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# APPLIED PHYSICS

Experiment 2

DAMPED TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS
2.1

OBJECTIVES
1. Measure amplitude ‘A’ of torsion pendulum as a function of time‘t’ for current I = 0A, I
= 0.2A and I = 0.4A.
2. Determine damping constant ‘b’ by fitting the plot of Amplitude ‘A’ vs. time ‘t’ and use it
to determine damping coefficient ‘b’ and logarithmic decrement ‘δ’.

2.2
1.
2.
3.
4.

2.3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
2.4

SAFETY NOTES:
The current through the eddy current brake should not exceed 2 A for a long time.
Avoid overheating of the coils by measuring too long with large current I >1A.
Do not touch buttons and knobs of motor and power supply unnecessarily.
Make connections carefully and call teacher to check the connections before turning
on the power supply.
EQUIPMENTS/ REQUIREMENTS:
1 Torsion Pendulum
1 Power Supply for Torsion Pendulum
1 Stop watch
1 Connecting lead red 50 cm
1 Connecting lead blue 50 cm
THEORY:
Free Oscillations:
For torsion pendulum, when no external torque is applied to the system then damped
oscillating system is described by the differential equation as:

J

d 2θ

b
 Dθ  0
2
dt
dt

(1)

J kg m2
Moment of Inertia
b kg m2 s -1 rad -1
Damping Coefficient
Torsion Coefficient or Torsion Constant
Angular displacement or angle of rotation
Above equation can be written in standard form as:
where



θ  2δ θ  ωο2θ  0

(2)

where δ and ωo are damping constant and natural frequency respectively and

δ

b
2J

and

ωo 

D
J

In under damped case when δ<ωo , solution of equation 2 is:

θ  Ae

b
t
2J

2
cos t ωo  δ 2 

Let A  θ m then
2
θ  θ m e tδ cos t ωo  δ 2 

if ω 

2
ωo  δ 2 then

θ  θm e  tδ cos ωt 

(3)

From above equation, the amplitude θ decrease exponentially by the factor e-δt (see
figure 3.1) the factor δT (t = T) is called the logarithmic decrement ‘ζ’.
  T
(4)

Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz

Page|2–1

Exciter (3a) push rod (3b) drive wheel for eccentric 4.8 DESCRIPTION: 1.3kgm2 4. As damping increases amplitude of oscillation decreases. Characteristic frequency: approx. Electromagnet for eddy-current brake 5. Weight: approx.7 2. Supply voltage: 0-24 V DC 5. the damping torque is less than the restoring torque. ‘Physics for Scientists and Engineers’ by Serway and Jewett. In this case the system is said to be over damped. In this situation the system is said to be under damped. Exciter motor (5a) coarse control for excitation voltage. 3. ‘Fundamental of Physics’ by Halliday Resnick and Walker. δ>ω0 . Moment of inertia: appox. In figure(3. Scale ring 2. Maximum eddy current: 2 A 2. 2.e.e.6 TECHNICAL DATA: 1. ‘Physics’ by Halliday Resnick and Krane.Experiment 2 APPLIED PHYSICS The oscillations only occur when the expression for damping dependent angular frequency ‘ω’ has the positive radical i. (2b) pointer for phase relation. When damping constant ‘b’ reaches to its critical value such that δ=bc/2J and δ=ω0 then the system does not oscillate and is said to be critically damped. (2c) coiled spring 3. 2. If the retarding torque becomes greater then the restoring torque i. 6 kg 3.5 Hz 2. (5b) fine control for excitation voltage EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz Page|2–2 . 0.e. 2. δ2 < ωo2 i. Pendulum body (2a) pointer for deflection.2) the resulting motion is represented by curve ‘a’.5 REFERENCES: 1.

2.4A.2A and I = 0.4A. δ = _______sec-1 for I = 0. I=0.4A) by using Microsoft Excel and determine damping constant ‘δ’ for each value of eddy current.2A and 0.4.10 APPLIED PHYSICS PROCEDURE: Make connections as shown in figure 3. 2.9 1. Attach the worksheet with your lab report. Determine Logarithmic decrement ‘ζ’ ( for I = 0A. Use time‘t’ to determine the oscillation period ‘T’ Repeat the experiment for I=0. 2. Set the pointer to the zero on the scale by turning the drive wheel. for I = 0A. logarithmic decrement ‘ζ’ and damping coefficient ‘b’. 4. δ = _______sec-1 3. Set the eddy current I=0.11 GRAPH: Fit the plot of amplitude versus time for free oscillation (for I=0A.4A).2A and I = 0.12 CALCULATIONS: 1. 4. I = 0. measure the time ‘t’ for oscillations till it achieves an equilibrium.4A.4A). 6. Move the pendulum to its limit position. Use the plot to determine damping constant ‘δ’. and read off amplitude A on the same side after every oscillation. By fitting plot of amplitude versus time damping constant ‘δ’ is found to be.13 RESULT AND DISCUSSION: Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz Page|2–3 .4A). I = 0. 5. Read off the amplitude A after every oscillation. I=0.Experiment 2 2. Determine Time Period ‘T’ for each case (for I = 0A and I = 0. T=t/n 2. Take J = 3 kgm 2. OBSERVATIONS: Write Observations in excel work sheet 2. Open the worksheet in excel and fit the plot amplitude ‘A’ (scd) Vs time‘t’ (sec) for I=0A and I=0.2A. δ = _______sec-1 for I = 0.2A. 3. 2. Calculate damping coefficient ‘b’ (for I = 0A.