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# Experiment 3

APPLIED PHYSICS

EQUIVALENT INDUCTANCE IN SERIES AND PARALLEL COPULING; COUPLING
COEFFICIENT
3.1

OBJECTIVES:
1. Measure equivalent inductance of two coils, for series coupling with aiding current
and opposing current.
2. Measure equivalent inductance of two coils, for parallel coupling with aiding current
and opposing current
3. Determine Coupling Coefficient ‘k’ as a function of distance and plot it.

3.2

SAFETY NOTES:
1. Power off LCR meter while making connections and after performing the lab.
2. Carefully handle the apparatus. Do not drop the helmholtz coils or LCR meter down
while performing the experiment.
3. Make connections carefully and call teacher to check the connections before starting
the experiment.

3.3

EQUIPMENTS/ REQUIREMENTS:
1.
2.
3.
4.

3.4

A Pair of coils.
LCR meter
1 meter scale.
4 connecting leads with banana connectors
THEORY:

Inductance:
According to Farraday’s law, “The induced emf in a circuit is equal to the negative of the rate
at which the magnetic flux through the circuit is changing with time.”
(1)
d ( N )
 
It is an ability of a conductor to
dt
induce voltage when the current
changes. the smbol for inductance is L and its unit is henry (H).

L

N
i

(2)

Mutual Induction:
When the current in a inductor changes, the varying flux can cut across an other inductor
nearby, producing induced voltage in both inductors. This is called Mutual induction. The unit
of mutual inductance is also henry (H).
Coefficient of Coupling:
The fraction of total flux from one coil linking another coil is the coefficient of coupling ‘k’
between the coils.

k

flux produced by L1

(3)

If k <1 then there is loose coupling between the coils if k has high value than there is tight
coupling between them and if k=0 then there is no mutual inductance. In terms of mutual
inductance.

k

Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz

M
L1 L2

Page|3–1

6 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz Page|3–2 (8) equivalent (9) . ‘Basic Electronics’. So the equivalent inductance decreases. in same direction. If current in the coils are in same direction (aiding current) then their flux are additive i.e. La= L1 + L2 +2M (5) If current in the coils are in opposing direction (opposing current) then some amount of their flux cancel each other.Theraja. ‘A text book of Electrical Technology’ by B. So the equivalent inductance increases. 3.5 L1 L2  M 2 L1  L2  2M REFERENCES: 1. GROB 2.Theraja 3. ‘Physics’ by Halliday Resnick and Krane.K. Lo= L1 + L2 -2M (6) Using equation 5 and 6 average mutual inductance is fount to be M=( La . A.Lo)/4 (7) Inductances in Parallel: If current in the coils are in same direction (aiding current) then their flux are additive i. So the equivalent inductance becomes La  L1 L2  M 2 L1  L2  2M If current in the coils are in opposite direction (opposing current) then their inductance becomes Lo  3.Experiment 3 APPLIED PHYSICS Inductances in Series: When two coils are joined in series then the equivalent inductance is influenced by their mutual coupling as well as direction of current in the coils. in same direction.e.L.

Repeat the above procedure for series coupling with opposing current and parallel coupling with aiding and opposing current. Make connections for series coupling with aiding current as shown in figure 1.7 3. 4. Measure the inductance L1 and L2 of both coils.9 GRAPH: Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz Page|3–3 . 2.8 APPLIED PHYSICS PROCEDURE: 1. L2 = __________mH For Series: Distance 'x'cm Inductance (mH) aiding opposing current current Mutual Inductance m(H) Coupling Coefficient 'k' Inductance (mH) aiding opposing current current Mutual Inductance m(H) Coupling Coefficient 'k' For Parallel: Distance 'x'cm 3. OBSERVATIONS: L1 = ________mH. Vary distance between coils from 5cm to 15cm through a step of 1cm and measure inductance each time.Experiment 3 3. 3.

10 RESULT AND DISCUSSION: Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz Page|3–4 .Experiment 3 APPLIED PHYSICS Plot graph between coupling coefficient ‘k’ versus distance ‘x’ using your observations. 3.