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# Experiment 4

APPLIED PHYSICS

FORCED OSCILLATIONS
4.1

OBJECTIVES
1. Study forced oscillations for I=0A and plot resonance curve for each value of current.
2. Determine the natural frequency ωo and Torsion constant or Torsion coefficient ‘D’.

4.2
1.
2.
3.
4.

4.3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
4.4

SAFETY NOTES:
The current through the eddy current brake should not exceed 2 A for a long time.
Avoid overheating of the coils by measuring too long with large current I >1A.
Do not touch buttons and knobs of motor and power supply unnecessarily.
Make connections carefully and call teacher to check the connections before turning
on the power supply.
EQUIPMENTS/ REQUIREMENTS:
1 Torsion Pendulum
1 Power Supply for Torsion Pendulum
1 Stop watch
1 Connecting lead red 50 cm
1 Connecting lead blue 50 cm
THEORY:
Forced Oscillations:
Consider that a damped oscillator (torsion pendulum) is driven by an external torque



  o Sint  . Then the oscillation of the system can be defined by the following

equation:

J

d 2
d
b
 D   o sin(t )
2
dt
dt

(5)

where ω is the driving frequency and τ0 is the driving torque.
The general solution of the equation is:

 (t )   m ( ) sin(t   )
with

 m ( ) 

0
 b 
J ( 0   )  

 J 
2

2

(6)

where, ω0 is the natural frequency and  is the phase shift between the oscillator
and the external torque.

tan  

2
 2
2
0

(7)

In this case the resonance frequency is

 r   o2  2 2
4.5

REFERENCES:
1. ‘Physics’ by Halliday Resnick and Krane.
2. ‘Fundamental of Physics’ by Halliday Resnick and Walker.
3. ‘Physics for Scientists and Engineers’ by Serway and Jewett.

4.6

TECHNICAL DATA:
1. Characteristic frequency: approx. 0.5 Hz
2. Weight: approx. 6 kg
3. Moment of inertia: appox.3kgm2
4. Supply voltage: 0-24 V DC

Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz

Page|4–1

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8 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: 4. 1. Set the excitation voltage U=5V of the exciter with the help of knob 5a (see in figure 3.Experiment 4 APPLIED PHYSICS 5. Set the pointer to the zero on the scale by turning the drive wheel. Pendulum body (2a) pointer for deflection. 7. Exciter (3a) push rod (3b) drive wheel for eccentric 4. υ = n/t Measure the amplitude of the oscillation after it has reached a steady state.3).7 DESCRIPTION: 1. 3. (2b) pointer for phase relation. Plot graph for amplitude ‘A’ (Scd) Vs time‘t’ sec. (2c) coiled spring 3. Maximum eddy current: 2 A 4. Measure time‘t’ for 5 rotation of the drive wheel and calculate the frequency of exciter ‘υ’. 4. Now turn off the motor and allow the pendulum to become at rest.5. It will increase the frequency of exciter. This will change the frequency of exciter.9 PROCEDURE: Make connections as shown in figure 3. Turn on the motor. Determine resonance frequency and discuss your graph. (5b) fine control for excitation voltage 4. 4. Exciter motor (5a) coarse control for excitation voltage.10 OBSERVATIONS: Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz Page|4–2 . Take at least ten readings by repeating above procedure. Electromagnet for eddy-current brake 5. Increase the excitation voltage in very small step. Set the current I=0. 8. 6. 2. Measure time‘t’ for 5 rotation of the drive wheel and calculate the frequency of exciter and read off the amplitude for stead state. Scale ring 2. 5.

Plot graph for frequency versus max amplitude and determine resonance frequency. From graph resonance frequency is __________Hz.11 GRAPH: 1.12 CALCULATIONS: 1. 4. 4.13 RESULT AND DISCUSSION: Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz Page|4–3 .Experiment 4 Time‘t’ sec APPLIED PHYSICS Frequency‘υ’ Hz Amplitude ‘A’ scd Time‘t’ sec Frequency‘υ’ Hz Amplitude ‘A’ scd 4.