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Magnetic Levitation System

By

Muhammad Owais Majid


(BEES/F09/0184)

Syed Muhammad Danish


(BEES/F09/0145)

2014

Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Technology


Hamdard Institute of Engineering Technology
Hamdard University, Main Campus, Karachi, Pakistan

Magnetic Levitation System


By

Muhammad Owais Majid


(BEES/F09/0184)

Syed Muhammad Danish


(BEES/F09/0145)

Under the supervision of

Muhammad Imran Khan

2014
Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Technology
Hamdard Institute of Engineering Technology
Hamdard University, Main Campus, Karachi, Pakistan
II

Magnetic Levitation System


By

Muhammad Owais Majid


(BEES/F09/0184)

Syed Muhammad Danish


(BEES/F09/0145)

A Project Presented to the

Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Technology


Hamdard Institute of Engineering Technology
In partial fulfillment of the requirements
For the degree

Bachelors of Engineering
In

Electronics

Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Technology


Hamdard Institute of Engineering Technology
Hamdard University, Main Campus, Karachi, Pakistan

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Magnetic Levitation System 2014

Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Technology


Hamdard Institute of Engineering Technology
Hamdard University, Main Campus, Karachi, Pakistan
CERTIFICATE
This project Magnetic Levitation System presented by Muhammad Owais Majid and Syed
Muhammad Danish under the direction of their project advisors and approved by the project
examination committee, has been presented to and accepted by the Hamdard Institute of
Information Technology,in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the bachelor degree of
Electronics Engineering.

____________________________

__________________________

Muhammad Imran Khan

(Member)

(Project Advisor)

____________________________

___________________________

Engr. Abdul Haseeb

(Member)

(Co-Supervisor)

____________________________

___________________________

Dr. Fahad Azim

(Date)

(Director, HIET)

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Magnetic Levitation System 2014

ABSTRACT
Magnetic Levitation is a way of using electromagnetic fields to levitate objects without any
noise.It employs diamagnetism, which is an intrinsic property of many materials referring to
their ability to temporarily expel a portion of an external magnetic field. As a result, diamagnetic
materials are repelled by strong magnetic fields. This repulsive force, however, is very weak
compared with the attractive force due to magnetic fields. Maglev is the means of floating one
magnet over another.This maglev system is divided into two types attractive systems and
repulsive systems, which are referred to as electromagnetic suspension and electrodynamics
suspension. Thus many countries spend billions of dollars to use this maglev system.

Magnetic Levitation System 2014

DEDICATION
This report is dedicated to the honorable supervisor Muhammad Imran Khan and co-supervisor
Engr. Abdul Haseeb, and all those people who have helped us in accomplish our goal and
assisted inspiration for us. And to our Parents who are always a source of motivation for us
throughout our life and who put all their efforts to make our engineering session possible through
continuous support mentally and financially .

And this Project is Specially dedicated to the Victims Students of Peshawar attack who
sacrifices their Life for the sake of Education and Country

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Magnetic Levitation System 2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all, we are very grateful to Almighty ALLAH , Who gave us the opportunity, strength,
determination and wisdom to achieve our goal.
We would like to thank Muhammad Imran Khan, who not only served as our supervisor but also
encouraged and challenged us throughout our project. He patiently guided us through the
process, never accepting less than our best efforts.
We would also like to acknowledge and extend our heartfelt gratitude to our head of department,
all the concerned person for there vital encouragement and support.
Next, we would like to express our gratitude to our parents for all the sacrifices no matter in
what terms. They have been fully supported on this project. Their blessings and prayers have
been a great inspiration for us to finish this project.

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Magnetic Levitation System 2014


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE ......................................................................................................................................... IV
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................ V
DEDICATION........................................................................................................................................... VI
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ........................................................................................................................ VII
LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................... 3
LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................................... 4
LIST OF EQUATIONS .............................................................................................................................. 5
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 6
1.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 6
1.2 BASICS OF MAGNETIC LEVITATION .................................................................................................... 7
1.3 TYPES OF MAGNETIC LEVITATION ...................................................................................................... 8
1.3.1 Permanent Magnets ..................................................................................................................... 9
1.3.2 Electromagnetic Magnets ........................................................................................................... 9
CHAPTER 2 PRINCIPLE AND ARRANGEMENT OF LEVITATION DEVICE ........................... 11
2.1 ARRANGEMENT OF THE LEVITATION DEVICE ................................................................................... 11
2.2 PRINCIPLE OF LEVITATION DEVICE ................................................................................................... 12
CHAPTER 3 THE HALL EFFECT SENSOR....................................................................................... 14
3.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 14
3.2 HALL EFFECT SENSOR PRINCIPLES ................................................................................................... 15
3.3 THE HALL EFFECT SENSOR ............................................................................................................... 16
3.4 HALL EFFECT APPLICATIONS ............................................................................................................ 17
3.4.1 Head-on Detection ..................................................................................................................... 18
3.4.2 Sideway Detection...................................................................................................................... 18
3.5 POSITIONAL DETECTOR ..................................................................................................................... 19
CHAPTER 4 ELECTROMAGNET DESIGN ....................................................................................... 21
4.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 21
4.1.1 Line of Force around an Electromagnet ................................................................................... 21
4.2 THE MAGNETIC STRENGTH OF THE ELECTROMAGNET ..................................................................... 22
4.2.1 Magetic Field Strength for Electromagnets ............................................................................... 23
4.3 PERMIABILITY OF ELECTROMAGNETS ............................................................................................... 24
4.3.1 Relative Permiablity................................................................................................................... 24
4.3.2 Relative permeability Example .................................................................................................. 25
4.4 HINTS FOR A LIFTING COIL ............................................................................................................... 25

Magnetic Levitation System 2014


4.4.1 Coil Core.................................................................................................................................... 26
4.4.2 A Coil that Works ....................................................................................................................... 26
CHAPTER 5 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION DESIGN .................................................................... 28
5.1 TASK DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................................................... 28
5.1.1 Implementation Method ............................................................................................................. 29
5.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM .............................................................................................................................. 29
5.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM ............................................................................................................................ 30
5.4 CALCULATIONS ................................................................................................................................. 31
5.5 BASCOM AVR CODING ................................................................................................................... 31
5.5.1 Advantages of using BASCOM AVR Software ........................................................................... 34
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK ......................................................................... 35
6.1 CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................................... 35
6.2 FUTURE WORK .................................................................................................................................. 35
6.2.1 Bullet Trains .............................................................................................................................. 35
6.2.2 Magnetic Bearings ..................................................................................................................... 36
6.2.3 Fiywheels and Levitation Melting .............................................................................................. 36
6.2.4 Household Fixtures and Decorations ........................................................................................ 36
Refrences.37
APPENDIX - A.......................................................................................................................................... 38
A ATMEGA 16A ...................................................................................................................................... 38
B ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER ..................................................................................................... 41
C PWM ................................................................................................................................................... 42
D PWM MODES...................................................................................................................................... 43
APPENDIX - B .......................................................................................................................................... 45
A BUILDING AN ELECTROMAGNET ........................................................................................................ 45
B IMPLEMENTATION METHOD ............................................................................................................... 47
C RIGHT HAND RULE FOR COILS ........................................................................................................... 50

Magnetic Levitation System 2014


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: Induced Currrent from Change in Magnetic Field[1]________________________________________7
Figure 1.2: Perpendicular Force from induce Curren[2]________________________________________________ 8
Figure 1.3: Permanent Magnet Field[3] ____________________________________________________________ 9
Figure 1.4: Electromagnetic Magnetic Field[4] _____________________________________________________ 10
Figure 2.1: Functional Block Diagram of the Levitation Device[5] _____________________________________ 11
Figure 2.2:(a) Arrangement of the Electromagnet Device[6] (b) Final image of the Hall Effect Sensor[7] ________ 12
Figure 2.3: Timing Diagram[8] _________________________________________________________________ 12
Figure 2.4: Operating diagram of the Levitation Device[9] ____________________________________________ 13
Figure 3.1: Hall Effect Sensor Principles[10] _______________________________________________________ 15
Figure 3.2: Hall Effect Sensor Internal diagram[11] _________________________________________________ 16
Figure 3.3: Hall Effect Sensor Working Region[12] _________________________________________________ 16
Figure 3.4: Head-On Detection[13] ______________________________________________________________ 18
Figure 3.4.1:Sideway Detection[14] ______________________________________________________________ 18
Figure 3.5: Positional Detector[15] ______________________________________________________________ 19
Figure 4.1:Line of Force around an Electromagnet[16] _______________________________________________ 21
Figure 4.2: Magnetic Field Strength for Electromagnets[17] __________________________________________ 23
Figure 4.3: Electromagnet using a Nail[18] ________________________________________________________ 23
Figure 4.4: Coil Core[19] ______________________________________________________________________ 26
Figure 4.4.1: Carriage Bolt to hold Coil[20]________________________________________________________ 26
Figure 4.4.2: Carriage Bolt holding Coil[21 ________________________________________________________ 27
Figure 5.1:Physical model of a Magnetic Levitation System[22]________________________________________ 28
Figure 5.2: Block Diagram ____________________________________________________________________ 29
Figure 5.2: Circuit Diagram ____________________________________________________________________ 30

Magnetic Levitation System 2014


LIST OF TABLES
Table 7.1: AVR Ratings[1]______________________________________________________38
Table 7.2: A Device Clocking Options Select[2]_____________________________________40
Table 7.3: PWM Output Pins[3]__________________________________________________43

Magnetic Levitation System 2014


LIST OF EQUATIONS
Equation 3.1: Output Hall voltage________________________________________________16
Equation 4.1: Magnetic Motive Force_____________________________________________22
Equation 4.2: Relative Permeability_______________________________________________24
Equation 5.1: Magnetic Field Calculation__________________________________________31
Equation 5.2: Force Calculation__________________________________________________31
Equation 7.1: ADC Step Size Calculations _________________________________________42
Equation 7.2: Duty Cycle_______________________________________________________42

Magnetic Levitation System 2014


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction
Some forces in this world are almost invisible to the naked eye and most people throughout the
world do not even know they exist. On one side you could say that some of these forces are
abstract feelings inside of a human being that have been given names from man. These forces
could be things like emotion, guilt, and even ecstasy. On the other side you have solid concrete
principles of how the world works. These too have been given names by man, but these
principles are not abstract and have solid ground in science .These different principles are things
like gravity, electricity, and magnetism. Magnetism has been a part of the earth since the
beginning whether people realize it or not. It is due to the magnetism of the earth that the world
spins and thus creates things like gravity. The magnetism is created by the processes within the
core of the earth. The earths iron-ore core has a natural spinning motion to it inside which
creates a natural magnetic force that is held constant over the earth. This creates magnetic forces
that turn the earth into a large bar magnet. The creation of North and South poles on the earth are
due to this field.

From this magnetic field,we see things such as the aurora borealis. This is a small
electromagnetic storm in the atmosphere which creates a display for all to see.Not only does
magnetism provide us with amazing natural displays,but it also provides for us amazing
applications to society. One of these applications is magnetic levitation.Magnetic levitation uses
the concept of a magnets natural repulsion to poles of the same kind. This repulsion has been
harnessed and controlled in an environment to help create a system of transportation that is both
economically sound and faster then most methods of transportation at this point.

Magnetic Levitation System 2014


1.2 Basics Of Magnetic Levitation
The creation of magnetic forces is the basis of all magnetic levitation.The creation of a magnetic
field can be caused by a number of things. The first thing that it can be caused by is a permanent
magnet.These magnets are a solid material in which there is an induced North and South pole.
These will be described further a little later. The second way that an magnetic field can be
created is through an electric field changing linearly with time.The third and final way to create a
magnetic field is through the use of direct current.

There are two basic principles in dealing with the concept of magnetic levitation. The first law
that is applied was created by Michael Faraday. This is commonly known as Faradays Law.

This law states that if there is a change in the magnetic field on a coil of wire, there is seen a
change in voltage. Taking that a bit further, it could be said that if there was a change in voltage,
then there would be a change in magnetic field. This occurs in the coil when there is a current
induced as a result of that change in voltage.

Figure 1.1: Induced Current from Change in Magnetic Field [1]

For the purposes of magnetic levitation the ability to change the strength of a magnetic field by
just changing the current is powerful. If there is a need for more of a force,then sending more
current through a coil of wires will produce more of a greater magnetic force.

Magnetic Levitation System 2014


The direction of the forces created by Faradays Law was discovered by a man named Heinrich
Lenz.This is commonly known as Lenzs Law. His theory states that the emf induced in an
electric circuit always acts in such a direction that the current it drives around the circuit opposes
the change in the magnetic flux which produces the emf. In other words, this is stating that if
there was a current that was created in a coil of wires,then the magnetic field that is being
produced will be perpendicular the current direction.

The application that this has on magnetic levitation is that this will allow the direction of the
magnetic field to be predictable and thus a set up can be created for a specific purpose to
maximize the force that is created .

Figure 1.2: Perpendicular Force from Induce Current [2]

Inside that coiled wire is a current that is traveling from left to right. The resulting magnetic
force from that current is shown to be perpendicular to the current and is traveling from bottom
to top.

1.3 Types of Magnetic Levitation


Although the concepts of magnetic levitation are all the same, the way that those concepts are
brought about can vary. These options are controlled and changed depending on the type of
application that is necessary.

Magnetic Levitation System 2014


1.3.1 Permanent Magnets
The first type of levitation is the implementation through permanent magnets. These magnets are
made of a material that creates a north and a south pole on them.

Figure 1.3:Permanent Magnet Fields [3]

The formal definition of a permanent magnet is a material that retains its magnetic properties
after and external magnetic field is removed. The whole idea behind permanent magnets is that
like ends will repel and opposite ends will attract.Permanent magnets require very little if any
maintenance.These magnets do not require cryogens or a large power supply for operation. The
magnetic field is measured vertically within the bore of the magnet. The main disadvantages of a
permanent magnet are the cost of the magnet itself when put into large scale systems.Another
disadvantage is the varying changes in the magnetic field. The ability to control a constant
magnetic force from a permanent magnet is an on-going problem in the application of these
types of magnets.
Different applications that use these types of magnets can be found in a number of different
areas. Examples of these applications are compasses, DC motor drives, clocks, hearing aids,
microphones, speedometers, and many more.

1.3.2 Electromagnetic Magnets


The basic idea behind an electromagnet is extremely simple.By running electric current through
a wire, you can create a magnetic field. When this wire is coiled around a magnetic material (i.e.

Magnetic Levitation System 2014


metal), a current is passed through this wire. In doing this, the electric current will magnetize the
metallic core.

Figure 1.4: Electromagnetic Magnetic Field [4]

By using this simple principle, you can create all sorts of things including motors, solenoids,
heads for hard disks, speakers. An electromagnet is one that uses the same type of principles as
the permanent magnet but only on a temporary scale. This means that only when the current is
flowing is there going to be an induced magnet. This type of magnet is an improvement to the
permanent magnet because it allows somebody to select when and for how long the magnetic
field lasts. It also gives a person control over how strong the magnet will be depending on the
amount of current that is passed through the wire.

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CHAPTER 2
PRINCIPLE AND ARRANGEMENT OF LEVITATION DEVICE

2.1 Arrangement of the Levitation Device


A suspended object contains a permanent magnet, which is the main difference in comparison
with the basic principle of the electromagnetic levitation we have assumed before.The
levitating object is repulsived and attracted to an electromagnet so we need the controlled
magnetic field. A control unit adjusts the current in the electromagnet and hence the magnetic
force acting on the levitating body so that the body is held in the stable position. The functional
block diagram of the designed electromagnetic model is shown in the .

This model contains several basic parts. The electromagnet has got a ferrous core (a bolt) with
modified end the pole horn. The arrangement of the pole horn is very important for achieving a
required distribution of the magnetic field. Edges and asperities of the pole horn represent the
points of inhomogenities of the magnetic field and they can subsequently cause levitating object
instability.

Figure 2.1: Functional Block Diagram of the Levitation Device [5]

The system requires the from a certain kind of the positional sensor. In that case, the Hall Effect
sensor, located on the bolt head (the pole horn), is used.feedback signal

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This device contains a control button for the adjusting of the levitation distances and an electrical
fan for spinning of the levitating object and cooling of electronic circuits located in the base of
the device.

Figure 2.2(a): Arrangement of the electromagnet


Device [6]

Figure 2.2(b): Final Image of the


Hall Effect Sensor [7]

2.2 Principle of Levitation Model


The electromagnet is controlled in order to hold the levitating object in a stable position beneath
it. The power block, which supplies the power to the electromagnet, was made from the Pulse
Width Modulation. The Power Transistor is designed for motion applications and contains Opto
coupler for protection .

Figure 2.3: Timing Diagram [8]

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Figure 2.4: Operating diagram of the Levitation Device [9]

The signal from the Hall Effect sensor is processed by the amplifier with an adjustable gain and
controls the PWM (Pulse Width Modulator). As soon as the levitating object moves further away
from the bolt the output signal of the Hall Effect sensor increases. It makes the duty cycle of the
PWM higher and the electromagnet attracts the levitating object and vice versa. A repeating
pulse changes its width to apply more or less attraction or repulsion forces to the suspended
object over time.The current of the manner electromagnet can be proportionately controlled by
the Power Transistor

module from a full reverse to a full forward level. It means that

electromagnet can change polarity from attraction to repulsion in the proportional

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CHAPTER 3
The Hall Effect Sensor

3.1 Introduction
Magnetic sensors are solid state devices that are becoming more and more popular because they
can be used in many different types of application such as sensing position,velocity or directional
movement. They are also a popular choice of sensor for the electronics designer due to their noncontact wear free operation, their low maintenance, robust design and as sealed hall effect
devices are immune to vibration, dust and water.

Magnetic sensors are designed to respond to a wide range of positive and negative magnetic
fields in a variety of different applications and one type of magnet sensor whose output signal is
a function of magnetic field density around it is called the Hall Effect Sensor.

Hall Effect Sensors are devices which are activated by an external magnetic field. We know that
a magnetic field has two important characteristics flux density, (B) and polarity (North and South
Poles). The output signal from a Hall effect sensor is the function of magnetic field density
around the device. When the magnetic flux density around the sensor exceeds a certain pre-set
threshold, the sensor detects it and generates an output voltage called the Hall Voltage, VH.

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3.2 Hall Effect Sensor Principles

Figure 3.1: Hall Effect Sensor Principles [10]


Hall Effect Sensors consist basically of a thin piece of rectangular p-type semiconductor
material such as gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium antimonide (InSb) or indium arsenide (InAs)
passing a continuous current through itself. When the device is placed within a magnetic field,
the magnetic flux lines exert a force on the semiconductor material which deflects the charge
carriers, electrons and holes, to either side of the semiconductor slab. This movement of charge
carriers is a result of the magnetic force they experience passing through the semiconductor
material.

The Hall effect provides information regarding the type of magnetic pole and magnitude of the
magnetic field. For example, a south pole would cause the device to produce a voltage output
while a north pole would have no effect. Generally, Hall Effect sensors and switches are
designed to be in the OFF, (open circuit condition) when there is no magnetic field present.
They only turn ON, (closed circuit condition) when subjected to a magnetic field of sufficient
strength and polarity.

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3.3 The Hall Effect Sensor

Figure 3.2: Hall Effect Sensor Internal diagram [11]

Hall Effect Sensors are available with either linear or digital outputs. The output signal for
linear (analogue) sensors is taken directly from the output of the operational amplifier with the
output voltage being directly proportional to the magnetic field passing through the Hall sensor.
This output Hall voltage is given as:

Where:

VH is the Hall Voltage in volts

RH is the Hall Effect co-efficient

I is the current flow through the sensor in amps

T is the thickness of the sensor in mm

B is the Magnetic Flux density in Tesla

............ Eq 3.1

Figure 3.3 Hall Effect Sensor Working Region [12]

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Linear or analog sensors give a continuous voltage output that increases with a strong magnetic
field and decreases with a weak magnetic field. In linear output Hall effect sensors, as the
strength of the magnetic field increases the output signal from the amplifier will also increase
until it begins to saturate by the limits imposed on it by the power supply. Any additional
increase in the magnetic field will have no effect on the output but drive it more into saturation.

Digital output sensors on the other hand have a Schmitt-trigger with built in hysteresis connected
to the op-amp. When the magnetic flux passing through the Hall sensor exceeds a pre-set value
the output from the device switches quickly between its OFF condition to an ON condition
without any type of contact bounce. This built-in hysteresis eliminates any oscillation of the
output signal as the sensor moves in and out of the magnetic field. Then digital output sensors
have just two states, ON and OFF.
There are two basic types of digital Hall effect sensor, Bipolar and Unipolar. Bipolar sensors
require a positive magnetic field (south pole) to operate them and a negative field (north pole) to
release them while unipolar sensors require only a single magnetic south pole to both operate and
release them as they move in and out of the magnetic field.

3.4 Hall Effect Applications


Hall effect sensors are activated by a magnetic field and in many applications the device can be
operated by a single permanent magnet attached to a moving shaft or device. There are many
different types of magnet movements, such as Head-on, Sideways, Push-pull or Pushpush etc sensing movements. Which every type of configuration is used, to ensure maximum
sensitivity the magnetic lines of flux must always be perpendicular to the sensing area of the
device and must be of the correct polarity.
Also to ensure linearity, high field strength magnets are required that produce a large change in
field strength for the required movement. There are several possible paths of motion for
detecting a magnetic field, and below are two of the more common sensing configurations using
a single magnet: Head-on Detection and Sideways Detection .
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3.4.1 Head-on Detection

Figure 3.4: Head-on Detection [13]


As its name implies, head-on detection requires that the magnetic field is perpendicular to the
Hall Effect sensing device and that for detection, it approaches the sensor straight on towards the
active face. A sort of head-on approach.
This head-on approach generates an output signal, VH which in the linear devices represents the
strength of the magnetic field, the magnetic flux density, as a function of distance away from the
hall effect sensor. The nearer and therefore the stronger the magnetic field, the greater the output
voltage and vice versa.
Linear devices can also differentiate between positive and negative magnetic fields. Non-linear
devices can be made to trigger the output ON at a pre-set air gap distance away from the
magnet for indicating positional detection.

3.4.2 Sideway Detection

Figure 3.4.1: Sideway Detection [14]


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The second sensing configuration is sideways detection. This requires moving the magnet
across the face of the Hall effect element in a sideways motion.
Sideways or slide-by detection is useful for detecting the presence of a magnetic field as it moves
across the face of the Hall element within a fixed air gap distance for example, counting
rotational magnets or the speed of rotation of motors.
Depending upon the position of the magnetic field as it passes by the zero field centre line of the
sensor, a linear output voltage representing both a positive and a negative output can be
produced. This allows for directional movement detection which can be vertical as well as
horizontal.
There are many different ways to interface Hall effect sensors to electrical and electronic circuits
depending upon the type of device, whether digital or linear. One very simple and easy to
construct example is Positional Detector using a Light Emitting Diode.

3.5

Positional Detector

Fig 3.5: Positional Detector [15]

This head-on positional detector will be OFF when there is no magnetic field present, (0
gauss). When the permanent magnets south

pole (positive gauss) is moved perpendicular

towards the active area of the Hall effect sensor the device turns ON and lights the LED. Once
switched ON the Hall effect sensor stays ON.

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To turn the device and therefore the LED OFF the magnetic field must be reduced to below the
release point for unipolar sensors or exposed to a magnetic north pole (negative gauss) for
bipolar sensors. The LED can be replaced with a larger power transistor if the output of the
Hall Effect Sensor is required to switch larger current loads.

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CHAPTER 4
ELECTROMAGNET DESIGN

4.1 Introduction
Electromagnets are basically coils of wire which behave like bar magnets with a distinct north
and south pole when an Electrical Current passes through the coil. The static magnetic field
produced by each individual coil loop is summed with its neighbour with the combined magnetic
field concentrated. The resultant static magnetic field with a north pole at one end and a south
pole at the other is uniform and a lot more stronger in the centre of the coil than around the
exterior.

4.1.1 Lines of Force around an Electromagnet

Figure 4.1: Lines of Force around an Electromagnet [16]

The magnetic field that this produces is stretched out in a form of a bar magnet giving a
distinctive north and south pole with the flux being proportional to the amount of current flowing
in the coil. If additional layers of wire are wound upon the same coil with the same current
flowing, the magnetic field strength will be increased.

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It can be seen from this therefore that the amount of flux available in any given magnetic circuit
is directly proportional to the current flowing through it and the number of turns of wire within
the coil. This relationship is called Magneto Motive Force or m.m.f. and is defined as:

. . =

.. 4.1

Magneto Motive Force is expressed as a current, I flowing through a coil of N turns.The


magnetic field strength of an electromagnet is therefore determined by the ampere turns of the
coil with the more turns of wire in the coil the greater will be the strength of the magnetic field.

4.2 The Magnetic Strength of the Electromagnet


We know that were two adjacent conductors are carrying current, magnetic fields are set up
according to the direction of the current flow. The resulting interaction of the two fields is such
that a mechanical force is experienced by the two conductors.
When the current is flowing in the same direction (the same side of the coil) the field between
the two conductors is weak causing a force of attraction as shown above. Likewise, when the
current is flowing in opposite directions the field between them becomes intensified and the
conductors are repelled.
The intensity of this field around the conductor is proportional to the distance from it with the
strongest point being next to the conductor and progressively getting weaker further away from
the conductor. In the case of a single straight conductor, the current flowing and the distance
from it are factors which govern the intensity of the field.
The formula therefore for calculating the Magnetic Field Strength, H sometimes called
Magnetizing Force of a long straight current carrying conductor is derived from the current
flowing through it and the distance from it.

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4.2.1 Magnetic Field Strength for Electromagnets

Figure 4.2: Magnetic Field Strength for Electromagnets [17]

Where:

H is the strength of the magnetic field in ampere-turns/metre, At/m

N is the number of turns of the coil

I is the current flowing through the coil in amps, A

L is the length of the coil in metres, m

Then to summarise, the strength or intensity of a coils magnetic field depends on the following
factors.

The number of turns of wire within the coil.

The amount of current flowing in the coil.

The type of core material.

Figure 4.3: Electromagnet using a Nail [18]

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4.3 Permeability of Electromagnets
If cores of different materials with the same physical dimensions are used in the electromagnet,
the strength of the magnet will vary in relation to the core material being used. This variation in
the magnetic strength is due to the number of flux lines passing through the central core. if the
magnetic material has a high permeability then the flux lines can easily be created and pass
through the central core and permeability () and it is a measure of the ease by which the core
can be magnetised.
The numerical constant given for the permeability of a vacuum is given as:o =4..10-7 H/m with
the relative permeability of free space (a vacuum) generally given a value of one. It is this value
that is used as a reference in all calculations dealing with permeability and all materials have
their own specific values of permeability.
The problem with using just the permeability of different iron, steel or alloy cores is that the
calculations involved can become very large so it is more convenient to define the materials by
their relative permeability.
Relative Permeability, symbol r is the product of is the absolute permeability and o is the
permeability of free space and is given as.

4.3.1 Relative Permeability

. Eq 4.2

Materials that have a permeability slightly less than that of free space (a vacuum) and have a
weak, negative susceptibility to magnetic fields are said to be Diamagnetic in nature such as:
water, copper, silver and gold. Those materials with a permeability slightly greater than that of
free space and themselves are only slightly attracted by a magnetic field are said to
be Paramagnetic in nature such as: gases, magnesium, and tantalum.

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4.3.2 Relative Permeability Example

The absolute permeability of a soft iron core is given as 80 milli-henries/m (80.10-3). Calculate
the equivalent relative permeability value.

r=

=
o

or

4.4 Hints for a Lifting Coil


Need to produce a magnetic field which primarily extends downward from the lifting coil.

Short and fat coils are better than long and skinny. They reduce the leakage flux that
would otherwise escape outward from the sides.

An iron hat (such as a flatwasher) on the top. It helps hold windings in place, and helps
magnetic flux spread out from the top.

A nylon washer on the bottom (or other non-ferrous washer). It helps hold the windings
onto a fat coil, without shielding any magnetic flux from going downwards.

An iron core will greatly increase the coil's strength.

Put the coil itself as low as possible. Closer to the Magnet is better.

need to be able to adjust the coil's position. (Or the detector's position.) The usable
magnetic effect extends for only about a centimeter or so, so adjustability is important.

Do not make the coil windings more than two inches thick. It won't have enough surface
area to remain cool, and will overheat.

A coil resistance of 5 - 50 ohms driven with up to 2 amps has worked well.

Wind some tape around the bolt before winding the coil. This keeps the threads from
cutting the insulation.

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4.4.1 Coil Core
Wind a coil on a carriage bolt. (Use one layer of tape first to protect the wire.) The threads can
provide adjustability by screwing it in (or out) of your wooden frame.

Figure 4.4: Coil Core [19]


The size of the carriage bolt is not critical, can used a common carriage bolt 4 inches long and
3/8 inches thick, chosen merely for convenience.
The bottom of your steel core (coil form) should taper to a point. This gives a point source of
flux going downward, flat-bottomed steel core gave too many places for the ball to attach itself
to, and allowed too much side-to-side motion.
File off any roughness to ensure the bottom of your steel core is pointy and smooth.

4.4.2 A Coil and Carriage Bolt That Works

Figure 4.4.1: Carriage Bolt to hold Coil [20]

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Figure 4.4.2: Carriage Bolt holding Coil [21]

Using 26-ga magnet wire, in 680 turns on 24 layerswound on a carriage bolt. There is a nylon
flatwasher on the bottom (the head end) and a common galvanized steel flatwasher on the top.
The coil length is twice the width of Scotch magic transparent tape, which secures the layers of
windings.
The coil is energized by a TIP42 PnP power transistor on a heat sink. The heat sink doesn't seem
to be required, but keep an eye on it.Some other people have reported they just put it into the
breadboard without any heat sink.

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CHAPTER 5
System Implementation Details
5.1 Task Description
Our task is to design Magnetic Levitation System which can Levitate 10gm to 25gm weight
without any physical support using AVR microcontroller atmega16, BASCOM AVR software
and derive the calculations .

Figure 5.1: Physical model of a Magnetic Levitation System [22]

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5.1.1 Implementation Method
Our system consists of following hardware:

BASCOM AVR for coding.

Power supply 12V & 5V DC.

Linear hall sensor UGN3503U.

Coil winding wire 26SWG

Optocoupler PC817

Power transistor TIP42

AVR Microcontroller ATmega16

5.2 Block Diagram

Figure 5.2: Block Diagram

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Linear hall sensor is connected to microcontroller to levitate the object by increase or


decrease the pwm.

To increase or decrease the magnetic flux in electromagnet we use pwm in


microcontroller.

We connect the module lcd to display the message.

5.3 Circuit Diagram

Figure 5.3: Circuit Diagram

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5.4 Calculations
SWG = 26, I = 0.618A, N = 680, o = 4 x10-7, L = 3 inch, A =
0.001824 m2, g = 2 cm
=

B=

. .
7

B = 0.00693 Tesla

F = 0.5061 Newton

Where:

SWG

Standard Weight Gauge

Permeability of free space

Magnetic Field

Number of Turns

5.5 BASCOM AVR Coding


$regfile = "m16def.dat"
$crystal = 4000000

Config Portc = Output

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Config Pina.7 = Output
Config Pina.6 = Output
Config Pina.0 = Input
Config Pind.5 = Output

Config Lcd = 16 * 2
Config Lcdpin = Pin , Db4 = Portc.4 , Db5 = Portc.5 , Db6 = Portc.6 , Db7 = Portc.7 , E =
Porta.6 , Rs = Porta.7
Cls
Lcd "*Levitation Proj"
Lowerline
Lcd "by Owais&Danish
Config Timer1 = Pwm , Pwm = 10 , Prescale = 1
Capture1 = 7000
Pwm1a = 0
Dim Adcv As Word
On Adc Adc_isr
Config Adc = Single , Prescaler = Auto , Reference = Internal
Start Adc
Enable Adc
Enable Interrupts

Do
LooP

Adc_isr:
Adcv = 0
Adcv.0 = Adcl.0
Adcv.1 = Adcl.1
Adcv.2 = Adcl.2

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Adcv.3 = Adcl.3
Adcv.4 = Adcl.4
Adcv.5 = Adcl.5
Adcv.6 = Adcl.6
Adcv.7 = Adcl.7
Adcv.8 = Adch.0
Adcv.9 = Adch.1

Setpoint:
If Adcv < 800 Then
If Pwm1a = 0 Then
Goto Skip
End If
Pwm1a = Pwm1a - 5
Goto Setpoint
End If

If Adcv > 800 Then


If Pwm1a = Capture1 Then
Goto Skip
End If
Pwm1a = Pwm1a + 5
Goto Setpoint
End If

Skip:
Adcsra.6 = 1
Return

End

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5.5.1 Advantages of Using BASCOM AVR Software

Structured BASIC with labels.

Structured programming with IF-THEN-ELSE-END IF, DO-LOOP, WHILE-WEND,


SELECT- CASE.

Fast machine code instead of interpreted code.

Variables and labels can be as long as 32 characters.

Bit, Byte, Integer, Word

Chips and 1 WIRE chips,PC keyboad, matrix keyboad, RC5 reception,software UART,
Long, Single , DOUBLE and String variables.

Date & Time calculation functions.

Compiled programs work with all AVR microprocessors that have internal memory.

Statements are highly compatible with Microsofts VB/QB.

Special commands for LCD-displays , I2C SPI , graphical LCD, send IR RC5, RC6 or
Sony code.

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CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

6.1 Conclusion
After finalization the implementation we are able to levitate 10gm to 50gm weight at the distance
of 2cm. We use PWM to control the magnetic field of Electromagnet and Hall Effect Sensor at
the output and manage the 2cm gap, we have used 10bit ADC(analog to digital converter) built
in microcontroller ATmega16, BASCOM AVR software and derived its calcations .

6.2 Future Work


For future works, we can vary the gap between levitating object and electromagnet by updating
the coding and adding the buttons. We can also implement the magnetic field meter by updating
the coding; this way can find the magnetic field behavior.
By modify this we can facilitate our society and industry. Some examples are given below.

6.2.1 Bullet Trains


High speed trains in Europe and Japan are perhaps the best example of magnetic levitation
technology. According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Germany, France and Japan have
developed bullet trains with speeds ranging between 150-180 mph. This exceeds the speed of
conventional trains which are capable of up to 110 mph. Though the magnetic suspension system
of bullet trains allows for greater speeds, the technology is currently expensive to implement and
maintain .

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6.2.2 Magnetic Bearings
Magnetic bearings are another application of magnetic levitation technology formed by
electromagnetic suspension and electromagnets. Magnetic bearings support loads without any
kind of physical contact. The benefits of this include reduced friction, reduced wear on
machinery and the highest speeds of any kind of bearing. Disadvantages of magnetic bearings
include attraction difficulties when increasing or decreasing bearing distances from levitating
objects .

6.2.3 Flywheels and Levitation Melting


Two additional scientific applications for magnetic levitation include flywheels and levitation
melting. Flywheels are rotating mechanisms used to store energy. Magnetic levitation can be
used to rotate flywheels thereby assisting with energy storage. With levitation melting, it is
possible to levitate small amounts of metal and eventually melt the metal through use of
magnetic forces and electricity. Levitation melting has been commercially tested and is a viable
application of the technology.

6.2.4 Household Fixtures and Decorations


Novelty is not the driving force behind magnetic levitation research, but it is an ancillary benefit.
Imagine household decorations suspended via magnetic fields. A perfect example is an ordinary
world globe. Imagine the globe virtually hovering in space versus being attached to a spindle.
The aesthetic would be eye-catching and draw the attention, and possibly the admiration, of
guests.

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REFRENCES

[1] http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/electromagnetism/electromagnets.html
[2] http://www.coilgun.info/levitation/liftingcoil.htm
[3] http://uzzors2k.4hv.org/?page=magneticlevitation
[4] http://education.jlab.org/workbench/magnetstand/coil.html
[5] http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/funwithtubes/Coils-1.html
[6] http://outpost1.stellimare.com/scouting/mb/electricity/electromagnet.html
[7] http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/electromagnetism/hall-effect.html
[8] http://www.cez.cz/edee/content/file/vzdelavani/soutez/hron.pdf
[9] Kevin J. Van Dyke, An Introduction to Magnetic Levitation And its Applications,

Engineering Program at Calvin College in Grand Rapids


[10] Run-Cang Sun,The Most Important Maglev Applications, Journal of Engineering Iran

Maglev Technology (IMT), Volume 2013, pp. 1-19 , 19 February 2013


[11] Electromagnetic field Theory By Bo Thid, Uppsala, Sweden
[12] http://www.futurlec.com/Others/UGN3503U.shtml
[13] http://outpost1.stellimare.com/scouting/mb/electricity/electromagnet.html
[14] http://maxembedded.com/2012/01/avr-timers-pwm-mode-part-ii/
[15] http://www.ermicro.com/blog/?p=1971
[16] http://www.rrsg.ee.uct.ac.za/theses/ug_projects/williams_ugthesis.pdf
[17] http://pixgood.com/magnetic-levitation-project.html
[18] Some research Publications

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Appendix A

A. Atmega 16A

Ratings
The following chart shows different packing type of AVR Microcontroller.
Table 7.1: AVR Ratings [1]

Features
High-performance, Low-power AVR 8-bit Microcontroller
Advanced RISC Architecture
131 Powerful Instructions Most Single-clock Cycle Execution
32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
Fully Static Operation
Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz
On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier
High Endurance Non-volatile Memory segments
16K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash program memory
512 Bytes EEPROM
1K Byte Internal SRAM
Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM
Data retention: 20 years at 85C/100 years at 25C
Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program

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True Read-While-Write Operation
Programming Lock for Software Security
JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 Compliant) Interface
Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard
Extensive On-chip Debug Support Programming of Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Lock Bits
through the JTAG Interface
Peripheral Features
Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescalers and Compare Modes
One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode, and Capture Mode
Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
Four PWM Channels
8-channel, 10-bit ADC
8 Single-ended Channels
7 Differential Channels in TQFP Package Only
2 Differential Channels with Programmable Gain at 1x, 10x, or 200x
Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface
Programmable Serial USART
Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
On-chip Analog Comparator
Special Microcontroller Features
Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection
Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator
External and Internal Interrupt Sources
Six Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby
and Extended Standby
I/O and Packages
32 Programmable I/O Lines
40-pin PDIP, 44-lead TQFP, and 44-pad QFN/MLF
Operating Voltages
2.7 - 5.5V for ATmega16A
Speed Grades
0 - 16 MHz for ATmega16A
Power Consumption @ 1 MHz, 3V, and 25C for ATmega16A
Active: 0.6 mA
Idle Mode: 0.2 mA
Power-down Mode: < 1A

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Pin Configuration

AVR AT mega 16/32 Pin out


The Atmega 16/32 is available in 40 pin DIP and quad package. There are 4 I/O ports and each
port has 8 I/O pins means there are 32 I/O lines available in Atmega 16/32
Microcontroller. The remaining line is Vcc (supply voltage), GND (supply ground), XTAL1 &
XTAL2 for crystal pin, and AVcc (supply voltage for ADC), AGND (supply ground for ADC) &
AREF (reference voltage for ADC). The I/O pins has working of data input and output as well
as each pin has assigned additional working like ADC Input, Counter Input pin,
Waveform pin, SPI and 12C protocol pins etc.

Table 7.2: A Device Clocking Options Select [2]

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B. Analog to Digital Converter
Features
10-bit Resolution
0.5 LSB Integral Non-linearity
2 LSB Absolute Accuracy
13 - 260 s Conversion Time
Up to 15 kSPS at Maximum Resolution
8 Multiplexed Single Ended Input Channels
7 Differential Input Channels
2 Differential Input Channels with Optional Gain of 10x and 200x(1)
Optional Left adjustment for ADC Result Readout
0 - VCC ADC Input Voltage Range
Selectable 2.56V ADC Reference Voltage
Free Running or Single Conversion Mode
ADC Start Conversion by Auto Triggering on Interrupt Sources
Interrupt on ADC Conversion Complete
Sleep Mode Noise Canceler

To interface real world analog quantity with digital microcontroller ADC (Analog to
Digital Converter) is used. An ADC takes an analog signal and convert into its appropriate
digital sequence depend up on the step size. The AVR ATmega16/32 has 10-bit 8 channels
Successes Approximation ADC having addition optional single and differential ended. And also
programmable x1, x10 and x200 gain.
AVR Microcontroller has three different options to select reference voltage; two
references are fixed that is AVCC (Analog VCC) and internal 2.56V. And the external
reference voltage pins (AREF) are adjustable. Step size from reference voltage can be
calculated as:

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=

Eq 7.1

Where N is the number of bit. For ATmega16/32 the N is 10.


In AVR ATmega16/32 Microcontroller there is only one 10-bit ADC and 8 analog input
channels. Its mean that only one analog channel is converted into digital sequence at a time. The
Mux is used to transfer the selected analog value to ADC.

The ADC Channel of ATmeega16/32 is present on Port A. The ADC has its own VCC and
ground. These pin are present on AVCC at pin 30, AGND at pin 31 and AREF at pin 32. The
power supply is necessary of ADC is necessary to run ADC circuit of AVR.

C. PWM
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is a technique widely used in modern switching circuit to
control the amount of power given to the electrical device. This method simply switches ON and
OFF the power supplied to the electrical device rapidly. The average amount of energy received
by the electrical device is corresponding to the ON and OFF duty cycle .

% ........................ Eq 7.2

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AVR AT mega 16/32 Peripheral PWM Output Pins

Table 7.3: PWM Output Pins [3]

D. MODES OF OPERATION OF PWM TIMERS


In general, there are three modes of operation of PWM Timers:

Fast PWM
Phase Correct PWM
Frequency and Phase Correct PWM

Fast PWM Mode


The timer repeatedly counts from 0 to 255. The output turns on when the timer is at 0, and turns
off when the timer matches the output compare register. The higher the value in the output
compare register, the higher the duty cycle. This mode is known as Fast PWM Mode.

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Phase Correct PWM


The timer counts from 0 to 255 and then back down to 0. The output turns off as the timer hits
the output compare register value on the way up, and turns back on as the timer hits the output
compare register value on the way down. The result is a more symmetrical output. The output
frequency will be approximately half of the value for fast PWM mode, because the timer runs
both up and down.

Frequency and Phase Correct PWM


Both fast PWM and phase correct PWM have an additional mode that gives control over the
output frequency. The timer counts from 0 to OCRA (the value of output compare register A),
rather than from 0 to 255. This gives much more control over the output frequency than the
previous modes. (For even more frequency control, use the 16-bit Timer 1.)

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APPENDIX-B
A. Building an Electromagnet

Magnetic Wire -- special wire with very thin insulation


Steel/Iron nail or bolt, recommend a diameter 5/16 (8mm), 2-3"(3-5cm) bolt as smaller
sizes may retain so much magnetism they will not release paper clips once power is
dropped making.
Craft Knife/razor blade or sand paper .
A battery power source-- 3 volt battery pack (two AA in series), or 6 volt lantern battery
works great.

Electromagnets work on the principle that current flowing through a wire will produce a
magnetic Field. That magnetic field can then be transferred trough core made of ferrous material
(iron, or other materials that interact well with magnetic fields). They were used in early research
with electricity.
Building an electromagnet is easy:
1. Wrap a wire around an iron core (a nail or a bolt) .
2. Make sure wraps are all going in the same direction. The tighter the wraps, the closer
they are together, the stronger electromagnet will be.
3. 3 volt power supply or 6 volt lantern battery handy to connect electromagnet .

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The rubber in the rubber insulated wire is about the same thickness as the radius of the wire. But
in the magnetic wire, the insulation is so thin hardly see it when looking at the wire straight on.
This means that more of the magnetic field is able to pass through our iron core making a much
stronger electromagnet. The magnetic force closer to the conductor is much stronger than that the
further out you go, so even being less than a millimeter closer to the conductor greatly increases
the magnetic field strength.

The drawback to using magnetic wire is that the insulation can easily be removed by scraping it
by accident (gently scrape the wire to remove the insulation on both ends connect a battery to
your electromagnet).

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B. Implementation Method
Step 1 -- Start your Electromagnet

Figure 8.4: Wingding the Wire


Start by winding the wire around iron core. Leave 2 or more inches of wire out on each end when
finished. Always coil the wire in the same direction. If using a bolt, take extra care to avoid
scraping the wire on the threads.
Step 2 -- Wind the wire around the iron core

After bolt or nail partially threaded, put some tape on the threaded part to keep the wire from
moving around coil. If using a threaded bolt, put finger or thumb on the bolt just over where
having threaded, and turn, thumb will guide the wire into the groove.

If using a nail, need to push your coil closer together every now and then. It became magnetized
on the first use, and the paperclips would not drop after power was dropped .Keep the threads as
tight as possible, and always wind the wire in the same direction .

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Step 3 -- Remove the insulation

Remove the insulation at the ends conne battery. Now, on a normal wire with rubber insulation,
we just use a wire stripper, here,can not do that. We either need to sand the insulation off with
sand paper, or gently scrape it off with a sharp knife.

After sanding or scraping about a half inch of exposed wire on each of the two ends .

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Step 4 Finalistation

After following the all steps the last step is to give the source to the wrapped coil to see the
behavior of the electromagnet .

If the electromagnet did not work, or it was very weak, then here are the likely reasons why:

The battery does not have a good electrical contact wit the two wire leads of electromagnet, or
scraped some of the insulation off wile winding, causing a short to the iron core . A bad electrical
contact is easy to fix, but if there is a short, have to start all over from scratch with new wire .

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C. Right Hand Rule for Coils
The method of find whether the direction of Coil is north or south of electromagnet by the
direction of current and the way the coil is wound in electromagnet . The method is called the
Right Hand Rule for Coils (there's also one for motors and generators).
:

Right Hand Rule for Coils


Place right handover the coil, with
fingers wrapped in the direction of
current flow through the coil (not
electron flow). Thumb will then point
to the magnetic north of electromagnet .
Remember:
Need to take care to note the direction
the coil is wound. If the coil is wound
in the opposite direction as shown in
the diagram, then your magnetic poles
would also be opposite to .

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