . another way to reduce drag is to make the boundary layer is turbulent. .The wall shear stress is thus higher .For a given pressure gradient separation occurs later.As already discussed. turbulent boundary layers are flatter. Use of Turbulence to Reduce Drag on a Golf Ball . .

and three-dimensional bodies of various shapes.2 ! Lift Force The lift force is non-dimensionalised through the lift coefficient. . ! The dimensionless data included at the end of these notes provide the values of drag and lift coefficients for two. Ap = Chord x Span .The drag coefficient for an aerofoil is also defined in terms of the same area.The examples that follow show how this information can be applied.41 5.7. . CL.

2x1. A low porosity parachute.2 kg/m3.2 m/s .125x1.42 Example 1. Calculate its terminal velocity.125 CD D B d2 ) = mg / (0.25 B d2 V2) = FD /(0.5 D 0.2 But CD = FD / (0.142x102)m2 V = 4. has a 10 m diameter and is to be used to drop a load of 100 kg.5 D A V2) = FD / (0.2x3.125D B d2 V2) º V2 = FD /(0.125 CD D B d2 ) º V2 = 100 x 9. The air density may be assumed to be 1.81/(0. such as the one included in the list of dimensionless data. Solution Velocity V Constant Acceleration = 0 º Net Force = 0 º Weight W = Drag Force FD From Dimensionless Data CD=1.

we need to use integration to calculate both the drag force and the aerodynamic moment. As also shown. d-0.1m. U = U4 (z/)). .43 Example 2 The flag pole shown in the diagram is 10m tall and has a diameter of 10 cm.2 kg/m3 and the drag coefficient of a cylinder in cross flow CD may be assumed to be equal to 1. U4 = 40m/s and *=20 m. it is exposed to a horizontal wind stream. )=20 m & D=1. according to the equation. a) Drag Force. U= U4 (z/*). .2 kg/m3 Comment: Because the velocity of the flow across the flag pole varies over its length. The density of air may be assumed to be 1. Calculate: a) the drag force exerted on the flag pole. b) the moment that needs to be applied at point a to keep the flag pole in place.Consider a small cylindrical element of thickness *z and a height z from the ground. Solution L=10 m. with the speed U increasing linearly with vertical height z.

5 D CD d U42/)2] z3 *z .Again consider a small cylindrical element of thickness *z and a height z from the ground.44 .5 D A U2 .5 D CD d *z [U4(z/)) ]2 = [0.Drag Force Due to Cross Flow U.5 D A U2 = 0. z = [0.2 x 1 x 0.To calculate the total moment integrate *M from z=0 to z=L . *F : *F = CD 0.For the Total Drag Force Integrate *F from Z=0 to Z=l F = I0L*F = [0. Z = 0.Area projected in the flow direction A = d. *M : *M = z *F = CD 0.5 D CD d U42/)2] [z3/3]0L F = D CD d U42L3/6)2 = [1.5 D CD d *z [U4(z/)) ]2 .*z . .5 D CD d U42/)2] I0L z2 *z = [0.5 D CD d U42/)2] z2 *z .1 x 402 x 103 / (6x202)]N F = 80 N b) Moment .Moment due to cross flow U.

5 D CD d U42/)2] I0L z3 *z = [0.2 x 1 x 0.Quiz 10 on Blackboard .45 M = I0L*M = [0.Tutorial 10 .1 x 402 x 104 / (8x202)]Nm M = 600 Nm n At this point students are advised to attempt: .5 D CD d U42/)2] [z4/4]0L M = D CD d U42L4/8)2 = [1.

46 Drag Coefficient CD against Reynolds number .

47 Drag and Lift Coefficients against angle of incidence .

48 .